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Www. we a2 android 4.4.2





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There will be an initial review of the structure of the air transport market and the 4.4.2 marketing environment. Among the topics studied are elements of the COBOL programming language and application of the language to solving business computer applications. The course will examine all of the specific aircraft and engine systems for this airplane and will be Www. so as to simulate the intensity of an airline training Android. Technical Elective for Bioscience majors. For more information on dumpcap consult your local manual page man dumpcap or the online version. Should you have any feedback about this document, please send it to the authors through wireshark-dev[AT]wireshark.
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Recent breakthroughs and developments in the field of entomology are discussed. Binary packages are available for most Unices and Linux distributions including the following platforms:. The Wireshark Wiki at https: Then, if there is a preferences file in the personal configuration folder, that is read; if there is a preference set in both files, the setting in the personal preferences file overrides the setting in the global preference file. It will be useful, if you want to see the time values relative to a special packet, e. Help information available from mergecap. The experience is expected to be mutually beneficial for the organization and student.

AVN – Specialty Flying Specialty flying is a vital area in General Aviation although it does not attract the attention that airline and military flying do. This course will deal with Agricultural Aviation; Bush Flying using float, large wheel and ski equipped aircraft.

The seminar will require students to examine key aviation concepts presented in the Pro Pilot track and connect key learning objectives associated with these concepts to the skills necessary for success in the aviation industry as a pilot.

Selected subject areas will include but not be limited to aviation safety, aviation law, crew resource management, safety ethics, physiology of flight, and aviation meteorology and how these relate to the requirements to be a certificated instrument-rated commercial pilot and fly as a certified flight instructor or a multiengine airplane pilot.

Students will be required to complete comprehensive case studies of aviation accidents, present results to the seminar participants and lead the case discussion. A Capstone mentorship flight or simulator event summarizing the key course concepts will be included as part of the course flight fees as applicable.

AVN with C or higher. It is designed to integrate all the topics that students have learned during their courses of study. The research project will culminate in a formal presentation of results to members of the university community and also representatives from industry.

Students will be exposed to various in-class exercises that will address the importance of identifying the variables involved in the flow of typical air cargo operations. Communication skills in air cargo operations management will also be stressed.

AVN – Aviation Internship This course is designed to give students the opportunity to earn elective credit for acquiring hands-on industry experience. Prior work site approval by the Aviation Department is required before enrolling in this course.

Completion of 30 credits with an overall GPA of 2. BCS – Programming Concepts and Problem Solving This course will provide an introduction to programming logic and problem solving techniques using different programming languages.

Topics include such items as constants and variables, data types, scope of variables, basic logic constructs, subroutines and functions. BCS – Computer Concepts and Applications This is an introductory course in the use of personal computers in today’s society.

Students will receive instruction in basic computer concepts and terminology, the fundamentals of the Windows operating system and have hands on experience at the beginning to intermediate level using Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint.

The Internet will be used to supplement textbook and lecture materials. Topics may vary from semester to semester and reflects the interests and needs of students, faculty and industry.

Permission of Department Chair is required. Permission of Department Chair 3,0 Credits: Permission of Department Chair Credits: Students will be taught to develop algorithms using top-down stepwise refinement.

Students will be introduced to the concept of Object Oriented programming. In addition to the introductory topics of changing text appearance, creating hyperlinks, and inserting images into a Web page, advanced topics such as layout, tables, and forms will also be covered.

Among the topics studied are elements of the COBOL programming language and application of the language to solving business computer applications. BCS – Computers, Society and Technology This is an introductory course that provides students with the knowledge to stay current and informed in a technology-oriented, global society.

Students will receive instruction in basic computer concepts and terminology, the fundamentals of the Windows operating system and have hands-on experience at the beginning to intermediate level using Microsoft Excel and Access.

Students taking this course may not receive credit for BCS or This course will present the main components of a Visual Basic program, and will use these components to develop increasingly more complex Windows applications.

The standard Windows forms and controls will be explored in providing the skills and knowledge necessary to write these event driven graphical interfaces. This course will cover file management and have hands on experience at the beginning through advanced level using microcomputer spreadsheet and database applications.

Students will use a spreadsheet program to enter formulas, create charts, execute functions and macros, create, sort and query lists, create pivot tables, create templates, and work with multiple worksheets and workbooks.

Students will use a database program to create data table structures, queries, reports, and forms, create switchboards, pivot tables, and pivot charts. This course may not be used to satisfy the requirements of the B.

Students completing this course may not receive credit for SMT BCS with a grade of C or higher Credits: BCS – Introduction to Networks This course introduces the architecture, structure, functions, components, and models of the Internet and other computer networks.

The principles and structure of IPv4 and IPv6 addressing and the fundamentals of Ethernet concepts, media, and operations are introduced to provide a foundation for the curriculum.

The laboratory component of this course will give the students hands-on experience configuring equipment needed to build a LAN. BCS – Routing and Switching Essentials This course describes the architecture, components, and operations of routers and switches in a small network.

Students learn how to configure a router and a switch for basic functionality. The laboratory component of this course will give the students hands-on experience configuring routers, switches and basic WAN connectivity.

Topics include basic understanding of the UNIX system, utilizing the file system, programming language and security system. BCS may be taken as a Prerequisite or Corequisite. BCS Corequisite s: Among the topics covered are: BCS – Electronic Commerce This cross-listed business management and business computer systems course covers electronic commerce EC foundations, retailing methodologies, and marketing research.

Focus will be on the various forms, strategies, and implementations of EC including business-to-business B2B, business-to-consumer B2C, and consumer-to-consumer C2C.

Also covered will be social networking, electronic payment systems, and public policy issues including privacy and intellectual property matters as well as recent information technology advancements.

Students will learn how to devise jQuery and jQuery UI scripting techniques such as effects, animation, tabbed panels, menus, accordions, content sliders, drag and drop, tooltips, date pickers, custom tooltips, dialogs and portlets, and interactive image sliders and carousels.

Students who have taken BCS cannot receive credit for this course. BCS with a grade of C or higher. Topics to be covered include multi-level control break processing, file handling techniques for both sequential and indexed files, table processing, and searching and sorting methods.

BCS – Website Development II In this course, students will learn how to create websites that deliver a seamless experience across a diverse range of desktop and mobile devices using the same code base.

In addition, students will learn how to perform forms validation, create navigation and menuing systems, build responsive layouts with flexible content, code media queries, and create and modify template and child pages.

Students will use CSS 3 to create user interfaces with toolbars, animations, buttons, forms, lists, events, and themes. BCS – Operating Systems This course develops the fundamental knowledge of computer operating systems.

Topics included in this study are types of operating systems, facilities and features of the different systems and user techniques. Topics studied will include the history and advantages of database systems, and the process of database design including entity-relationship diagrams and database normalization.

BCS – Data Communications This course is an introduction to the concepts and applications of computer networking and its role in the business world today. It is intended to reinforce and build upon the introductory Visual Basic by extending coverage of the programming language and introducing more advanced features of the language.

Some of the advanced topics covered will include multitier applications, database programming, programming for the web and web forms, using report mechanisms, object – oriented terminology, creating classes and instantiating objects.

BCS – Management Information Systems Managers have increasing responsibility for determining their information system needs and for designing and implementing information systems that support these needs.

Management information systems integrate, for purposes of information requirements, the accounting, finance, and operations management functions of an organization. This course will examine the various levels and types of software and information systems required by an organization to integrate these functions.

BCS – Systems Analysis and Design This course explores the major issues in the analysis and design of a system, including methods of data collection, information requirements analysis, and the analysis process are discussed.

Emphasis is placed on the importance of the user in the design process and focuses on approaches that improve the successful implementation of a computer system.

Topics include general systems theory, Systems Development Life Cycle, data flow diagrams, data dictionary, hardware and software evaluation, feasibility analysis, CASE tools and prototyping. Students are required to demonstrate their skill in using project management and diagramming application software.

Students will utilize the tools covered in BCS to analyze system designs. Topics covered in the design phase will include input, output, and database and user interface design.

Additional topics in the implementation and maintenance phases will include testing, implementation and maintenance. Object-oriented systems and UML will also be covered. Students will analyze and prepare various case projects and will present and document their results.

BCS – Data Visualization Data visualization describes any effort to help people understand the significance of data by placing it in a visual context. Patterns, trends and correlations that might go undetected in text-based or spreadsheet data are recognized using data visualization software.

In this course, students will use data visualization software to display data using infographics, dials and gauges, geographic maps, spark lines, and heat maps, as well as creating detailed bar, pie, and fever charts.

These maps and charts will include interactive capabilities, enabling users to manipulate the data or drill into the data for querying and analysis. These ideas will be explored in conjunction with an introduction to the concepts and tools necessary to implement, administer and troubleshoot the Microsoft Windows network.

Hands-on experience will be used in the presentation of system administration tools. Topics include selecting and installing operating systems, adding users, virtualization, and the configuration and management of storage, networks and servers.

Particular stress is paid system administration practices that foster the creation and maintenance of scalable and secure systems. Students will learn the Pearl syntax, the basics of using regular expressions, how to use Pearl data types, and how to access and manipulate files.

Students are also introduced to database connectivity and debugging techniques. BCS – Enterprise Resource Planning Enterprise Resource Planning ERP is an organizational and information systems approach that integrates planning, customer relationship management, decision making, master scheduling, material requirements planning, marketing, forecasting, sales, finance, electronic commerce, and human resources.

The course will include lectures and extensive use of supporting ERP software. Students completing this course cannot receive credit for BUS This advanced course prepares the student to understand OS virtualization, Storage Virtualization, and Cloud Computing.

BCS – Scaling Networks This course describes the architecture, components, and operations of routers and switches in a larger and more complex network. Students learn how to configure routers and switches for advanced functionality.

BCS with a C or higher. The course enables students to understand the selection criteria of network devices and WAN technologies to meet network requirements. Students learn how to configure and troubleshoot network devices and resolve common issues with data link protocols.

Students will also develop the knowledge and skills needed to implement IPSec and virtual private network VPN operations in a complex network. A number of programming assignments give students the opportunity to practice assembly language on one or more architectures chosen by the instructor.

BCS – Introduction to Algorithms This course provides an introduction to efficient solutions for a variety of algorithmic problems commonly encountered in application programming.

Problems are discussed and students are guided through the discovery of progressively more efficient solutions. Areas to be discussed may include trees, graphs, sorting, searching, and testing.

Advanced techniques, including recursion, dynamic programming, greedy algorithms and parallel programming may be used to solve some of the problems. Small programming assignments will be required to illustrate an understanding of the details of the algorithms.

BCS with grade of a C or higher. BCS – Web Database Development This advanced course prepares the student to use database management systems with web server software to develop and maintain the information content of a web site.

Students in the course should have prior knowledge of programming and database management systems. BCS – Web Frameworks In this course, students will use web frameworks, such as Bootstrap and Angular JS, which are free, open-source front-end web frameworks for designing responsive, mobile-first websites and web applications.

Students will gain experience using frameworks to design HTML, JavaScript, and CSS-based design templates for typography, forms, forms validation, buttons, navigation, site layout, and other interface components, as well as optional JavaScript extensions.

Topics covered may include: BCS – Data Structures This course will present sequential and linked representations of various built-in and abstract data structures including arrays, records, stacks, queues and trees.

Algorithms will be developed relating to various sorting and searching techniques, merging and recursion. A high-level structured programming language, such as C, using both static and dynamic storage concepts, will be used in exploring and developing these algorithms.

BCS – Foundations of Theoretical Computer Science Computer science theory has implications both for what problems programmers choose to solve and for how they solve them.

This course introduces students who are familiar with the craft of programming to the underlying theory. Topics discussed include selections from automata theory, computability theory, and complexity theory.

BCS – Legal and Ethical Issues in Database and System Administration In response to privacy concerns and the growth of big data, governments have instituted legal restrictions on access to and on storage of certain forms of data, for example health records.

This course explores ethical and legal issues relating to computers, with a particular emphasis on the ethical and legal obligations of system administrators and others with extraordinary access to personal data stored on computers.

BCS – Information Security This course introduces students to the principles and practices of computer and network security. General programming concepts such as conditional and iterative control, error handling and built-in exceptions will be discussed.

Covered in more detail will be topics such as cursors, triggers, and the stored functions, procedures and packages. BCS – Database Administration and Security This course provides the knowledge necessary to handle database administration and database security.

Topics studied may include installation and configuration of a database, managing and securing user resources and privileges, data integrity, networking, optimization, and backup and recovery.

Hands-on activities with a major commercial DBMS will be assigned to complement the lectures and written work and to develop practical skills. Students will learn Project Management, Scope Management, Time Management, Cost Management, Quality Management, Human Resource Management and Communications Management all in the context of running successful information systems development and implementation projects.

MS project will be used as a tool to managing all of these areas. BCS – Computer Architecture Computer Architecture is the study of hardware and software components of business information systems.

Thorough understanding of the workings of the digital computer system is expected. These topics are evaluated with respect to their impact on the development of business information systems.

Two semesters of a programming language required. Two semesters of a programming language required with a grade of C or higher and BCS with a grade of C or higher. Also covered are concepts and software applications pertaining to product design, development, manufacturing production, marketing, sales, and field service.

This course emphasizes proficiency in the skill sets typically required within industry practices. BCS – Operating System Internals and Design This course will involve the study of the fundamentals of operating systems design and implementation.

Techniques for designing the user interface will be discussed. The Android application lifecycle and issues related to battery life will be covered. Storing application data using a database will be explored.

Students will receive hands-on experience using the Android mobile application development platform. Students will be introduced to the Swift programming language. Emphasis will be placed on good programming practices, on object oriented techniques, and on using established design patterns for mobile applications.

Students will receive hands-on experience using the Xcode development environment to build example apps. Basic instruction in Objective-C will provide students with the ability to read and reuse legacy iOS code.

This information is used by businesses to drive high-level decision making. This course is concerned with extracting data from the information systems that deal with the day-to-day operations and transforming it into data that can be used for decision making.

Students will learn how to design and create a data warehouse, and how to utilize the process of extracting, transforming, and loading ETL data into data warehouses.

Students will design and construct dynamic reports using the data warehouse and multi-dimensional online analytical processing OLAP cubes as the data source. The course covers the syntax of the C programming language,.

Students will be required to complete a number of practical programming assignments to solidify their knowledge of the language and its application. Students will learn how to draw and manage game objects.

Techniques for adding sound to a game will be discussed. Creation of computer controlled game objects will also be covered. Students will receive hands-on experience with a current game development platform.

Students will be expected to create their own two-dimensional game by the end of the course. BCS – Large Software System Development This course introduces students to the tools and processes used in software development for large systems.

Through the use of open source projects, the students will explore the build environment, version control, and the testing tools used to produce code involving large numbers of programmers and product managers.

Programming project management techniques, such as Agile, and best practices for programming will also be introduced and discussed. BCS W – Senior Project Writing Intensive The primary objective of this course is to give Computer Programming and Information Systems students an opportunity to integrate techniques and concepts acquired in their other courses.

The course is experiential in nature i. In addition to prerequisites, a second level programming course with a grade of C or better, and Senior level standing is required.

BCS – CPIS Internship In this course, the student works under the tutelage of a professional who serves as site supervisor in an organization that provides information services. The work done by the student is guided by learning objectives agreed to by the site supervisor, the faculty member and the student.

Students are required to submit a written proposal, progress reports, and a final report on their experience to the client and to the department. The course offers an ideal opportunity to test theory in practice and to gain experience in a realistic information provision situation.

The experience is expected to be mutually beneficial for the organization and student. Topics may vary from term to term and reflect the interests of students, faculty and industry.

Topics may include wireless communications, rapid application development and other emerging technologies. BCS – Special Topics Courses that range from will cover topics not covered in the regular curriculum.

BCS – Independent Study This is an independent study course designed to offer the student experience in research of a specialized area of interest. The student will have an opportunity to work individually or with a group in designing, developing and presenting a research project.

The topic must be approved by a faculty member. Students will be required to submit full documentation and present their final results. BCS W – Independent Study – Writing Intensive This is an independent study course designed to offer the student experience in research of a specialized area of interest.

BIO – General Biology A survey of life from the standpoint of humans, including structural and behavioral evolution, functional characteristics, and relationship to the natural world. The laboratory exercises involve simple investigations of the life processes by utilizing basic research tools.

A range of life forms are studied in the laboratory, with particular emphasis on animals ranging from planaria to preserved frogs. The laboratory course, BIO L is a part of your grade for this course.

It focuses on the most common and clinically significant diseases and conditions that afflict modern developed societies, first building a foundation of the basic anatomy and physiology necessary to understand the disorder, then exploring the experiences of the people afflicted.

The inherited and lifestyle risks associated with disorder are discussed and strategies to reduce those risks are investigated. This course is appropriate for non-science majors.

A systemic approach is taken in which all the major systems of the human body and the significant diseases that affect those systems are studied. Emphasis is on failures of homeostasis as the basic mechanisms of disease.

Included are discussions on available treatments and therapies, the impact of new technological developments, and maintaining health and avoiding disease.

The laboratory component contains both traditional and computer-generated exercises, which illustrate the onset and development of a variety of diseases and pathological states. BIO – Principles of Nutrition This course provides a basic background in the nature and biochemical function of essential and non-essential nutrients, the molecular basis of metabolism and nutrient requirements of living cells and organisms.

The role of nutrients in gene expression, genetically modified foods and the role of diet in the treatment of diseases. BIO – Biological Principles I This course deals with biological processes primarily at the molecular and cellular level, and develops the foundations of evolutionary and ecological concepts.

There is a study of cell structure, and an examination of cellular composition and metabolic processes including enzyme activity, respiration, and photosynthesis.

Principles of genetics are studied at the cellular and molecular level, with reference to current techniques in molecular biology. Evolutionary mechanisms are introduced and ecological concepts are presented as a unifying theme.

BIO is the first course in the required two-semester introductory sequence in the Bioscience Curriculum Core. It is also approved in the Natural Sciences General Education Competency Area and can serve as a lower-level laboratory science elective within the Liberal Arts.

BIO – Biological Principles II This course deals with biological processes primarily at the organismal level, and examines the diversity of living things. The origins and adaptations of the Prokaryota, Protista, and Fungi are explored, with emphasis on their ecological roles, economic value, and medical significance.

Plant life cycles are introduced, and plant structure, physiology, and utilization are studied. The evolution and adaptations of various animal phyla are presented, with a consideration of structure and function in each; organ systems are studied with emphasis on humans as representative vertebrates.

BIO is the second course in the required two-semester introductory in the Bioscience Curriculum Core. BIO Corequisite s: BIO – Marine Science Marine Science is designed to give the student an appreciation and understanding of the dynamics and interactions of the various components biological, chemical, physical, geological of the world’s oceans.

Habitats studied will range from near shore estuarine systems to deep ocean systems. Special consideration will be given to the human use and manipulation of the Long Island coastal zone.

Laboratory sessions will include methodologies used in oceanographic sampling and analysis as well as exercises reinforcing lecture material. Field trips will also play an important part of the course work supporting lecture topics.

BIO – Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology This is a one semester integrated survey of human anatomy and physiology, covering the major physiological and morphological relationships of the human organ systems.

The design of this course is appropriate preparation for Dental Hygiene, Medical Laboratory Technology, and certain other allied health professions, but it does not satisfy the requirements of the Nursing Curriculum.

The major theme of the course is the integrative pathways and regulatory processes that maintain the homeostasis of the body. BIO – Human Anatomy and Physiology I This is the first semester of a two-semester sequence in which human anatomy and physiology are studied using a body systems approach, with emphasis on the interrelationships between form and function at the gross and microscopic levels of organization.

This sequence is appropriate preparation for nursing and other allied health professions. Topics included in Anatomy and Physiology I are: BIO – Human Anatomy and Physiology II This is the second semester of a two-semester sequence in which human anatomy and physiology are studied using a body systems approach, with emphasis on the interrelationships between form and function at the gross and microscopic levels of organization.

Topics include Anatomy and Physiology II are: BIO – Botany An introduction to the biology of plants and their ancestors. Topics include cell structure and function, cell chemistry, photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

The tissues, roots, stems and leaves are studied covering such topics as conduction, absorption, translocation and reproduction. A phylogenetic comparison among plant groups and their ancestors is the underlying theme.

Attendance is the laboratory course is required. BIO – Zoology An introduction to the biology of animals and their ancestors. Topics include structure and function of cells, tissues, organs and organ systems in animals.

Genetics, development, behavior, ecology, and the evolution of major phyla are covered. A comparative approach is taken in studying the invertebrates and vertebrates including man. Attendance in the laboratory course is required.

BIO – Human Biology An introductory course that teaches biological principles by emphasizing the structural and functional aspects of the human body, especially as they relate to everyday existence.

Includes discussion of important collateral issues such as the nature and course of disease, smoking and health, drug abuse, immunity and allergy, human genetics, birth-control, over-population, and sexually transmitted disease.

BIO – Entomology The nature, structure, growth, and habits of insects and related forms are discussed. The beneficial and injurious effects of insects are covered. Recent breakthroughs and developments in the field of entomology are discussed.

Skills are developed which enable the student to identify insect plant pests, diseases and injuries. Control measures and application equipment are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the various pest management options available to the homeowner and professionals in the field.

IPM integrated pest management involves an understanding of pesticides, physical and mechanical controls, biological controls, cultural controls, and legal controls.

Laws regulating the activities of pest control operators and the application of hazardous pesticides are discussed. A collection of insects and related forms is required. BIO – Introduction to Bioscience Moving beyond the basic concepts of general biology, this class explores how biology is used in both academic and commercial settings within the fields of biotechnology, pharmaceutical and clinical sciences.

The debate surrounding subjects such as cloning, stem cells, and genetically modified foods will also be discussed. BIO with a grade of C – or higher Credits: BIO – Bioscience Laboratory Practices This course is designed to enable students to develop understanding of and proficient technical ability in basic bioscience laboratory practices.

There is an in-depth presentation of laboratory safety standards, utilization of material safety data sheets, and the theoretical basis for a full range of preparatory and analytical methods and the opportunity to develop expertise in these methods with a variety of laboratory equipment.

Students are required to maintain a laboratory notebook, analyze and display data in graphic form, and report results in a standard format. BIO with a grade of C – or higher Corequisite s: BIO – Medical Microbiology The role of microbes as causative agents of disease in human hosts; the morphological characterization of pathogenic species, classification of communicable diseases and epidemiological aspects.

Host-parasite relationship, infection, and host-resistance mechanisms; sero-diagnostic methods in medical practice. Chemotherapy, mode of action of antibiotics, sterilization, disinfection methods and contamination control.

BIO or or or or Corequisite s: There will be an emphasis on the classification, identification and economic importance of both the animals Protozoa-Chordata and the algae microscopic and macroscopic.

The flora and fauna of the Long Island region will be stressed with field trips and collections being an integral part of the course. BIO or or Corequisite s: BIO – Bioethics This course will cover ethical issues raised as a result of modern advances in biotechnology which directly affect the quality of human life.

Bioethics comprises every possible aspect of health care: It scrutinizes outmoded laws and deals with the enormous growth in available medical services.

It takes into account our views of ourselves as members of a humane society. This course is also offered as a writing intensive course at the discretion of the department. One course of college biology with a C – or higher; for the writing intensive version, EGL with a grade of C or higher is also required.

BIO W – Bioethics Writing Intensive This course will cover ethical issues raised as a result of modern advances in biotechnology which directly affect the quality of human life.

Bioethics comprises every possible aspect of health care; medical, moral, political, religious, legal and financial. EGL with a grade of C or higher, and one course of college biology with a grade of C of higher.

Offered at the discretion of the Biology Department 3,0. Laboratory procedures will involve the analysis of both chemical and biological parameters, including wastewater analysis, using New York State approved methodology.

Vegetative transecting and beach contouring will also be included. Data presentation and report writing will be emphasized. Field trips and study will be an integral and required part of this course.

Discussion of environmental laws and impact statements will be included. One course of college biology with a laboratory and one semester of college chemistry with a laboratory.

BIO – Anatomy and Physiology I BIO is a course in which human anatomy and physiology are studied using a body systems approach, with emphasis on the interrelationships between form and function at the gross and microscopic levels of organization.

This sequence is appropriate for students with a strong foundation in basic biological principles. Anatomy and Physiology I includes: The required course sequence for nursing students is BIO and BIO or equivalent with a C – or higher Corequisite s: BIO – Anatomy and Physiology II BIO is a course in which human anatomy and physiology are studied using a body systems approach, with emphasis on the interrelationships between form and function at the gross and microscopic levels of organization.

BIO – Entomology II Methods of greenhouse pest and disease control, including identification of major families of pests, diagnosis of diseases, principles of cultural and chemical control, and a survey of pests and diseases associated with economically important greenhouse crops.

BIO or Corequisite s: BIO – Vertebrate Physiology This course investigates the principles of physiology in vertebrates with emphasis on mechanism of integration and homeostasis at the cellular, organ and system level.

It explores the comparative, experimental and evolutionary aspects of all vertebrate classes and surveys the impact of recent advances in cellular and molecular biology on this branch of the biological sciences.

BIO L – Vertebrate Physiology Lab This laboratory course is an inquiry into the experimental methods and models for understanding vertebrate physiology. It will explore the comparative, experimental and evolutionary aspects of the mechanisms of integration and homeostasis among select vertebrate classes.

Laboratory exercises incorporate computer software-based exercises with classic physiology experiments designed to illustrate both the basic concepts of physiology as well as the comparative nature of these events in a number of vertebrate species.

BIO – Principles of Ecology The course introduces the student to the nature of ecosystems, community organization and dynamics, and population growth and regulation through the understanding and use of modern ecological techniques.

The laboratory will be primarily focused on the analysis of field data collected by students. BIO – Plant Systematics An introduction to systematics using vascular plants as the model organisms.

Lecture material for this course will cover all aspects of systematics from basic nomenclature, taxonomy and systematic methods through modern molecular systematics and cladistics.

Lab material will cover plant morphology and the identification of characteristics across plant lineages and their relationship to systematics. These regulations apply to all aspects of testing, clinical trials and manufacturing of Biopharmaceutical products under the authority of the Food and Drug Administration.

The course will examine the application of these regulations to the bioprocessing, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and allied industries. BIO with grade of a C – or higher Credits: Topics to be covered include cytogenetics, immunogenetics, molecular genetics, population genetics and quantitative genetics.

Computer simulations and demonstrations will present genetic principles. Students will utilize computerized databases to complete independent genomic search assignments.

BIO L – Principles of Genetics Lab Laboratory exercises include both computer simulations and the use of living organisms to illustrate genetic principles and techniques.

Students will collect data utilizing standard genetics investigational techniques. BIO is a prerequisite OR a corequisite for this course. BIO – Introduction to Bioinformatics This course is intended to teach the basic tools used in bioinformatics in order to investigate biological questions.

Students will conduct independent projects utilizing existing computer programs and databases for gene searches, sequence comparisons, and phylogenetic analysis.

BIO – Cell Biology This course investigates how cells develop, work, communicate, and control their activities. At the completion of this course the student should be able to engage in the broad themes of cell and molecular biology, and to relate these concepts to other studies in biology and other disciplines.

BIO L – Cell Biology Lab This course introduces students to the theory and methodology of protocols routinely used in research laboratories investigating cell structure and function.

Students have the opportunity to use both common and high tech instruments to perform weekly laboratory exercises. Experimental design, controls and data presentation and analysis are emphasized.

BIO is a prerequisite OR a co-requisite for this course. Major diseases of economically important plants are emphasized. The disease process and disease cycles for representative pathogens are covered in relation to plant disease control methods.

BIO L – Essentials of Plant Pathology Lab The laboratory is designed to enable the student to acquire skills in collection and examination methods used for the diagnosis of plant diseases produced by biotic and abiotic agents, using microbial isolation and culturing techniques where applicable.

The student will learn to recognize and identify directly or indirectly biotic plant pathogens among the Plants, Animals, Fungi, Protists, Bacteria, Viruses and Viroids. BIO – Ecological Topics: The Structure and Function of Nature This course introduces students to basic ecological concepts as they relate to the biotic and abiotic environment.

It stresses the diversity of life and the impact that man, other organisms and environment have on each other. Laboratory exercises and field work will investigate the effects organisms have on each other as well as the effects of environmental conditions on growth and development.

Students will also characterize the nature of selected site s in terms of species diversity using plot sampling techniques. Seminar type discussions require individuals or small groups to explore environmental issues.

Topics for these discussions will be submitted to the instructor for appropriateness and approval. Students will be required to research and prepare a paper as well as make a presentation to the class.

The class will be given the opportunity to question each speaker following that individual’s presentation. BIO – Principles of Immunobiology Students will be introduced to basic concepts of innate and adaptive immunity.

They will study the cellular and non-cellular components of the immune system including molecules involved in the recognition, uptake, and clearance of antigenic material. They will gain insight into how the immune system acts to eliminate bodily threats, functions to prevent unnecessary activity when threats are not present steady-state, and secures lack of immunity toward self-tissue tolerance.

Students will also review and discuss current scientific literature related to immunity and health. BIO – Neurology of Pain BIO is a comprehensive study of the various neurogenic mechanisms central to the study and understanding of pain is the focus of this lecture-based course.

In addition, Clinical neuroanatomy and physiology will be reviewed. Also, a broad base review will be aimed at exploring the psychodynamic components of pain.

This includes, but is not limited to topics in addiction, brain reward cascades, and arousal mechanisms. The final portion of this course includes discussion of the various methods of pain mitigation and measurement.

Strong clinical applications will be emphasized throughout the course. Students must submit a resume to the internship coordinator at least 3 months before registering for the course.

BIO with a grade of B or higher. BIO – Microbiology Based on contemporary applications of microbiology, this course is designed to present both fundamental concepts of microbial physiology and growth as well as microbial control measures ranging from asepsis to antibiosis.

The role of microorganisms in natural ecosystems, research, manufacturing and human infection will be explored, with emphasis on prokaryotic genetics and metabolism. Mechanisms of evolution will be discussed within the context of emerging pathogens and novel bioengineered organisms.

The dynamics between the human microbiome and resistance to infection will be presented along with basic epidemiological models. Lecture will cover viral strategies of invasion, viral lifecycles, viral offense and host defense, prevention and control of viral diseases, approaches for studying viruses and public health.

BIO – Principles of Immunobiology Immunobiology is a course in human immunology covering the concepts of innate and adaptive immunity and descriptions and functions of cellular and soluble factors involved in the immune response to eliminate infectious organisms.

Concepts include mechanism for regulation of the immune response, how the immune system learns to discriminate between self and non-self, induction and maintenance of immunological tolerance and the development of immunological memory.

BIO – Introduction to Molecular Biology A detailed introduction to molecular biology, the course covers the techniques common to all molecular biology such as nucleic acid separation and visualization, PCR blotting, and sequencing.

Each is presented from both the view of prokaryotes as well was eukaryotes. Scientific journal articles highlighting class topics will be used to supplement class lectures. BIO L 3,4 Credits: BIO – Forensic Molecular Biology This course explores advanced molecular biological techniques and concepts as they apply to the study of forensic investigation.

The course will cover background information on body fluid identification, DNA structure and function, analytical DNA techniques, and review advancements in the field of DNA typing.

The primary focus will be the molecular biological technique known as short tandem repeats STR testing. Other topics covered include case studies, sample handling, DNA databanking CODIS, mass disaster identification, Y chromosomal analysis, paternity testing, and validation procedures.

The laboratory component of this course will give the students hands-on experience in techniques and experiments that are currently being employed by forensic biology laboratories across the country.

BIO – Validation and Regulatory Affairs An introduction is provided to governmental oversight of drugs, devices and biotherapeutics, and the laws and regulations that apply to development, testing and validation of methods and equipment.

BIO – Topics in Biology A study of current discoveries and applications of biology, with emphasis on student participation and written assignments. Critical thinking will be developed concerning the validity of popular reports and extraordinary claims.

Ongoing discoveries in biology will be analyzed according to their contributions to the advancement of knowledge, their possible commercial medical, or agricultural applications, and ethical issues that they may arise.

Resources that will be utilized include current scientific literature, guest lectures, and the internet. BIO – Bioscience Senior Seminar The capstone course in the Bioscience Program, utilizes guest speakers and student literature searches to explore the state of the entire field of Bioscience.

Each student is required to write a paper on an approved topic in the field of Bioscience based on primary sources in the scientific literature, and to present a seminar at which the student will defend his or her correlations and conclusions about the topic.

BIO W – Bioscience Senior Seminar Writing Intensive The capstone course in the Bioscience program, utilizes guest speakers and student literature searches to explore the state of the entire field of Bioscience.

Each student is required to write a paper on an approval topic in the field of Bioscience based on primary sources in the scientific literature, and to present a seminar at which the student will defend his or her correlations and conclusions about the topic.

BIO L – Bioscience Internship A1 Bioscience majors may be recommended for or invited into one or more assignments in the Bioscience Internship Series, with the course number selected according to the length of the internship and whether it is a first or subsequent internship.

BIO L – Bioscience Internship A2 Bioscience majors may be recommended for or invited into one or more assignments in the Bioscience Internship Series, with the course number selected according to the length of the internship and whether it is a first or subsequent internship.

Previous Internship with a grade of B or higher, Biology faculty recommendation or invitation. Submission of resume 3 months in advance; Biology faculty recommendation or invitation. Submission of resume 3 months in advance; Biology faculty recommendation or invitation Corequisite s: BIO – Bioscience An intensive bioscience research experience for selected student in a research laboratory under the supervision of faculty engaged in current investigations in the field of bioscience.

Technical Elective for Bioscience majors. Senior status and recommendation of faculty. BUS – Accounting I Fundamental accounting concepts and principles are covered through an understanding of the following topics: Students apply concepts to the preparation of special journals, subsidiary ledgers, worksheets and financial statements.

The following topics are included: BUS with a grade of C or higher Credits: BUS – Management Theories and Practices This introductory course covers management principles pertaining to human resources, individual behavior in organizations, employee motivation and performance, and business ethics.

BUS – Introduction to Business This course introduces the student to the fundamentals of American Business and its contemporary environment. It provides an overview of organizational, national, and international trends and their impact on enterprises both large and small.

BUS – Business Mathematics The fundamentals of applied mathematics in the field of accounting, finance, marketing, and selling. Topics include interest, bank discount, insurance, and annuities.

The use of arithmetic as a managerial tool is stressed. BUS – Marketing Principles This course provides the student with a sound knowledge of the basic elements of the marketing process.

Major topics include the features of consumer and organizational markets, market segmentation, and target market strategies. Product planning and development, brands, packaging and other product features are covered.

Price determination and the use of various pricing strategies are discussed. The factors in the selection of channels of distribution and the features of wholesaling and retailing are considered.

Elements of the promotional process such as sales, advertising, and sales promotion are included. Afterwards, other pipes can be added. To remove a pipe from the list of interfaces it first has to be selected.

Then click the Delete button. If a new local interface is added, for example, a wireless interface has been activated, it is not automatically added to the list to prevent the constant scanning for a change in the list of available interfaces.

To renew the list a rescan can be done. One way to hide an interface is to change the preferences. The changes are also saved in the preferences file. In this tab interfaces on remote hosts can be added.

One or more of these interfaces can be hidden. In contrast to the local interfaces they are not saved in the preferences file. To remove a host including all its interfaces from the list, it has to be selected.

Besides doing capture on local interfaces Wireshark is capable of reaching out across the network to a so called capture daemon or service processes to receive captured data from.

This dialog and capability is only available on Microsoft Windows. The Remote Packet Capture Protocol service must first be running on the target platform before Wireshark can connect to it.

The easiest way is to install WinPcap from https: Once installation is completed go to the Services control panel, find the Remote Packet Capture Protocol service and start it. Make sure you have outside access to port on the target platform.

This is the port where the Remote Packet Capture Protocol service can be reached by default. The remote capture can be further fine tuned to match your situation. The recursion in this saturates the link with duplicate traffic.

You only should switch this off when capturing on an interface other than the interface connecting back to Wireshark. This dialog shows various characteristics and statistics for the selected interface.

While capturing the underlying libpcap capturing engine will grab the packets from the network card and keep the packet data in a relatively small kernel buffer. This data is read by Wireshark and saved into a capture file.

By default Wireshark saves packets to a temporary file. Working with large files several hundred MB can be quite slow. This will spread the captured packets over several smaller files which can be much more pleasant to work with.

Using Multiple files may cut context related information. Wireshark keeps context information of the loaded packet data, so it can report context related problems like a stream error and keeps information about context related protocols e.

As it keeps this information only for the loaded file, using one of the multiple file modes may cut these contexts. If the establishing phase is saved in one file and the things you would like to see is in another, you might not see some of the valuable context related information.

If you are capturing on an Wireshark uses the libpcap filter language for capture filters. A brief overview of the syntax follows. Complete documentation can be found in the pcap-filter man page.

You can find a lot of Capture Filter examples at https: A capture filter for telnet that captures traffic to and from a particular host. This example captures telnet traffic to and from the host You can optionally precede this primitive with the keywords src dst and tcp udp which allow you to specify that you are only interested in source or destination ports and TCP or UDP packets respectively.

The keywords tcp udp must appear before src dst. If these are not specified, packets will be selected for both the TCP and UDP protocols and when the specified address appears in either the source or destination port field.

If Wireshark is running remotely using e. A running capture session can be restarted with the same capture options as the last time, this will remove all packets previously captured. Restart is a convenience function and equivalent to a capture stop following by an immediate capture start.

A restart can be triggered in one of the following ways:. Wireshark can read in previously saved capture files. However, drag-and-drop may not be available in all desktop environments.

This warning can be disabled in the preferences. In addition to its native file format pcapng, Wireshark can read and write capture files from a large number of other packet capture programs as well.

The appearance of this dialog depends on the system. However, the functionality should be the same across systems. You can change the display filter and name resolution settings later while viewing the packets.

However, loading huge capture files can take a significant amount of extra time if these settings are changed later, so in such situations it can be a good idea to set at least the filter in advance here.

It may not be possible to read some formats dependent on the packet types captured. Ethernet captures are usually supported for most file formats but it may not be possible to read other packet types such as PPP or IEEE You can choose which packets to save and which file format to be used.

Not all information will be saved in a capture file. The following sections show some examples of this dialog box. You can convert capture files from one format to another by reading in a capture file and writing it out using a different format.

Wireshark can save the packet data in its native file format pcapng and in the file formats of other protocol analyzers so other tools can read the capture data. Some other protocol analyzers only look at a filename extensions.

For example, you might need to use the. Sometimes you need to merge several capture files into one. For example, this can be useful if you have captured simultaneously from multiple interfaces at once e.

This dialog box let you select a file to be merged into the currently loaded file. If your current data has not been saved you will be asked to save it first. Wireshark can read in an ASCII hex dump and write the data described into a temporary libpcap capture file.

It can read hex dumps with multiple packets in them, and build a capture file of multiple packets. Wireshark understands a hexdump of the form generated by od – Ax – tx1 – v. In other words, each byte is individually displayed and surrounded with a space.

Each line begins with an offset describing the position in the file. The offset is a hex number can also be octal or decimal, of more than two hex digits. Here is a sample dump that can be imported:.

There is no limit on the width or number of bytes per line. Also the text dump at the end of the line is ignored. Byte and hex numbers can be uppercase or lowercase.

Any lines of text between the bytestring lines are ignored. The offsets are used to track the bytes, so offsets must be correct. Any line which has only bytes without a leading offset is ignored.

An offset is recognized as being a hex number longer than two characters. Any text after the bytes is ignored e. Any hex numbers in this text are also ignored. An offset of zero is indicative of starting a new packet, so a single text file with a series of hexdumps can be converted into a packet capture with multiple packets.

Packets may be preceded by a timestamp. These are interpreted according to the format given. If not the first packet is timestamped with the current time the import takes place.

Multiple packets are read in with timestamps differing by one microsecond each. In general, short of these restrictions, Wireshark is pretty liberal about reading in hexdumps and has been tested with a variety of mangled outputs including being forwarded through email multiple times, with limited line wrap etc.

There are a couple of other special features to note. Any line where the first non-whitespace character is will be ignored as a comment. Currently there are no directives implemented.

In the future these may be used to give more fine grained control on the dump and the way it should be processed e. Wireshark also allows the user to read in dumps of application-level data, by inserting dummy L2, L3 and L4 headers before each packet.

This allows Wireshark or any other full-packet decoder to handle these dumps. This dialog box lets you select a text file, containing a hex dump of packet data, to be imported and set import parameters.

Once all input and import parameters are setup click OK to start the import. When completed there will be a new capture file loaded with the frames imported from the text file.

As it can become tedious to work with a file set by hand, Wireshark provides some features to handle these file sets in a convenient way. All files of a file set share the same prefix e.

To find the files of a file set, Wireshark scans the directory where the currently loaded file resides and checks for files matching the filename pattern prefix and suffix of the currently loaded file.

This simple mechanism usually works well but has its drawbacks. If several file sets were captured with the same prefix and suffix, Wireshark will detect them as a single file set.

If files were renamed or spread over several directories the mechanism will fail to find all files of a set. The last line will contain info about the currently used directory where all of the files in the file set can be found.

Wireshark provides several ways and formats to export packet data. This section describes general ways to export data from the main Wireshark application. There are more specialized functions to export specific data which are described elsewhere.

If you would like to be able to import any previously exported packets from a plain text file it is recommended that you:. Export packet data into PSML. This is an XML based format including only the packet summary.

The PSML file specification is available at: Export packet data into PDML. This is an XML based format including the packet details. The PDML file specification is available at: This feature scans through HTTP streams in the currently open capture file or running capture and takes reassembled objects such as HTML documents, image files, executables and anything else that can be transferred over HTTP and lets you save them to disk.

If you have a capture running, this list is automatically updated every few seconds with any new objects seen. The saved objects can then be opened with the proper viewer or executed in the case of executables if it is for the same platform you are running Wireshark on without any further work on your part.

This field is where you enter the file to print to if you have selected Print to a file, or you can click the button to browse the filesystem. It is greyed out if Print to a file is not selected. Print command specifies that a command be used for printing.

These Print command fields are not available on windows platforms. This field specifies the command to use for printing. It is typically lpr. You would change it to specify a particular queue if you need to print to a queue other than the default.

An example might be:. This field is greyed out if Output to file: The packet range frame is a part of various output related dialog boxes. It provides options to select which packets should be processed by the output function.

If the Captured button is set default, all packets from the selected rule will be processed. If the Displayed button is set, only the currently displayed packets are taken into account to the selected rule.

The packet format frame is a part of various output related dialog boxes. It provides options to select which parts of a packet should be used for the output function. Once you have captured some packets or you have opened a previously saved capture file, you can view the packets that are displayed in the packet list pane by simply clicking on a packet in the packet list pane, which will bring up the selected packet in the tree view and byte view panes.

You can then expand any part of the tree to view detailed information about each protocol in each packet. Clicking on an item in the tree will highlight the corresponding bytes in the byte view.

It also has the Acknowledgment number in the TCP header selected, which shows up in the byte view as the selected bytes. This allows you to easily compare two or more packets, even across multiple files.

Along with double-clicking the packet list and using the main menu there are a number of other ways to open a new packet window:. The following table gives an overview of which functions are available in this header, where to find the corresponding function in the main menu, and a short description of each item.

The following table gives an overview of which functions are available in this pane, where to find the corresponding function in the main menu, and a short description of each item.

This menu item applies a display filter with the address information from the selected packet. XXX – add a new section describing this better. This menu item uses a display filter with the address information from the selected packet to build a new colorizing rule.

Prepare a display filter based on the currently selected item and copy that filter to the clipboard. Copy the packet bytes to the clipboard as raw binary. This menu item collapses the tree view of all packets in the capture list.

This menu item uses a display filter with the information from the selected protocol item to build a new colorizing rule. Copy the packet bytes to the clipboard in hexdump-like format; similar to the Packet List Pane command, but copies only the bytes relevant to the selected part of the tree the bytes selected in the Packet Bytes Pane.

Copy the packet bytes to the clipboard in hexdump-like format, but without the text portion; similar to the Packet List Pane command, but copies only the bytes relevant to the selected part of the tree the bytes selected in the Packet Bytes Pane.

Copy the packet bytes to the clipboard as ASCII text, excluding non-printable characters; similar to the Packet List Pane command, but copies only the bytes relevant to the selected part of the tree the bytes selected in the Packet Bytes Pane.

Copy the packet bytes to the clipboard as an unpunctuated list of hex digits; similar to the Packet List Pane command, but copies only the bytes relevant to the selected part of the tree the bytes selected in the Packet Bytes Pane.

Copy the packet bytes to the clipboard as raw binary; similar to the Packet List Pane command, but copies only the bytes relevant to the selected part of the tree the bytes selected in the Packet Bytes Pane.

This menu item is the same as the File menu item of the same name. It allows you to export raw packet bytes to a binary file. Show the filter field reference web page corresponding to the currently selected protocol in your web browser.

The menu item takes you to the properties dialog and selects the page corresponding to the protocol if there are properties associated with the highlighted field. Allows you to temporarily disable a protocol dissector, which may be blocking the legitimate dissector.

Causes a name resolution to be performed for the selected packet, but NOT every packet in the capture. If the selected field has a corresponding packet, go to it. Wireshark has two filtering languages: One used when capturing packets, and one used when displaying packets.

In this section we explore that second type of filter: Display filters allow you to concentrate on the packets you are interested in while hiding the currently uninteresting ones.

They allow you to select packets by:. To select packets based on protocol type, simply type the protocol in which you are interested in the Filter: All protocol and field names are entered in lowercase.

As you might have noticed, only packets of the TCP protocol are displayed now e. The packet numbering will remain as before, so the first packet shown is now packet number When using a display filter, all packets remain in the capture file.

The display filter only changes the display of the capture file but not its content! You can filter on any protocol that Wireshark understands. You can also filter on any field that a dissector adds to the tree view, but only if the dissector has added an abbreviation for the field.

For example, to narrow the packet list pane down to only those packets to or from the IP address To remove the filter, click on the Clear button to the right of the filter field.

Wireshark provides a simple but powerful display filter language that allows you to build quite complex filter expressions. You can compare values in packets as well as combine expressions into more specific expressions.

The following sections provide more information on doing this. Every field in the packet details pane can be used as a filter string, this will result in showing only the packets where this field exists.

You can build display filters that compare values using a number of different comparison operators. You can use English and C-like terms in the same way, they can even be mixed in a filter string.

Protocol or text field match Perl regualar expression. In addition, all protocol fields have a type. Display Filter Field Types provides a list of the types and example of how to express them.

Can be 8, 16, 24, 32, or 64 bits. You can express integers in decimal, octal, or hexadecimal. The following display filters are equivalent:. A boolean field is present in the protocol decode only if its value is true.

The example above match packets that contains the 3-byte sequence 0x81, 0x60, 0x03 anywhere in the UDP header or payload. Above example match packets where SIP To-header contains the string “a” anywhere in the header.

Wireshark needs to be built with libpcre in order to be able to use the matches resp. Wireshark allows you to select subsequences of a sequence in rather elaborate ways.

After a label you can place a pair of brackets [] containing a comma separated list of range specifiers. The example above uses the n: In this case n is the beginning offset and m is the length of the range being specified.

The example above uses the n-m format to specify a single range. In this case n is the beginning offset and m is the ending offset. The example above uses the: It is equivalent to 0: The example above uses the n format to specify a single range.

In this case the element in the sequence at offset n is selected. This is equivalent to n: Wireshark allows you to string together single ranges in a comma separated list to form compound ranges as shown above.

Wireshark allows you to test a field for membership in a set of values or fields. This can be considered a shortcut operator, as the previous expression could have been expressed as:. Often people use a filter string to display something like ip.

Then they use ip. Unfortunately, this does not do the expected. Instead, that expression will even be true for packets where either source or destination IP address equals 1.

The reason for this, is that the expression ip. As an IP datagram contains both a source and a destination address, the expression will evaluate to true whenever at least one of the two addresses differs from 1.

If you want to filter out all packets containing IP datagrams to or from IP address 1. However if you are new to Wireshark or are working with a slightly unfamiliar protocol it can be very confusing to try to figure out what to type.

When you first bring up the Filter Expression dialog box you are shown a tree of field names, organized by protocol, and a box for selecting a relation. You can define filters with Wireshark and give them labels for later use.

This can save time in remembering and retyping some of the more complex filters you use. The mechanisms for defining and saving capture filters and display filters are almost identical.

Both will be described here but the differences between these two will be marked as such. You must use Save to save your filters permanently. OK or Apply will not save the filters and they will be lost when you close Wireshark.

The filter name will only be used in this dialog to identify the filter for your convenience, it will not be used elsewhere. You can add multiple filters with the same name, but this is not very useful.

You can define filter macros with Wireshark and give them labels for later use. You can easily find packets once you have captured some packets or have read in a previously saved capture file.

Simply enter a display filter string into the Filter: For example, to find the three way handshake for a connection from host The value to be found will be syntax checked while you type it in.

If the syntax check of your value succeeds, the background of the entry field will turn green, if it fails, it will turn red. This dialog box will let you enter a packet number. When you press OK, Wireshark will jump to that packet.

If a protocol field is selected which points to another packet in the capture file, this command will jump to that packet. A marked packet will be shown with black background, regardless of the coloring rules set.

Marking a packet can be useful to find it later while analyzing in a large capture file. The packet marks are not stored in the capture file or anywhere else. All packet marks will be lost when you close the capture file.

You can use packet marking to control the output of packets when saving, exporting, or printing. Wireshark will then pretend that this packets does not exist in the capture file.

An ignored packet will be shown with white background and gray foreground, regardless of the coloring rules set. The packet ignored marks are not stored in the capture file or anywhere else.

While packets are captured, each packet is timestamped. These timestamps will be saved to the capture file, so they will be available for later analysis. A detailed description of timestamps, timezones and alike can be found at: If you use Seconds it would show simply 1 and if you use Nanoseconds it shows 1.

The user can set time references to packets. A time reference is the starting point for all subsequent packet time calculations. It will be useful, if you want to see the time values relative to a special packet, e.

The time references will not be saved permanently and will be lost when you close the capture file. If one of the other time display formats are used, time referencing will have no effect and will make no sense either.

All subsequent packets will show the time since the last time reference. If you are working with TCP based protocols it can be very helpful to see the data from a TCP stream in the way that the application layer sees it.

Perhaps you are looking for passwords in a Telnet stream, or you are trying to make sense of a data stream. Maybe you just need a display filter to show only the packets of that TCP stream. The stream content is displayed in the same sequence as it appeared on the network.

Traffic from A to B is marked in red, while traffic from B to A is marked in blue. If a selected packet field does not show all the bytes i. This dialog can also be used to decode field bytes from base64, zlib compressed or quoted-printable and show the decoded bytes as configurable output.

This allows you to see all the data. This will require a lot of screen space and is best used with binary protocols. This allows you to see all the data formatted as a HTML document.

This will try to convert the bytes into an image. This allows you to load the unaltered stream data into a different program for further examination. The amount of expert infos largely depends on the protocol being used.

The following will first describe the components of a single expert info, then the User Interface. Every expert info has a specific severity level. The following severity levels are used, in parentheses are the colors in which the items will be marked in the GUI:.

An easy and quick way to find the most interesting infos rather than using the Details tab, is to have a look at the separate tabs for each severity level. There are usually a lot of identical expert infos only differing in the packet number.

These identical infos will be combined into a single line – with a count column showing how often they appeared in the capture file. Clicking on the plus sign shows the individual packet numbers in a tree view.

As the amount of expert infos for a capture file can easily become very large, getting an idea of the interesting infos with this view can take quite a while. The advantage of this tab is to have all entries in the sequence as they appeared, this is sometimes a help to pinpoint problems.

The protocol field causing an expert info is colorized, e. To easier find that item in the packet tree, the IP protocol toplevel item is marked cyan as well. Analysis is done once for each TCP packet when a capture file is first opened.

Packets are processed in the order in which they appear in the packet list. Each flag is described below. Checks for a retransmission based on analysis data in the reverse direction.

Set when all of the following are true:. Set when the segment size is non-zero, we know the window size in the reverse direction, and our segment size exceeds the window size in the reverse direction.

Set when the sequence number is equal to the next expected sequence number, the segment size is one, and last-seen window size in the reverse direction was zero. Time stamps, their precisions and all that can be quite confusing.

While packets are captured, each packet is time stamped as it comes in. These time stamps will be saved to the capture file, so they also will be available for later analysis.

So where do these time stamps come from? While capturing, Wireshark gets the time stamps from the libpcap WinPcap library, which in turn gets them from the operating system kernel.

If the capture data is loaded from a capture file, Wireshark obviously gets the data from that file. The internal format that Wireshark uses to keep a packet time stamp consists of the date in days since 1.

While reading or writing capture files, Wireshark converts the time stamp data between the capture file format and the internal format as required. While capturing, Wireshark uses the libpcap WinPcap capture library which supports microsecond resolution.

Unless you are working with specialized capturing hardware, this resolution should be adequate. Every capture file format that Wireshark knows supports time stamps. Most file formats store the time stamps with a fixed precision e.

For example, if you load a capture file with nanosecond resolution and store the capture data in a libpcap file with microsecond resolution Wireshark obviously must reduce the precision from nanosecond to microsecond.

So accuracy will depend on the capture system operating system, performance, etc that you use. Because of this, the above question is difficult to answer in a general way. USB connected network adapters often provide a very bad time stamp accuracy.

As the incoming packets are time stamped when they are processed by the kernel, this time stamping mechanism becomes very inaccurate. If you travel across the planet, time zones can be confusing.

If you get a capture file from somewhere around the world time zones can even be a lot more confusing ;-. People expect that the time reflects the sunset. Dawn should be in the morning maybe around These times will obviously vary depending on the season.

It would be very confusing if everyone on earth would use the same global time as this would correspond to the sunset only at a small part of the world. For that reason, the earth is split into several different time zones, each zone with a local time that corresponds to the local sunset.

Further information can be found at: To do this, a lot of countries but not all! So you may need to take another hour or in very rare cases even two hours!

Unfortunately, the date at which DST actually takes effect is different throughout the world. Further information can be found at https: Further time zone and DST information can be found at http: This way you will tell your computer both the local time and also the time offset to UTC.

Many organizations simply set the time zone on their servers and networking gear to UTC in order to make coordination and troubleshooting easier. For your computer, the time is essentially the same as before, you are simply in a different time zone with a different local time.

NTP clients are available for all operating systems that Wireshark supports and for a lot more, for examples see http: When Wireshark is capturing, no conversion is necessary.

Internally to Wireshark, time stamps are represented in UTC. This means that when reading capture files that save the arrival time of packets as local time values, Wireshark must convert those local time values to UTC values.

Wireshark in turn will display the time stamps always in local time. The displaying computer will convert them from UTC to local time and displays this local time. For capture files saving the arrival time of packets as UTC values, this means that the arrival time will be displayed as the local time in your time zone, which might not be the same as the arrival time in the time zone in which the packet was captured.

Now you have a phone call, video conference or Internet meeting with that one to talk about that capture file. The time displays are different as both Wireshark displays will show the different local times at the same point in time.

In any case, make sure that every computer in question has the correct time and time zone setting. Network protocols often need to transport large chunks of data which are complete in themselves, e.

The underlying protocol might not be able to handle that chunk size e. In that case the network protocol has to handle the chunk boundaries itself and if required spread the data over multiple packets.

It obviously also needs a mechanism to determine the chunk boundaries on the receiving side. Wireshark calls this mechanism reassembly, although a specific protocol specification might use a different term for this e.

For some of the network protocols Wireshark knows of, a mechanism is implemented to find, decode and display these chunks of data. Reassembly is enabled in the preferences by default but can be disabled in the preferences for the protocol in question.

Enabling or disabling reassembly settings for a protocol typically requires two things:. The tooltip of the higher level protocol setting will notify you if and which lower level protocol setting also has to be considered.

Name resolution tries to convert some of the numerical address values into a human readable format. There are two possible ways to do these conversions, depending on the resolution to be done: The name resolution feature can be enabled individually for the protocol layers listed in the following sections.

Name resolution can be invaluable while working with Wireshark and may even save you hours of work. Unfortunately, it also has its drawbacks. Name resolution in the packet list is done while the list is filled.

Try to resolve an Ethernet MAC address e. ARP name resolution system service: Wireshark will ask the operating system to convert an Ethernet address to the corresponding IP address e.

Ethernet codes ethers file: If the ARP name resolution failed, Wireshark tries to convert the Ethernet address to a known device name, which has been assigned by the user using an ethers file e.

Ethernet manufacturer codes manuf file: If neither ARP or ethers returns a result, Wireshark tries to convert the first 3 bytes of an ethernet address to an abbreviated manufacturer name, which has been assigned by the IEEE e.

Wireshark will use a name resolver to convert an IP address to the hostname associated with it e. DNS name resolution can generally be performed synchronously or asynchronously. Both mechanisms can be used to convert an IP address to some human readable domain name.

A system call like gethostname will try to convert the address to a name. To do this, it will first ask the systems hosts file e. If that fails, it will ask the configured DNS server s about the name.

The system call gethostname will wait until a name is resolved or an error occurs. If the DNS server is unavailable, this might take quite a while several seconds.

To provide acceptable performance Wireshark depends on an asynchronous DNS library to do name resolution. The asynchronous DNS service works a bit differently. It will just return to Wireshark in a very short amount of time.

If DNS name resolution failed, Wireshark will try to convert an IP address to the hostname associated with it, using a hosts file provided by the user e. Several network protocols use checksums to ensure data integrity.

Applying checksums as described here is also known as redundancy checking. Checksums are used to ensure the integrity of data portions for data transmission or storage.

A checksum is basically a calculated summary of such a data portion. Network data transmissions often produce errors, such as toggled, missing or duplicated bits. As a result, the data received might not be identical to the data transmitted, which is obviously a bad thing.

Because of these transmission errors, network protocols very often use checksums to detect such errors. The transmitter will calculate a checksum of the data and transmits the data together with the checksum.

The receiver will calculate the checksum of the received data with the same algorithm as the transmitter. Some checksum algorithms are able to recover simple errors by calculating where the expected error must be and repairing it.

If there are errors that cannot be recovered, the receiving side throws away the packet. Depending on the network protocol, this data loss is simply ignored or the sending side needs to detect this loss somehow and retransmits the required packet s.

Using a checksum drastically reduces the number of undetected transmission errors. There are several different kinds of checksum algorithms; an example of an often used checksum algorithm is CRC The checksum algorithm actually chosen for a specific network protocol will depend on the expected error rate of the network medium, the importance of error detection, the processor load to perform the calculation, the performance needed and many other things.

Further information about checksums can be found at: Checksum validation can be switched off for various protocols in the Wireshark protocol preferences, e. The checksum calculation might be done by the network driver, protocol driver or even in hardware.

The Ethernet transmitting hardware calculates the Ethernet CRC32 checksum and the receiving hardware validates this checksum. Recent network hardware can perform advanced features such as IP checksum calculation, also known as checksum offloading.

Checksum offloading often causes confusion as the network packets to be transmitted are handed over to Wireshark before the checksums are actually calculated. Checksum offloading can be confusing and having a lot of [invalid] messages on the screen can be quite annoying.

As mentioned above, invalid checksums may lead to unreassembled packets, making the analysis of the packet data much harder. Wireshark provides a wide range of network statistics which can be accessed via the Statistics menu.

These statistics range from general information about the loaded capture file like the number of captured packets, to statistics about specific protocols e. The protocol specific statistics require detailed knowledge about the specific protocol.

Unless you are familiar with that protocol, statistics about it will be pretty hard to understand. This is a tree of all the protocols in the capture. Each row contains the statistical values of one protocol.

Two of the columns Percent Packets and Percent Bytes serve double duty as bar graphs. If a display filter is set it will be shown at the bottom. Packets usually contain multiple protocols.

As a result more than one protocol will be counted for each packet. In the screenshot IP has In the screenshot TCP has This can be caused by continuation frames, TCP protocol overhead, and other undissected data.

A single packet can contain the same protocol more than once. In this case, the protocol is counted more than once. A network conversation is the traffic between two specific endpoints.

For example, an IP conversation is all the traffic between two IP addresses. The conversations window is similar to the endpoint Window. Along with addresses, packet counters, and byte counters the conversation window adds four columns: Name resolution will be done if selected in the window and if it is active for the specific protocol layer MAC layer for the selected Ethernet endpoints page.

Limit to display filter will only show conversations matching the current display filter. Conversation Types lets you choose which traffic type tabs are shown.

The enabled types are saved in your profile settings. This window will be updated frequently so it will be useful even if you open it before or while you are doing a live capture.

A network endpoint is the logical endpoint of separate protocol traffic of a specific protocol layer. The endpoint statistics of Wireshark will take the following endpoints into account:.

If you are looking for a feature other network tools call a hostlist, here is the right place to look. Broadcast and multicast traffic will be shown separately as additional endpoints.

For each supported protocol, a tab is shown in this window. Each tab label shows the number of endpoints captured e. If no endpoints of a specific protocol were captured, the tab label will be greyed out although the related page can still be selected.

Note that in this example we have MaxMind DB configured which gives us extra geographic columns. Endpoint Types lets you choose which traffic type tabs are shown. This window will be updated frequently, so it will be useful even if you open it before or while you are doing a live capture.

The Save button will save the currently displayed portion of the graph as one of various file formats. The service response time is the time between a request and the corresponding response.

This information is available for many protocols. The other Service Response Time windows will work the same way or only slightly different compared to the following description. Each row corresponds to a method of the interface selected so the EPM interface in version 3 has 7 methods.

For each method the number of calls, and the statistics of the SRT time is calculated. The merged capture data is checked for missing packets. If a matching connection is found it is checked for:.

The color filtering differentiate the two files from each other. If you click on an item in the error list its corresponding packet will be selected in the main window.

Statistics about captured WLAN traffic. This can be found under the Wireless menu and summarizes the wireless network traffic found in the capture. Probe requests will be merged into an existing network if the SSID matches.

Name resolution will be done if selected in the window and if it is active for the MAC layer. Only show existing networks will exclude probe requests with a SSID not matching any network from the list.

This window will be updated frequently, so it will be useful, even if you open it before or while you are doing a live capture. Wireshark has many other statistics windows that display detailed information about specific protocols and might be described in a later version of this document.

Some of these statistics are described at https: Wireshark provides a wide range of telephony related network statistics which can be accessed via the Telephony menu.

These statistics range from specific signaling protocols, to analysis of signaling and media flows. If encoded in a compatible encoding the media flow can even be played. The RTP analysis function takes the selected RTP stream and the reverse stream, if possible and generates a list of statistics on it.

Starting with basic data as packet number and sequence number, further statistics are created based on arrival time, delay, jitter, packet size, etc. Besides the per packet statistics, the lower pane shows the overall statistics, with minimums and maximums for delta, jitter and clock skew.

Also an indication of lost packets is included. Other options a to export and plot various statistics on the RTP streams. It finds calls by their signaling. More details can be found on the https: In order to use this feature your version of Wireshark must support audio and the codecs used by each RTP stream.

The top pane shows statistics for common channels. This will affect both the PDUs counted as well as the display filters generated see below. The upper list shows summaries of each active UE.

Each row in the lower list shows statistical highlights for individual channels within the selected UE. The lower part of the windows allows display filters to be generated and set for the selected channel.

Note that in the case of Acknowledged Mode channels, if a single direction is chosen, the generated filter will show data in that direction and control PDUs in the opposite direction.

The protocol specific statistics windows display detailed information of specific protocols and might be described in a later version of this document. Some of these statistics are described at the https: However, as you become more familiar with Wireshark, it can be customized in various ways to suit your needs even better.

In this chapter we explore:. You can start Wireshark from the command line, but it can also be started from most Window managers as well. In this section we will look at starting it from the command line.

Wireshark supports a large number of command line parameters. The first thing to notice is that issuing the command wireshark by itself will bring up Wireshark. However, you can include as many of the command line parameters as you like.

Their meanings are as follows in alphabetical order:. Specify a criterion that specifies when Wireshark is to stop writing to a capture file. The criterion is of the form test: Their name is based on the number of the file and on the creation date and time.

When the first capture file fills up Wireshark will switch to writing to the next file, and so on. Print a list of the interfaces on which Wireshark can capture, then exit.

For each network interface, a number and an interface name, possibly followed by a text description of the interface, is printed. The interface name or the number can be supplied to the – i flag to specify an interface on which to capture.

If, on your system, a program doing a network capture must be run from an account with special privileges for example, as root, then, if Wireshark is run with the – D flag and is not run from such an account, it will not list any interfaces.

Network interface names should match one of the names listed in wireshark – D described above. A number, as reported by wireshark – D, can also be used. Data read from pipes must be in standard libpcap format.

Sets a preference or recent value, overriding the default value and any value read from a preference or recent file. The argument to the flag is a string of the form prefname: You can get a list of all available preference strings from the preferences file.

Special path settings usually detected automatically. This is used for special cases, e. This option sets the format of packet timestamps that are displayed in the packet list window.

The format can be one of:. Specify an option to be passed to a TShark module. A very useful mechanism available in Wireshark is packet colorization. You can set up Wireshark so that it will colorize packets according to a display filter.

This allows you to emphasize the packets you might be interested in. You can find a lot of coloring rule examples at the Wireshark Wiki Coloring Rules page at https: There are two types of coloring rules in Wireshark: Temporary rules can be added by selecting a packet and pressing the Ctrl key together with one of the number keys.

This will create a coloring rule based on the currently selected conversation. More specific rules should usually be listed before more general rules. You can delete one or more rules by clicking the – button.

You can edit a rule by double-clicking on its name or filter. The color chooser appearance depends on your operating system. The macOS color picker is shown. Select the color you desire for the selected packets and click OK.

Each protocol has its own dissector, so dissecting a complete packet will typically involve several dissectors. There are two ways to control the relations between protocol dissectors: The Enabled Protocols dialog box lets you enable or disable specific protocols.

All protocols are enabled by default. When a protocol is disabled, Wireshark stops processing a packet whenever that protocol is encountered. Disabling a protocol will prevent information about higher-layer protocols from being displayed.

To disable or enable a protocol, simply click on it using the mouse or press the space bar when the protocol is highlighted. Note that typing the first few letters of the protocol name when the Enabled Protocols dialog box is active will temporarily open a search text box and automatically select the first matching protocol name if it exists.

You must use the Save button to save your settings. The OK or Apply buttons will not save your changes permanently and they will be lost when Wireshark is closed.

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Students will gain experience in identifying false travel documents and identifying suspicious air travelers. This course will focus on current national security threats in the aviation industry.

Upon the successful completion of this course the students will meet the requirements of the initial and recurrent security training requirements mandated by the Transportation Security Administration TSA under Title 49 CFR AVN or W with a grade of C or higher.

AVN – Gas Turbine Engines An in-depth study of gas turbine engines as found in air carrier and high performance aircraft. Topics include the history of turbine development, jet propulsion, theory engine design and construction and control systems.

AVN – Aerodynamics and Aircraft Performance Advanced aerodynamic principles will be introduced following extensive review of fundamentals. Emphasis will be on practical design and performance considerations including mission, cost, and feasibility.

This course will familiarize the student with the application of aeronautical principles and design practices. The course will focus steps in preliminary design of general aviation aircraft with emphasis on the iterative aspects of design.

It includes, but is not limited to: Principles, operations and limitations of advanced avionics suites typically found in this category aircraft. AVN – Safety of Flight Safety of Flight is an essential course for students to understand the principles and regulatory practices of commercial aviation safety in the United States and worldwide community in the 21st century.

The student will obtain the necessary safety of flight knowledge to be able to effectively work in the aviation industry. At the completion of the course, students will be able to assess contemporary issues in safety of flight and demonstrate understanding of aviation safety and human factors.

Topics to be covered include hull and liability coverage, subrogation and the insurer’s interests after covering a loss, underwriting and claims management. This course helps students to explain the various types of insurance coverage found in aviation such as, hangar keepers, employers, pilots, airlines and airport operators.

AVN – Commuter Turboprop Training This course exposes the student to an actual air carrier transport aircraft initial training ground school. The course will examine all of the specific aircraft and engine systems for this airplane and will be conducted so as to simulate the intensity of an airline training course.

All major systems and subsystems of the aircraft as well as its limitation and normal and emergency operating procedures will be covered in detail. At the conclusion of this course, the student should be able to pass an airline style written and oral exam on the aircraft.

AVN – Specialty Flying Specialty flying is a vital area in General Aviation although it does not attract the attention that airline and military flying do. This course will deal with Agricultural Aviation; Bush Flying using float, large wheel and ski equipped aircraft.

The seminar will require students to examine key aviation concepts presented in the Pro Pilot track and connect key learning objectives associated with these concepts to the skills necessary for success in the aviation industry as a pilot.

Selected subject areas will include but not be limited to aviation safety, aviation law, crew resource management, safety ethics, physiology of flight, and aviation meteorology and how these relate to the requirements to be a certificated instrument-rated commercial pilot and fly as a certified flight instructor or a multiengine airplane pilot.

Students will be required to complete comprehensive case studies of aviation accidents, present results to the seminar participants and lead the case discussion. A Capstone mentorship flight or simulator event summarizing the key course concepts will be included as part of the course flight fees as applicable.

AVN with C or higher. It is designed to integrate all the topics that students have learned during their courses of study. The research project will culminate in a formal presentation of results to members of the university community and also representatives from industry.

Students will be exposed to various in-class exercises that will address the importance of identifying the variables involved in the flow of typical air cargo operations.

Communication skills in air cargo operations management will also be stressed. AVN – Aviation Internship This course is designed to give students the opportunity to earn elective credit for acquiring hands-on industry experience.

Prior work site approval by the Aviation Department is required before enrolling in this course. Completion of 30 credits with an overall GPA of 2. BCS – Programming Concepts and Problem Solving This course will provide an introduction to programming logic and problem solving techniques using different programming languages.

Topics include such items as constants and variables, data types, scope of variables, basic logic constructs, subroutines and functions. BCS – Computer Concepts and Applications This is an introductory course in the use of personal computers in today’s society.

Students will receive instruction in basic computer concepts and terminology, the fundamentals of the Windows operating system and have hands on experience at the beginning to intermediate level using Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint.

The Internet will be used to supplement textbook and lecture materials. Topics may vary from semester to semester and reflects the interests and needs of students, faculty and industry.

Permission of Department Chair is required. Permission of Department Chair 3,0 Credits: Permission of Department Chair Credits: Students will be taught to develop algorithms using top-down stepwise refinement.

Students will be introduced to the concept of Object Oriented programming. In addition to the introductory topics of changing text appearance, creating hyperlinks, and inserting images into a Web page, advanced topics such as layout, tables, and forms will also be covered.

Among the topics studied are elements of the COBOL programming language and application of the language to solving business computer applications. BCS – Computers, Society and Technology This is an introductory course that provides students with the knowledge to stay current and informed in a technology-oriented, global society.

Students will receive instruction in basic computer concepts and terminology, the fundamentals of the Windows operating system and have hands-on experience at the beginning to intermediate level using Microsoft Excel and Access.

Students taking this course may not receive credit for BCS or This course will present the main components of a Visual Basic program, and will use these components to develop increasingly more complex Windows applications.

The standard Windows forms and controls will be explored in providing the skills and knowledge necessary to write these event driven graphical interfaces. This course will cover file management and have hands on experience at the beginning through advanced level using microcomputer spreadsheet and database applications.

Students will use a spreadsheet program to enter formulas, create charts, execute functions and macros, create, sort and query lists, create pivot tables, create templates, and work with multiple worksheets and workbooks.

Students will use a database program to create data table structures, queries, reports, and forms, create switchboards, pivot tables, and pivot charts. This course may not be used to satisfy the requirements of the B.

Students completing this course may not receive credit for SMT BCS with a grade of C or higher Credits: BCS – Introduction to Networks This course introduces the architecture, structure, functions, components, and models of the Internet and other computer networks.

The principles and structure of IPv4 and IPv6 addressing and the fundamentals of Ethernet concepts, media, and operations are introduced to provide a foundation for the curriculum.

The laboratory component of this course will give the students hands-on experience configuring equipment needed to build a LAN. BCS – Routing and Switching Essentials This course describes the architecture, components, and operations of routers and switches in a small network.

Students learn how to configure a router and a switch for basic functionality. The laboratory component of this course will give the students hands-on experience configuring routers, switches and basic WAN connectivity.

Topics include basic understanding of the UNIX system, utilizing the file system, programming language and security system. BCS may be taken as a Prerequisite or Corequisite. BCS Corequisite s: Among the topics covered are: BCS – Electronic Commerce This cross-listed business management and business computer systems course covers electronic commerce EC foundations, retailing methodologies, and marketing research.

Focus will be on the various forms, strategies, and implementations of EC including business-to-business B2B, business-to-consumer B2C, and consumer-to-consumer C2C.

Also covered will be social networking, electronic payment systems, and public policy issues including privacy and intellectual property matters as well as recent information technology advancements.

Students will learn how to devise jQuery and jQuery UI scripting techniques such as effects, animation, tabbed panels, menus, accordions, content sliders, drag and drop, tooltips, date pickers, custom tooltips, dialogs and portlets, and interactive image sliders and carousels.

Students who have taken BCS cannot receive credit for this course. BCS with a grade of C or higher. Topics to be covered include multi-level control break processing, file handling techniques for both sequential and indexed files, table processing, and searching and sorting methods.

BCS – Website Development II In this course, students will learn how to create websites that deliver a seamless experience across a diverse range of desktop and mobile devices using the same code base.

In addition, students will learn how to perform forms validation, create navigation and menuing systems, build responsive layouts with flexible content, code media queries, and create and modify template and child pages.

Students will use CSS 3 to create user interfaces with toolbars, animations, buttons, forms, lists, events, and themes. BCS – Operating Systems This course develops the fundamental knowledge of computer operating systems.

Topics included in this study are types of operating systems, facilities and features of the different systems and user techniques. Topics studied will include the history and advantages of database systems, and the process of database design including entity-relationship diagrams and database normalization.

BCS – Data Communications This course is an introduction to the concepts and applications of computer networking and its role in the business world today. It is intended to reinforce and build upon the introductory Visual Basic by extending coverage of the programming language and introducing more advanced features of the language.

Some of the advanced topics covered will include multitier applications, database programming, programming for the web and web forms, using report mechanisms, object – oriented terminology, creating classes and instantiating objects.

BCS – Management Information Systems Managers have increasing responsibility for determining their information system needs and for designing and implementing information systems that support these needs.

Management information systems integrate, for purposes of information requirements, the accounting, finance, and operations management functions of an organization.

This course will examine the various levels and types of software and information systems required by an organization to integrate these functions. BCS – Systems Analysis and Design This course explores the major issues in the analysis and design of a system, including methods of data collection, information requirements analysis, and the analysis process are discussed.

Emphasis is placed on the importance of the user in the design process and focuses on approaches that improve the successful implementation of a computer system. Topics include general systems theory, Systems Development Life Cycle, data flow diagrams, data dictionary, hardware and software evaluation, feasibility analysis, CASE tools and prototyping.

Students are required to demonstrate their skill in using project management and diagramming application software. Students will utilize the tools covered in BCS to analyze system designs.

Topics covered in the design phase will include input, output, and database and user interface design. Additional topics in the implementation and maintenance phases will include testing, implementation and maintenance.

Object-oriented systems and UML will also be covered. Students will analyze and prepare various case projects and will present and document their results. BCS – Data Visualization Data visualization describes any effort to help people understand the significance of data by placing it in a visual context.

Patterns, trends and correlations that might go undetected in text-based or spreadsheet data are recognized using data visualization software. In this course, students will use data visualization software to display data using infographics, dials and gauges, geographic maps, spark lines, and heat maps, as well as creating detailed bar, pie, and fever charts.

These maps and charts will include interactive capabilities, enabling users to manipulate the data or drill into the data for querying and analysis. These ideas will be explored in conjunction with an introduction to the concepts and tools necessary to implement, administer and troubleshoot the Microsoft Windows network.

Hands-on experience will be used in the presentation of system administration tools. Topics include selecting and installing operating systems, adding users, virtualization, and the configuration and management of storage, networks and servers.

Particular stress is paid system administration practices that foster the creation and maintenance of scalable and secure systems. Students will learn the Pearl syntax, the basics of using regular expressions, how to use Pearl data types, and how to access and manipulate files.

Students are also introduced to database connectivity and debugging techniques. BCS – Enterprise Resource Planning Enterprise Resource Planning ERP is an organizational and information systems approach that integrates planning, customer relationship management, decision making, master scheduling, material requirements planning, marketing, forecasting, sales, finance, electronic commerce, and human resources.

The course will include lectures and extensive use of supporting ERP software. Students completing this course cannot receive credit for BUS This advanced course prepares the student to understand OS virtualization, Storage Virtualization, and Cloud Computing.

BCS – Scaling Networks This course describes the architecture, components, and operations of routers and switches in a larger and more complex network. Students learn how to configure routers and switches for advanced functionality.

BCS with a C or higher. The course enables students to understand the selection criteria of network devices and WAN technologies to meet network requirements. Students learn how to configure and troubleshoot network devices and resolve common issues with data link protocols.

Students will also develop the knowledge and skills needed to implement IPSec and virtual private network VPN operations in a complex network. A number of programming assignments give students the opportunity to practice assembly language on one or more architectures chosen by the instructor.

BCS – Introduction to Algorithms This course provides an introduction to efficient solutions for a variety of algorithmic problems commonly encountered in application programming.

Problems are discussed and students are guided through the discovery of progressively more efficient solutions. Areas to be discussed may include trees, graphs, sorting, searching, and testing.

Advanced techniques, including recursion, dynamic programming, greedy algorithms and parallel programming may be used to solve some of the problems. Small programming assignments will be required to illustrate an understanding of the details of the algorithms.

BCS with grade of a C or higher. BCS – Web Database Development This advanced course prepares the student to use database management systems with web server software to develop and maintain the information content of a web site.

Students in the course should have prior knowledge of programming and database management systems. BCS – Web Frameworks In this course, students will use web frameworks, such as Bootstrap and Angular JS, which are free, open-source front-end web frameworks for designing responsive, mobile-first websites and web applications.

Students will gain experience using frameworks to design HTML, JavaScript, and CSS-based design templates for typography, forms, forms validation, buttons, navigation, site layout, and other interface components, as well as optional JavaScript extensions.

Topics covered may include: BCS – Data Structures This course will present sequential and linked representations of various built-in and abstract data structures including arrays, records, stacks, queues and trees.

Algorithms will be developed relating to various sorting and searching techniques, merging and recursion. A high-level structured programming language, such as C, using both static and dynamic storage concepts, will be used in exploring and developing these algorithms.

BCS – Foundations of Theoretical Computer Science Computer science theory has implications both for what problems programmers choose to solve and for how they solve them. This course introduces students who are familiar with the craft of programming to the underlying theory.

Topics discussed include selections from automata theory, computability theory, and complexity theory. BCS – Legal and Ethical Issues in Database and System Administration In response to privacy concerns and the growth of big data, governments have instituted legal restrictions on access to and on storage of certain forms of data, for example health records.

This course explores ethical and legal issues relating to computers, with a particular emphasis on the ethical and legal obligations of system administrators and others with extraordinary access to personal data stored on computers.

BCS – Information Security This course introduces students to the principles and practices of computer and network security. General programming concepts such as conditional and iterative control, error handling and built-in exceptions will be discussed.

Covered in more detail will be topics such as cursors, triggers, and the stored functions, procedures and packages. BCS – Database Administration and Security This course provides the knowledge necessary to handle database administration and database security.

Topics studied may include installation and configuration of a database, managing and securing user resources and privileges, data integrity, networking, optimization, and backup and recovery.

Hands-on activities with a major commercial DBMS will be assigned to complement the lectures and written work and to develop practical skills. Students will learn Project Management, Scope Management, Time Management, Cost Management, Quality Management, Human Resource Management and Communications Management all in the context of running successful information systems development and implementation projects.

MS project will be used as a tool to managing all of these areas. BCS – Computer Architecture Computer Architecture is the study of hardware and software components of business information systems.

Thorough understanding of the workings of the digital computer system is expected. These topics are evaluated with respect to their impact on the development of business information systems. Two semesters of a programming language required.

Two semesters of a programming language required with a grade of C or higher and BCS with a grade of C or higher. Also covered are concepts and software applications pertaining to product design, development, manufacturing production, marketing, sales, and field service.

This course emphasizes proficiency in the skill sets typically required within industry practices. BCS – Operating System Internals and Design This course will involve the study of the fundamentals of operating systems design and implementation.

Techniques for designing the user interface will be discussed. The Android application lifecycle and issues related to battery life will be covered. Storing application data using a database will be explored.

Students will receive hands-on experience using the Android mobile application development platform. Students will be introduced to the Swift programming language. Emphasis will be placed on good programming practices, on object oriented techniques, and on using established design patterns for mobile applications.

Students will receive hands-on experience using the Xcode development environment to build example apps. Basic instruction in Objective-C will provide students with the ability to read and reuse legacy iOS code.

This information is used by businesses to drive high-level decision making. This course is concerned with extracting data from the information systems that deal with the day-to-day operations and transforming it into data that can be used for decision making.

Students will learn how to design and create a data warehouse, and how to utilize the process of extracting, transforming, and loading ETL data into data warehouses. Students will design and construct dynamic reports using the data warehouse and multi-dimensional online analytical processing OLAP cubes as the data source.

The course covers the syntax of the C programming language,. Students will be required to complete a number of practical programming assignments to solidify their knowledge of the language and its application.

Students will learn how to draw and manage game objects. Techniques for adding sound to a game will be discussed. Creation of computer controlled game objects will also be covered. Students will receive hands-on experience with a current game development platform.

Students will be expected to create their own two-dimensional game by the end of the course. BCS – Large Software System Development This course introduces students to the tools and processes used in software development for large systems.

Through the use of open source projects, the students will explore the build environment, version control, and the testing tools used to produce code involving large numbers of programmers and product managers.

Programming project management techniques, such as Agile, and best practices for programming will also be introduced and discussed. BCS W – Senior Project Writing Intensive The primary objective of this course is to give Computer Programming and Information Systems students an opportunity to integrate techniques and concepts acquired in their other courses.

The course is experiential in nature i. In addition to prerequisites, a second level programming course with a grade of C or better, and Senior level standing is required. BCS – CPIS Internship In this course, the student works under the tutelage of a professional who serves as site supervisor in an organization that provides information services.

The work done by the student is guided by learning objectives agreed to by the site supervisor, the faculty member and the student. Students are required to submit a written proposal, progress reports, and a final report on their experience to the client and to the department.

The course offers an ideal opportunity to test theory in practice and to gain experience in a realistic information provision situation. The experience is expected to be mutually beneficial for the organization and student.

Topics may vary from term to term and reflect the interests of students, faculty and industry. Topics may include wireless communications, rapid application development and other emerging technologies.

BCS – Special Topics Courses that range from will cover topics not covered in the regular curriculum. BCS – Independent Study This is an independent study course designed to offer the student experience in research of a specialized area of interest.

The student will have an opportunity to work individually or with a group in designing, developing and presenting a research project. The topic must be approved by a faculty member.

Students will be required to submit full documentation and present their final results. BCS W – Independent Study – Writing Intensive This is an independent study course designed to offer the student experience in research of a specialized area of interest.

BIO – General Biology A survey of life from the standpoint of humans, including structural and behavioral evolution, functional characteristics, and relationship to the natural world.

The laboratory exercises involve simple investigations of the life processes by utilizing basic research tools. A range of life forms are studied in the laboratory, with particular emphasis on animals ranging from planaria to preserved frogs.

The laboratory course, BIO L is a part of your grade for this course. It focuses on the most common and clinically significant diseases and conditions that afflict modern developed societies, first building a foundation of the basic anatomy and physiology necessary to understand the disorder, then exploring the experiences of the people afflicted.

The inherited and lifestyle risks associated with disorder are discussed and strategies to reduce those risks are investigated. This course is appropriate for non-science majors. A systemic approach is taken in which all the major systems of the human body and the significant diseases that affect those systems are studied.

Emphasis is on failures of homeostasis as the basic mechanisms of disease. Included are discussions on available treatments and therapies, the impact of new technological developments, and maintaining health and avoiding disease.

The laboratory component contains both traditional and computer-generated exercises, which illustrate the onset and development of a variety of diseases and pathological states. BIO – Principles of Nutrition This course provides a basic background in the nature and biochemical function of essential and non-essential nutrients, the molecular basis of metabolism and nutrient requirements of living cells and organisms.

The role of nutrients in gene expression, genetically modified foods and the role of diet in the treatment of diseases. BIO – Biological Principles I This course deals with biological processes primarily at the molecular and cellular level, and develops the foundations of evolutionary and ecological concepts.

There is a study of cell structure, and an examination of cellular composition and metabolic processes including enzyme activity, respiration, and photosynthesis.

Principles of genetics are studied at the cellular and molecular level, with reference to current techniques in molecular biology. Evolutionary mechanisms are introduced and ecological concepts are presented as a unifying theme.

BIO is the first course in the required two-semester introductory sequence in the Bioscience Curriculum Core. It is also approved in the Natural Sciences General Education Competency Area and can serve as a lower-level laboratory science elective within the Liberal Arts.

BIO – Biological Principles II This course deals with biological processes primarily at the organismal level, and examines the diversity of living things. The origins and adaptations of the Prokaryota, Protista, and Fungi are explored, with emphasis on their ecological roles, economic value, and medical significance.

Plant life cycles are introduced, and plant structure, physiology, and utilization are studied. The evolution and adaptations of various animal phyla are presented, with a consideration of structure and function in each; organ systems are studied with emphasis on humans as representative vertebrates.

BIO is the second course in the required two-semester introductory in the Bioscience Curriculum Core. BIO Corequisite s: BIO – Marine Science Marine Science is designed to give the student an appreciation and understanding of the dynamics and interactions of the various components biological, chemical, physical, geological of the world’s oceans.

Habitats studied will range from near shore estuarine systems to deep ocean systems. Special consideration will be given to the human use and manipulation of the Long Island coastal zone. Laboratory sessions will include methodologies used in oceanographic sampling and analysis as well as exercises reinforcing lecture material.

Field trips will also play an important part of the course work supporting lecture topics. BIO – Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology This is a one semester integrated survey of human anatomy and physiology, covering the major physiological and morphological relationships of the human organ systems.

The design of this course is appropriate preparation for Dental Hygiene, Medical Laboratory Technology, and certain other allied health professions, but it does not satisfy the requirements of the Nursing Curriculum.

The major theme of the course is the integrative pathways and regulatory processes that maintain the homeostasis of the body. BIO – Human Anatomy and Physiology I This is the first semester of a two-semester sequence in which human anatomy and physiology are studied using a body systems approach, with emphasis on the interrelationships between form and function at the gross and microscopic levels of organization.

This sequence is appropriate preparation for nursing and other allied health professions. Topics included in Anatomy and Physiology I are: BIO – Human Anatomy and Physiology II This is the second semester of a two-semester sequence in which human anatomy and physiology are studied using a body systems approach, with emphasis on the interrelationships between form and function at the gross and microscopic levels of organization.

Topics include Anatomy and Physiology II are: BIO – Botany An introduction to the biology of plants and their ancestors. Topics include cell structure and function, cell chemistry, photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

The tissues, roots, stems and leaves are studied covering such topics as conduction, absorption, translocation and reproduction. A phylogenetic comparison among plant groups and their ancestors is the underlying theme.

Attendance is the laboratory course is required. BIO – Zoology An introduction to the biology of animals and their ancestors. Topics include structure and function of cells, tissues, organs and organ systems in animals.

Genetics, development, behavior, ecology, and the evolution of major phyla are covered. A comparative approach is taken in studying the invertebrates and vertebrates including man.

Attendance in the laboratory course is required. BIO – Human Biology An introductory course that teaches biological principles by emphasizing the structural and functional aspects of the human body, especially as they relate to everyday existence.

Includes discussion of important collateral issues such as the nature and course of disease, smoking and health, drug abuse, immunity and allergy, human genetics, birth-control, over-population, and sexually transmitted disease.

BIO – Entomology The nature, structure, growth, and habits of insects and related forms are discussed. The beneficial and injurious effects of insects are covered. Recent breakthroughs and developments in the field of entomology are discussed.

Skills are developed which enable the student to identify insect plant pests, diseases and injuries. Control measures and application equipment are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the various pest management options available to the homeowner and professionals in the field.

IPM integrated pest management involves an understanding of pesticides, physical and mechanical controls, biological controls, cultural controls, and legal controls.

Laws regulating the activities of pest control operators and the application of hazardous pesticides are discussed. A collection of insects and related forms is required. BIO – Introduction to Bioscience Moving beyond the basic concepts of general biology, this class explores how biology is used in both academic and commercial settings within the fields of biotechnology, pharmaceutical and clinical sciences.

The debate surrounding subjects such as cloning, stem cells, and genetically modified foods will also be discussed. BIO with a grade of C – or higher Credits: BIO – Bioscience Laboratory Practices This course is designed to enable students to develop understanding of and proficient technical ability in basic bioscience laboratory practices.

There is an in-depth presentation of laboratory safety standards, utilization of material safety data sheets, and the theoretical basis for a full range of preparatory and analytical methods and the opportunity to develop expertise in these methods with a variety of laboratory equipment.

Students are required to maintain a laboratory notebook, analyze and display data in graphic form, and report results in a standard format. BIO with a grade of C – or higher Corequisite s: BIO – Medical Microbiology The role of microbes as causative agents of disease in human hosts; the morphological characterization of pathogenic species, classification of communicable diseases and epidemiological aspects.

Host-parasite relationship, infection, and host-resistance mechanisms; sero-diagnostic methods in medical practice. Chemotherapy, mode of action of antibiotics, sterilization, disinfection methods and contamination control.

BIO or or or or Corequisite s: There will be an emphasis on the classification, identification and economic importance of both the animals Protozoa-Chordata and the algae microscopic and macroscopic.

The flora and fauna of the Long Island region will be stressed with field trips and collections being an integral part of the course. BIO or or Corequisite s: BIO – Bioethics This course will cover ethical issues raised as a result of modern advances in biotechnology which directly affect the quality of human life.

Bioethics comprises every possible aspect of health care: It scrutinizes outmoded laws and deals with the enormous growth in available medical services. It takes into account our views of ourselves as members of a humane society.

This course is also offered as a writing intensive course at the discretion of the department. One course of college biology with a C – or higher; for the writing intensive version, EGL with a grade of C or higher is also required.

BIO W – Bioethics Writing Intensive This course will cover ethical issues raised as a result of modern advances in biotechnology which directly affect the quality of human life. Bioethics comprises every possible aspect of health care; medical, moral, political, religious, legal and financial.

EGL with a grade of C or higher, and one course of college biology with a grade of C of higher. Offered at the discretion of the Biology Department 3,0. Laboratory procedures will involve the analysis of both chemical and biological parameters, including wastewater analysis, using New York State approved methodology.

Vegetative transecting and beach contouring will also be included. Data presentation and report writing will be emphasized. Field trips and study will be an integral and required part of this course.

Discussion of environmental laws and impact statements will be included. One course of college biology with a laboratory and one semester of college chemistry with a laboratory. BIO – Anatomy and Physiology I BIO is a course in which human anatomy and physiology are studied using a body systems approach, with emphasis on the interrelationships between form and function at the gross and microscopic levels of organization.

This sequence is appropriate for students with a strong foundation in basic biological principles. Anatomy and Physiology I includes: The required course sequence for nursing students is BIO and BIO or equivalent with a C – or higher Corequisite s: BIO – Anatomy and Physiology II BIO is a course in which human anatomy and physiology are studied using a body systems approach, with emphasis on the interrelationships between form and function at the gross and microscopic levels of organization.

BIO – Entomology II Methods of greenhouse pest and disease control, including identification of major families of pests, diagnosis of diseases, principles of cultural and chemical control, and a survey of pests and diseases associated with economically important greenhouse crops.

BIO or Corequisite s: BIO – Vertebrate Physiology This course investigates the principles of physiology in vertebrates with emphasis on mechanism of integration and homeostasis at the cellular, organ and system level.

It explores the comparative, experimental and evolutionary aspects of all vertebrate classes and surveys the impact of recent advances in cellular and molecular biology on this branch of the biological sciences.

BIO L – Vertebrate Physiology Lab This laboratory course is an inquiry into the experimental methods and models for understanding vertebrate physiology. It will explore the comparative, experimental and evolutionary aspects of the mechanisms of integration and homeostasis among select vertebrate classes.

Laboratory exercises incorporate computer software-based exercises with classic physiology experiments designed to illustrate both the basic concepts of physiology as well as the comparative nature of these events in a number of vertebrate species.

BIO – Principles of Ecology The course introduces the student to the nature of ecosystems, community organization and dynamics, and population growth and regulation through the understanding and use of modern ecological techniques.

The laboratory will be primarily focused on the analysis of field data collected by students. BIO – Plant Systematics An introduction to systematics using vascular plants as the model organisms.

Lecture material for this course will cover all aspects of systematics from basic nomenclature, taxonomy and systematic methods through modern molecular systematics and cladistics.

Lab material will cover plant morphology and the identification of characteristics across plant lineages and their relationship to systematics. These regulations apply to all aspects of testing, clinical trials and manufacturing of Biopharmaceutical products under the authority of the Food and Drug Administration.

The course will examine the application of these regulations to the bioprocessing, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and allied industries. BIO with grade of a C – or higher Credits: Topics to be covered include cytogenetics, immunogenetics, molecular genetics, population genetics and quantitative genetics.

Computer simulations and demonstrations will present genetic principles. Students will utilize computerized databases to complete independent genomic search assignments. BIO L – Principles of Genetics Lab Laboratory exercises include both computer simulations and the use of living organisms to illustrate genetic principles and techniques.

Students will collect data utilizing standard genetics investigational techniques. BIO is a prerequisite OR a corequisite for this course. BIO – Introduction to Bioinformatics This course is intended to teach the basic tools used in bioinformatics in order to investigate biological questions.

Students will conduct independent projects utilizing existing computer programs and databases for gene searches, sequence comparisons, and phylogenetic analysis.

BIO – Cell Biology This course investigates how cells develop, work, communicate, and control their activities. At the completion of this course the student should be able to engage in the broad themes of cell and molecular biology, and to relate these concepts to other studies in biology and other disciplines.

BIO L – Cell Biology Lab This course introduces students to the theory and methodology of protocols routinely used in research laboratories investigating cell structure and function.

Students have the opportunity to use both common and high tech instruments to perform weekly laboratory exercises. Experimental design, controls and data presentation and analysis are emphasized.

BIO is a prerequisite OR a co-requisite for this course. Major diseases of economically important plants are emphasized. The disease process and disease cycles for representative pathogens are covered in relation to plant disease control methods.

BIO L – Essentials of Plant Pathology Lab The laboratory is designed to enable the student to acquire skills in collection and examination methods used for the diagnosis of plant diseases produced by biotic and abiotic agents, using microbial isolation and culturing techniques where applicable.

The student will learn to recognize and identify directly or indirectly biotic plant pathogens among the Plants, Animals, Fungi, Protists, Bacteria, Viruses and Viroids. BIO – Ecological Topics: The Structure and Function of Nature This course introduces students to basic ecological concepts as they relate to the biotic and abiotic environment.

It stresses the diversity of life and the impact that man, other organisms and environment have on each other. Laboratory exercises and field work will investigate the effects organisms have on each other as well as the effects of environmental conditions on growth and development.

Students will also characterize the nature of selected site s in terms of species diversity using plot sampling techniques. Seminar type discussions require individuals or small groups to explore environmental issues.

Topics for these discussions will be submitted to the instructor for appropriateness and approval. Students will be required to research and prepare a paper as well as make a presentation to the class.

The class will be given the opportunity to question each speaker following that individual’s presentation. BIO – Principles of Immunobiology Students will be introduced to basic concepts of innate and adaptive immunity.

They will study the cellular and non-cellular components of the immune system including molecules involved in the recognition, uptake, and clearance of antigenic material.

They will gain insight into how the immune system acts to eliminate bodily threats, functions to prevent unnecessary activity when threats are not present steady-state, and secures lack of immunity toward self-tissue tolerance.

Students will also review and discuss current scientific literature related to immunity and health. BIO – Neurology of Pain BIO is a comprehensive study of the various neurogenic mechanisms central to the study and understanding of pain is the focus of this lecture-based course.

In addition, Clinical neuroanatomy and physiology will be reviewed. Also, a broad base review will be aimed at exploring the psychodynamic components of pain.

This includes, but is not limited to topics in addiction, brain reward cascades, and arousal mechanisms. The final portion of this course includes discussion of the various methods of pain mitigation and measurement.

Strong clinical applications will be emphasized throughout the course. Students must submit a resume to the internship coordinator at least 3 months before registering for the course. BIO with a grade of B or higher.

BIO – Microbiology Based on contemporary applications of microbiology, this course is designed to present both fundamental concepts of microbial physiology and growth as well as microbial control measures ranging from asepsis to antibiosis.

The role of microorganisms in natural ecosystems, research, manufacturing and human infection will be explored, with emphasis on prokaryotic genetics and metabolism. Mechanisms of evolution will be discussed within the context of emerging pathogens and novel bioengineered organisms.

The dynamics between the human microbiome and resistance to infection will be presented along with basic epidemiological models. Lecture will cover viral strategies of invasion, viral lifecycles, viral offense and host defense, prevention and control of viral diseases, approaches for studying viruses and public health.

BIO – Principles of Immunobiology Immunobiology is a course in human immunology covering the concepts of innate and adaptive immunity and descriptions and functions of cellular and soluble factors involved in the immune response to eliminate infectious organisms.

Concepts include mechanism for regulation of the immune response, how the immune system learns to discriminate between self and non-self, induction and maintenance of immunological tolerance and the development of immunological memory.

BIO – Introduction to Molecular Biology A detailed introduction to molecular biology, the course covers the techniques common to all molecular biology such as nucleic acid separation and visualization, PCR blotting, and sequencing.

Each is presented from both the view of prokaryotes as well was eukaryotes. Scientific journal articles highlighting class topics will be used to supplement class lectures. BIO L 3,4 Credits: BIO – Forensic Molecular Biology This course explores advanced molecular biological techniques and concepts as they apply to the study of forensic investigation.

The course will cover background information on body fluid identification, DNA structure and function, analytical DNA techniques, and review advancements in the field of DNA typing.

The primary focus will be the molecular biological technique known as short tandem repeats STR testing. Other topics covered include case studies, sample handling, DNA databanking CODIS, mass disaster identification, Y chromosomal analysis, paternity testing, and validation procedures.

The laboratory component of this course will give the students hands-on experience in techniques and experiments that are currently being employed by forensic biology laboratories across the country.

BIO – Validation and Regulatory Affairs An introduction is provided to governmental oversight of drugs, devices and biotherapeutics, and the laws and regulations that apply to development, testing and validation of methods and equipment.

BIO – Topics in Biology A study of current discoveries and applications of biology, with emphasis on student participation and written assignments. Critical thinking will be developed concerning the validity of popular reports and extraordinary claims.

Ongoing discoveries in biology will be analyzed according to their contributions to the advancement of knowledge, their possible commercial medical, or agricultural applications, and ethical issues that they may arise.

Resources that will be utilized include current scientific literature, guest lectures, and the internet. BIO – Bioscience Senior Seminar The capstone course in the Bioscience Program, utilizes guest speakers and student literature searches to explore the state of the entire field of Bioscience.

Each student is required to write a paper on an approved topic in the field of Bioscience based on primary sources in the scientific literature, and to present a seminar at which the student will defend his or her correlations and conclusions about the topic.

BIO W – Bioscience Senior Seminar Writing Intensive The capstone course in the Bioscience program, utilizes guest speakers and student literature searches to explore the state of the entire field of Bioscience.

Each student is required to write a paper on an approval topic in the field of Bioscience based on primary sources in the scientific literature, and to present a seminar at which the student will defend his or her correlations and conclusions about the topic.

BIO L – Bioscience Internship A1 Bioscience majors may be recommended for or invited into one or more assignments in the Bioscience Internship Series, with the course number selected according to the length of the internship and whether it is a first or subsequent internship.

BIO L – Bioscience Internship A2 Bioscience majors may be recommended for or invited into one or more assignments in the Bioscience Internship Series, with the course number selected according to the length of the internship and whether it is a first or subsequent internship.

Previous Internship with a grade of B or higher, Biology faculty recommendation or invitation. You can download them separately at https: As with all things there must be a beginning and so it is with Wireshark.

To use Wireshark you must first install it. If you are running Windows or macOS you can download an official release at https: If you are running another operating system such as Linux or FreeBSD you might want to install from source.

Several Linux distributions offer Wireshark packages but they commonly ship out-of-date versions. For that reason, you will need to know where to get the latest version of Wireshark and how to install it.

This chapter shows you how to obtain source and binary packages and how to build Wireshark from source should you choose to do so. You can obtain both source and binary distributions from the Wireshark web site: Select the download link and then select the desired binary or source package.

If you are building Wireshark from source you will In general, unless you have already downloaded Wireshark before, you will most likely need to download several source packages if you are building Wireshark from source.

This is covered in more detail below. Windows installer names contain the platform and version. The Wireshark installer includes WinPcap which is required for packet capture. Simply download the Wireshark installer from https: Official packages are signed by the Wireshark Foundation.

You can choose to install several optional components and select the location of the installed package. The default settings are recommended for most users.

On the Choose Components page of the installer you can select from the following:. Tools – Additional command line tools to work with capture files. This expands to C: By default the latest version of WinPcap will be installed.

For more information about WinPcap see https: As mentioned above, the Wireshark installer takes care of installing WinPcap. The following is only necessary if you want to use a different version than the one included in the Wireshark installer, e.

Additional WinPcap versions including newer alpha or beta releases can be downloaded from the main WinPcap site at https: The Installer for Windows supports modern Windows operating systems.

By default the offical Windows package will check for new versions and notify you when they are available. If you have the Check for updates preference disabled or if you run Wireshark in an isolated environment you should subcribe to the wireshark-announce mailing list.

New versions of Wireshark are usually released every four to six weeks. Updating Wireshark is done the same way as installing it. Simply download and start the installer exe. A reboot is usually not required and all your personal settings remain unchanged.

New versions of WinPcap are less frequently available. You will find WinPcap update instructions the WinPcap web site at https: You may have to reboot your machine after installing a new WinPcap version.

You can uninstall Wireshark using the Programs and Features control panel. The Wireshark uninstaller provides several options for removal. The default is to remove the core components but keep your personal settings and WinPcap.

WinPcap is left installed by default in case other programs need it. The official macOS packages are distributed as disk images. To install Wireshark simply open the disk image and run the enclosed installer.

The installer package includes Wireshark, its related command line utilities, and a launch daemon that adjusts capture permissions at system startup. See the included Read me first file for more details.

Building Wireshark requires the proper build environment including a compiler and many supporting libraries. Unpack the source from its compressed tar file. Configure your source so it will build correctly for your version of UNIX.

You can do this with the following command:. If this step fails you will have to rectify the problems and rerun configure. Once you have installed Wireshark with make install above, you should be able to run it by entering wireshark.

Many distributions use yum or a similar package management tool to make installation of software including its dependencies easier. If your distribution uses yum, use the following command to install Wireshark together with the Qt GUI:.

If the above command fails because of missing dependencies, install the dependencies first, and then retry the step above. Use the following command to install Wireshark under Gentoo Linux with all of the extra features:.

A number of errors can occur during the installation process. Some hints on solving these are provided here. If the configure stage fails you will need to find out why. You can check the file config.

The last few lines of this file should help in determining the problem. You need to install its development package as well. If you cannot determine what the problems are, send an email to the wireshark-dev mailing list explaining your problem.

Include the output from config. We strongly recommended that you use the binary installer for Windows unless you want to start developing Wireshark on the Windows platform. You may also want to have a look at the Development Wiki https: By now you have installed Wireshark and are most likely keen to get started capturing your first packets.

In the next chapters we will explore:. In the following chapters a lot of screenshots from Wireshark will be shown. As Wireshark runs on many different platforms with many different window managers, different styles applied and there are different versions of the underlying GUI toolkit used, your screen might look different from the provided screenshots.

But as there are no real differences in functionality these screenshots should still be well understandable. The layout of the main window can be customized by changing preference settings. Packet list and detail navigation can be done entirely from the keyboard.

In the packet detail, closes the selected tree item. Additionally, typing anywhere in the main window will start filling in a display filter. Most common menu items have keyboard shortcuts.

This shows the file open dialog box that allows you to load a capture file for viewing. This lets you open recently opened capture files. Clicking on one of the submenu items will open the corresponding capture file directly.

This menu item lets you merge a capture file into the currently loaded one. This menu item brings up the import file dialog box that allows you to import a text file containing a hex dump into a new temporary capture.

This menu item closes the current capture. This menu item saves the current capture. You cannot save a live capture while the capture is in progress. You must stop the capture in order to save. This menu item allows you to save the current capture file to whatever file you would like.

This menu item allows you to show a list of files in a file set. If the currently loaded file is part of a file set, jump to the next file in the set. If the currently loaded file is part of a file set, jump to the previous file in the set.

This menu item allows you to export all or some of the packets in the capture file to file. These menu items allow you to export the currently selected bytes in the packet bytes pane to a text file file in a number of formats including plain, CSV, and XML.

This menu item allows you to print all or some of the packets in the capture file. This menu item allows you to quit from Wireshark. These menu items will copy the packet list, packet detail, or properties of the currently selected packet to the clipboard.

This menu item brings up a toolbar that allows you to find a packet by many criteria. This menu item marks the currently selected packet. This menu item marks the currently selected packet as ignored.

This menu item set a time reference on the currently selected packet. This will show the Time Shift dialog, which allows you to adjust the timestamps of some or all packets.

This will let you add a comment to a single packet. Note that the ability to save packet comments depends on your file format. This will let you add a capture comment.

Note that the ability to save capture comments depends on your file format. This menu item brings up a dialog box for handling configuration profiles. This menu item brings up a dialog box that allows you to set preferences for many parameters that control Wireshark.

You can also save your preferences so Wireshark will use them the next time you start it. Selecting this tells Wireshark to display time stamps in seconds since This item allows you to specify that Wireshark should scroll the packet list pane as new packets come in, so you are always looking at the last packet.

If you do not specify this, Wireshark simply adds new packets onto the end of the list, but does not scroll the packet list pane. This menu items folds out with a list of all configured columns.

These columns can now be shown or hidden in the packet list. Wireshark keeps a list of all the protocol subtrees that are expanded, and uses it to ensure that the correct subtrees are expanded when you display a packet.

This menu item expands all subtrees in all packets in the capture. This menu item brings up a submenu that allows you to color packets in the packet list pane based on the addresses of the currently selected packet.

This makes it easy to distinguish packets belonging to different conversations. These menu items enable one of the ten temporary color filters based on the currently selected conversation. This menu item opens a dialog window in which a new permanent coloring rule can be created based on the currently selected conversation.

This menu item brings up a dialog box that allows you to color packets in the packet list pane according to filter expressions you choose. This menu item brings up the selected packet in a separate window.

The separate window shows only the tree view and byte view panes. Jump to the recently visited packet in the packet history, much like the page history in a web browser. Jump to the next visited packet in the packet history, much like the page history in a web browser.

Bring up a window frame that allows you to specify a packet number, and then goes to that packet. Go to the corresponding packet of the currently selected protocol field.

Move to the previous packet in the list. Move to the next packet in the list. Move to the previous packet in the current conversation. Move to the next packet in the current conversation.

This menu item stops the currently running capture and starts again with the same options, this is just for convenience. This menu item brings up a dialog box that allows you to create and edit capture filters.

You can name filters, and you can save them for future use. This menu item brings up a dialog box that allows you to create and edit display filters. This menu item brings up a dialog box that allows you to create and edit display filter macros.

You can name filter macros, and you can save them for future use. This menu item adds the selected protocol item in the packet details pane as a column to the packet list. These menu items will change the current display filter and apply the changed filter immediately.

Depending on the chosen menu item, the current display filter string will be replaced or appended to by the selected protocol field in the packet details pane. Open a dialog showing some expert information about the captured packets.

The amount of information will depend on the protocol and varies from very detailed to non-existent. XXX – add a new section about this and link from here. Display user specified graphs e.

All menu items will bring up a new window showing specific telephony related statistical information. These options allow you to work with the Lua interpreter optionally build into Wireshark.

This menu item starts a Web browser showing the webpage from: This menu item starts a Web browser showing the downloads from: This menu item starts a Web browser showing the front page from: This menu item starts a Web browser showing the sample captures from: Opening a Web browser might be unsupported in your version of Wireshark.

If this is the case the corresponding menu items will be hidden. If calling a Web browser fails on your machine, nothing happens, or the browser starts but no page is shown, have a look at the web browser setting in the preferences dialog.

The main toolbar provides quick access to frequently used items from the menu. This toolbar cannot be customized by the user, but it can be hidden using the View menu, if the space on the screen is needed to show even more packet data.

As in the menu, only the items useful in the current program state will be available. The others will be greyed out e. This item stops the currently running live capture process and restarts it again, for convenience.

This item brings up the file open dialog box that allows you to load a capture file for viewing. This item allows you to save the current capture file to whatever file you would like.

This item closes the current capture. If you have not saved the capture, you will be asked to save it first. This item allows you to print all or some of the packets in the capture file.

This item brings up a dialog box that allows you to find a packet. This item jumps back in the packet history. Hold down the Alt key Option on macOS to go back in the selection history. This item jumps forward in the packet history.

Hold down the Alt key Option on macOS to go forward in the selection history. This item brings up a dialog box that allows you to specify a packet number to go to that packet. This item brings up a dialog box that allows you to create and edit capture filters.

This item brings up a dialog box that allows you to create and edit display filters. This item brings up a dialog box that allows you to color packets in the packet list pane according to filter expressions you choose.

It can be very useful for spotting certain types of packets. This item brings up a dialog box that allows you to set preferences for many parameters that control Wireshark. The filter toolbar lets you quickly edit and apply display filters.

A syntax check of your filter string is done while you are typing. The background will turn red if you enter an incomplete or invalid string, and will become green when you enter a valid string.

You can click on the pull down arrow to select a previously-entered filter string from a list. The entries in the pull down list will remain available even after a program restart. Each line in the packet list corresponds to one packet in the capture file.

While dissecting a packet, Wireshark will place information from the protocol dissectors into the columns. As higher level protocols might overwrite information from lower levels, you will typically see the information from the highest possible level only.

The Ethernet dissector will write its data such as the Ethernet addresses, the IP dissector will overwrite this by its own such as the IP addresses, the TCP dissector will overwrite the IP information, and so on.

There are a lot of different columns available. The first column shows how each packet is related to the selected packet. For example, in the image above the first packet is selected, which is a DNS request.

Wireshark shows a rightward arrow for the request itself, followed by a leftward arrow for the response in packet 2. Why is there a dashed line? There are more DNS packets further down that use the same port numbers.

Wireshark treats them as belonging to the same conversation and draws a line connecting them. The packet list has an Intelligent Scrollbar which shows a miniature map of nearby packets.

Each raster line of the scrollbar corresponds to a single packet, so the number of packets shown in the map depends on your physical display and the height of the packet list. In the image above the scrollbar shows the status of more than packets along with the 15 shown in the packet list itself.

The protocols and fields of the packet shown in a tree which can be expanded and collapsed. There is a context menu right mouse click available. Depending on the packet data, sometimes more than one page is available, e.

In this case you can see each data source by clicking its corresponding tab at the bottom of the pane. The context menu right mouse click of the tab labels will show a list of all available pages.

This can be helpful if the size in the pane is too small for all the tab labels. In general, the left side will show context related information, the middle part will show information about the current capture file, and the right side will show the selected configuration profile.

Drag the handles between the text areas to change the size. The middle part shows the current number of packets in the capture file. The following values are displayed:.

This is displayed if you are trying to use a display filter which may have unexpected results. Setting up Wireshark to capture packets for the first time can be tricky. If you have any problems setting up your capture environment you should have a look at the guide mentioned above.

This will start Wireshark capturing on interface eth0. This dialog box will only show the local interfaces Wireshark can access. As Wireshark might not be able to detect all local interfaces and it cannot detect the remote interfaces available there could be more capture interfaces available than listed.

If you are unsure which options to choose in this dialog box just try keeping the defaults as this should work well in many cases. By marking the checkboxes in the first column the interfaces are selected to be captured from.

This field allows you to specify a capture filter for all interfaces that are currently selected. Once a filter has been entered in this field, the newly selected interfaces will inherit the filter.

It defaults to empty, or no filter. To make the change persistent you can use sysfsutils. This field allows you to specify the file name that will be used for the capture file.

This field is left blank by default. If the field is left blank, the capture data will be stored in a temporary file. You can also click on the button to the right of this field to browse through the filesystem.

Once you have set the values you desire and have selected the options you need, simply click on Start to commence the capture or Cancel to cancel the capture.

If some other process has put the interface in promiscuous mode you may be capturing in promiscuous mode even if you turn off this option. See the Wireshark FAQ for more information.

This field allows you to specify the maximum amount of data that will be captured for each packet, and is sometimes referred to as the snaplen. If disabled the value is set to the maximum which will be sufficient for most protocols.

Some rules of thumb:. This field allows you to specify a capture filter. In the left window the interface names are listed. The results of an individual interface are shown in the right window when it is selected.

As a central point to manage interfaces this dialog box consists of three tabs to add or remove interfaces. To successfully add a pipe, this pipe must have already been created.

Click the New button and type the name of the pipe including its path. Alternatively, the Browse button can be used to locate the pipe. With the Save button the pipe is added to the list of available interfaces.

Afterwards, other pipes can be added. To remove a pipe from the list of interfaces it first has to be selected. Then click the Delete button. If a new local interface is added, for example, a wireless interface has been activated, it is not automatically added to the list to prevent the constant scanning for a change in the list of available interfaces.

To renew the list a rescan can be done. One way to hide an interface is to change the preferences. The changes are also saved in the preferences file. In this tab interfaces on remote hosts can be added.

One or more of these interfaces can be hidden. In contrast to the local interfaces they are not saved in the preferences file. To remove a host including all its interfaces from the list, it has to be selected.

Besides doing capture on local interfaces Wireshark is capable of reaching out across the network to a so called capture daemon or service processes to receive captured data from. This dialog and capability is only available on Microsoft Windows.

The Remote Packet Capture Protocol service must first be running on the target platform before Wireshark can connect to it. The easiest way is to install WinPcap from https: Once installation is completed go to the Services control panel, find the Remote Packet Capture Protocol service and start it.

Make sure you have outside access to port on the target platform. This is the port where the Remote Packet Capture Protocol service can be reached by default. The remote capture can be further fine tuned to match your situation.

The recursion in this saturates the link with duplicate traffic. You only should switch this off when capturing on an interface other than the interface connecting back to Wireshark.

This dialog shows various characteristics and statistics for the selected interface. While capturing the underlying libpcap capturing engine will grab the packets from the network card and keep the packet data in a relatively small kernel buffer.

This data is read by Wireshark and saved into a capture file. By default Wireshark saves packets to a temporary file. Working with large files several hundred MB can be quite slow. This will spread the captured packets over several smaller files which can be much more pleasant to work with.

Using Multiple files may cut context related information. Wireshark keeps context information of the loaded packet data, so it can report context related problems like a stream error and keeps information about context related protocols e.

As it keeps this information only for the loaded file, using one of the multiple file modes may cut these contexts. If the establishing phase is saved in one file and the things you would like to see is in another, you might not see some of the valuable context related information.

If you are capturing on an Wireshark uses the libpcap filter language for capture filters. A brief overview of the syntax follows. Complete documentation can be found in the pcap-filter man page.

You can find a lot of Capture Filter examples at https: A capture filter for telnet that captures traffic to and from a particular host. This example captures telnet traffic to and from the host You can optionally precede this primitive with the keywords src dst and tcp udp which allow you to specify that you are only interested in source or destination ports and TCP or UDP packets respectively.

The keywords tcp udp must appear before src dst. If these are not specified, packets will be selected for both the TCP and UDP protocols and when the specified address appears in either the source or destination port field.

If Wireshark is running remotely using e. A running capture session can be restarted with the same capture options as the last time, this will remove all packets previously captured. Restart is a convenience function and equivalent to a capture stop following by an immediate capture start.

A restart can be triggered in one of the following ways:. Wireshark can read in previously saved capture files. However, drag-and-drop may not be available in all desktop environments.

This warning can be disabled in the preferences. In addition to its native file format pcapng, Wireshark can read and write capture files from a large number of other packet capture programs as well.

The appearance of this dialog depends on the system. However, the functionality should be the same across systems. You can change the display filter and name resolution settings later while viewing the packets.

However, loading huge capture files can take a significant amount of extra time if these settings are changed later, so in such situations it can be a good idea to set at least the filter in advance here.

It may not be possible to read some formats dependent on the packet types captured. Ethernet captures are usually supported for most file formats but it may not be possible to read other packet types such as PPP or IEEE You can choose which packets to save and which file format to be used.

Not all information will be saved in a capture file. The following sections show some examples of this dialog box. You can convert capture files from one format to another by reading in a capture file and writing it out using a different format.

Wireshark can save the packet data in its native file format pcapng and in the file formats of other protocol analyzers so other tools can read the capture data.

Some other protocol analyzers only look at a filename extensions. For example, you might need to use the. Sometimes you need to merge several capture files into one. For example, this can be useful if you have captured simultaneously from multiple interfaces at once e.

This dialog box let you select a file to be merged into the currently loaded file. If your current data has not been saved you will be asked to save it first. Wireshark can read in an ASCII hex dump and write the data described into a temporary libpcap capture file.

It can read hex dumps with multiple packets in them, and build a capture file of multiple packets. Wireshark understands a hexdump of the form generated by od – Ax – tx1 – v.

In other words, each byte is individually displayed and surrounded with a space. Each line begins with an offset describing the position in the file. The offset is a hex number can also be octal or decimal, of more than two hex digits.

Here is a sample dump that can be imported:. There is no limit on the width or number of bytes per line. Also the text dump at the end of the line is ignored. Byte and hex numbers can be uppercase or lowercase.

Any lines of text between the bytestring lines are ignored. The offsets are used to track the bytes, so offsets must be correct. Any line which has only bytes without a leading offset is ignored.

An offset is recognized as being a hex number longer than two characters. Any text after the bytes is ignored e. Any hex numbers in this text are also ignored. An offset of zero is indicative of starting a new packet, so a single text file with a series of hexdumps can be converted into a packet capture with multiple packets.

Packets may be preceded by a timestamp. These are interpreted according to the format given. If not the first packet is timestamped with the current time the import takes place.

Multiple packets are read in with timestamps differing by one microsecond each. In general, short of these restrictions, Wireshark is pretty liberal about reading in hexdumps and has been tested with a variety of mangled outputs including being forwarded through email multiple times, with limited line wrap etc.

There are a couple of other special features to note. Any line where the first non-whitespace character is will be ignored as a comment. Currently there are no directives implemented.

In the future these may be used to give more fine grained control on the dump and the way it should be processed e. Wireshark also allows the user to read in dumps of application-level data, by inserting dummy L2, L3 and L4 headers before each packet.

This allows Wireshark or any other full-packet decoder to handle these dumps. This dialog box lets you select a text file, containing a hex dump of packet data, to be imported and set import parameters.

Once all input and import parameters are setup click OK to start the import. When completed there will be a new capture file loaded with the frames imported from the text file.

As it can become tedious to work with a file set by hand, Wireshark provides some features to handle these file sets in a convenient way. All files of a file set share the same prefix e.

To find the files of a file set, Wireshark scans the directory where the currently loaded file resides and checks for files matching the filename pattern prefix and suffix of the currently loaded file.

This simple mechanism usually works well but has its drawbacks. If several file sets were captured with the same prefix and suffix, Wireshark will detect them as a single file set.

If files were renamed or spread over several directories the mechanism will fail to find all files of a set. The last line will contain info about the currently used directory where all of the files in the file set can be found.

Wireshark provides several ways and formats to export packet data. This section describes general ways to export data from the main Wireshark application. There are more specialized functions to export specific data which are described elsewhere.

If you would like to be able to import any previously exported packets from a plain text file it is recommended that you:. Export packet data into PSML.

This is an XML based format including only the packet summary. The PSML file specification is available at: Export packet data into PDML. This is an XML based format including the packet details.

The PDML file specification is available at: This feature scans through HTTP streams in the currently open capture file or running capture and takes reassembled objects such as HTML documents, image files, executables and anything else that can be transferred over HTTP and lets you save them to disk.

If you have a capture running, this list is automatically updated every few seconds with any new objects seen. The saved objects can then be opened with the proper viewer or executed in the case of executables if it is for the same platform you are running Wireshark on without any further work on your part.

This field is where you enter the file to print to if you have selected Print to a file, or you can click the button to browse the filesystem. It is greyed out if Print to a file is not selected.

Print command specifies that a command be used for printing. These Print command fields are not available on windows platforms. This field specifies the command to use for printing.

It is typically lpr. You would change it to specify a particular queue if you need to print to a queue other than the default. An example might be:. This field is greyed out if Output to file: The packet range frame is a part of various output related dialog boxes.

It provides options to select which packets should be processed by the output function. If the Captured button is set default, all packets from the selected rule will be processed. If the Displayed button is set, only the currently displayed packets are taken into account to the selected rule.

The packet format frame is a part of various output related dialog boxes. It provides options to select which parts of a packet should be used for the output function.

Once you have captured some packets or you have opened a previously saved capture file, you can view the packets that are displayed in the packet list pane by simply clicking on a packet in the packet list pane, which will bring up the selected packet in the tree view and byte view panes.

You can then expand any part of the tree to view detailed information about each protocol in each packet. Clicking on an item in the tree will highlight the corresponding bytes in the byte view. It also has the Acknowledgment number in the TCP header selected, which shows up in the byte view as the selected bytes.

This allows you to easily compare two or more packets, even across multiple files. Along with double-clicking the packet list and using the main menu there are a number of other ways to open a new packet window:.

The following table gives an overview of which functions are available in this header, where to find the corresponding function in the main menu, and a short description of each item.

The following table gives an overview of which functions are available in this pane, where to find the corresponding function in the main menu, and a short description of each item. This menu item applies a display filter with the address information from the selected packet.

XXX – add a new section describing this better. This menu item uses a display filter with the address information from the selected packet to build a new colorizing rule. Prepare a display filter based on the currently selected item and copy that filter to the clipboard.

Copy the packet bytes to the clipboard as raw binary. This menu item collapses the tree view of all packets in the capture list. This menu item uses a display filter with the information from the selected protocol item to build a new colorizing rule.

Copy the packet bytes to the clipboard in hexdump-like format; similar to the Packet List Pane command, but copies only the bytes relevant to the selected part of the tree the bytes selected in the Packet Bytes Pane.

Copy the packet bytes to the clipboard in hexdump-like format, but without the text portion; similar to the Packet List Pane command, but copies only the bytes relevant to the selected part of the tree the bytes selected in the Packet Bytes Pane.

Copy the packet bytes to the clipboard as ASCII text, excluding non-printable characters; similar to the Packet List Pane command, but copies only the bytes relevant to the selected part of the tree the bytes selected in the Packet Bytes Pane.

Copy the packet bytes to the clipboard as an unpunctuated list of hex digits; similar to the Packet List Pane command, but copies only the bytes relevant to the selected part of the tree the bytes selected in the Packet Bytes Pane.

Copy the packet bytes to the clipboard as raw binary; similar to the Packet List Pane command, but copies only the bytes relevant to the selected part of the tree the bytes selected in the Packet Bytes Pane.

This menu item is the same as the File menu item of the same name. It allows you to export raw packet bytes to a binary file. Show the filter field reference web page corresponding to the currently selected protocol in your web browser.

The menu item takes you to the properties dialog and selects the page corresponding to the protocol if there are properties associated with the highlighted field. Allows you to temporarily disable a protocol dissector, which may be blocking the legitimate dissector.

Causes a name resolution to be performed for the selected packet, but NOT every packet in the capture. If the selected field has a corresponding packet, go to it.

Wireshark has two filtering languages: One used when capturing packets, and one used when displaying packets. In this section we explore that second type of filter: Display filters allow you to concentrate on the packets you are interested in while hiding the currently uninteresting ones.

They allow you to select packets by:. To select packets based on protocol type, simply type the protocol in which you are interested in the Filter: All protocol and field names are entered in lowercase.

As you might have noticed, only packets of the TCP protocol are displayed now e. The packet numbering will remain as before, so the first packet shown is now packet number When using a display filter, all packets remain in the capture file.

The display filter only changes the display of the capture file but not its content! You can filter on any protocol that Wireshark understands. You can also filter on any field that a dissector adds to the tree view, but only if the dissector has added an abbreviation for the field.

For example, to narrow the packet list pane down to only those packets to or from the IP address To remove the filter, click on the Clear button to the right of the filter field.

Wireshark provides a simple but powerful display filter language that allows you to build quite complex filter expressions. You can compare values in packets as well as combine expressions into more specific expressions.

The following sections provide more information on doing this. Every field in the packet details pane can be used as a filter string, this will result in showing only the packets where this field exists.

You can build display filters that compare values using a number of different comparison operators. You can use English and C-like terms in the same way, they can even be mixed in a filter string.

Protocol or text field match Perl regualar expression. In addition, all protocol fields have a type. Display Filter Field Types provides a list of the types and example of how to express them.

Can be 8, 16, 24, 32, or 64 bits. You can express integers in decimal, octal, or hexadecimal. The following display filters are equivalent:. A boolean field is present in the protocol decode only if its value is true.

The example above match packets that contains the 3-byte sequence 0x81, 0x60, 0x03 anywhere in the UDP header or payload. Above example match packets where SIP To-header contains the string “a” anywhere in the header.

Wireshark needs to be built with libpcre in order to be able to use the matches resp. Wireshark allows you to select subsequences of a sequence in rather elaborate ways. After a label you can place a pair of brackets [] containing a comma separated list of range specifiers.

The example above uses the n: In this case n is the beginning offset and m is the length of the range being specified. The example above uses the n-m format to specify a single range.

In this case n is the beginning offset and m is the ending offset. The example above uses the: It is equivalent to 0: The example above uses the n format to specify a single range.

In this case the element in the sequence at offset n is selected. This is equivalent to n: Wireshark allows you to string together single ranges in a comma separated list to form compound ranges as shown above.

Wireshark allows you to test a field for membership in a set of values or fields. This can be considered a shortcut operator, as the previous expression could have been expressed as:.

Often people use a filter string to display something like ip. Then they use ip. Unfortunately, this does not do the expected. Instead, that expression will even be true for packets where either source or destination IP address equals 1.

The reason for this, is that the expression ip. As an IP datagram contains both a source and a destination address, the expression will evaluate to true whenever at least one of the two addresses differs from 1.

If you want to filter out all packets containing IP datagrams to or from IP address 1. However if you are new to Wireshark or are working with a slightly unfamiliar protocol it can be very confusing to try to figure out what to type.

When you first bring up the Filter Expression dialog box you are shown a tree of field names, organized by protocol, and a box for selecting a relation. You can define filters with Wireshark and give them labels for later use.

This can save time in remembering and retyping some of the more complex filters you use. The mechanisms for defining and saving capture filters and display filters are almost identical.

Both will be described here but the differences between these two will be marked as such. You must use Save to save your filters permanently. OK or Apply will not save the filters and they will be lost when you close Wireshark.

The filter name will only be used in this dialog to identify the filter for your convenience, it will not be used elsewhere. You can add multiple filters with the same name, but this is not very useful.

You can define filter macros with Wireshark and give them labels for later use. You can easily find packets once you have captured some packets or have read in a previously saved capture file. Simply enter a display filter string into the Filter: For example, to find the three way handshake for a connection from host The value to be found will be syntax checked while you type it in.

If the syntax check of your value succeeds, the background of the entry field will turn green, if it fails, it will turn red. This dialog box will let you enter a packet number.

When you press OK, Wireshark will jump to that packet. If a protocol field is selected which points to another packet in the capture file, this command will jump to that packet.

A marked packet will be shown with black background, regardless of the coloring rules set. Marking a packet can be useful to find it later while analyzing in a large capture file.

The packet marks are not stored in the capture file or anywhere else. All packet marks will be lost when you close the capture file. You can use packet marking to control the output of packets when saving, exporting, or printing.

Wireshark will then pretend that this packets does not exist in the capture file. An ignored packet will be shown with white background and gray foreground, regardless of the coloring rules set. The packet ignored marks are not stored in the capture file or anywhere else.

While packets are captured, each packet is timestamped. These timestamps will be saved to the capture file, so they will be available for later analysis.

A detailed description of timestamps, timezones and alike can be found at: If you use Seconds it would show simply 1 and if you use Nanoseconds it shows 1. The user can set time references to packets.

A time reference is the starting point for all subsequent packet time calculations. It will be useful, if you want to see the time values relative to a special packet, e.

The time references will not be saved permanently and will be lost when you close the capture file. If one of the other time display formats are used, time referencing will have no effect and will make no sense either.

All subsequent packets will show the time since the last time reference. If you are working with TCP based protocols it can be very helpful to see the data from a TCP stream in the way that the application layer sees it.

Perhaps you are looking for passwords in a Telnet stream, or you are trying to make sense of a data stream. Maybe you just need a display filter to show only the packets of that TCP stream.

The stream content is displayed in the same sequence as it appeared on the network. Traffic from A to B is marked in red, while traffic from B to A is marked in blue. If a selected packet field does not show all the bytes i.

This dialog can also be used to decode field bytes from base64, zlib compressed or quoted-printable and show the decoded bytes as configurable output. This allows you to see all the data.

This will require a lot of screen space and is best used with binary protocols. This allows you to see all the data formatted as a HTML document. This will try to convert the bytes into an image.

This allows you to load the unaltered stream data into a different program for further examination. The amount of expert infos largely depends on the protocol being used. The following will first describe the components of a single expert info, then the User Interface.

Every expert info has a specific severity level. The following severity levels are used, in parentheses are the colors in which the items will be marked in the GUI:.

An easy and quick way to find the most interesting infos rather than using the Details tab, is to have a look at the separate tabs for each severity level. There are usually a lot of identical expert infos only differing in the packet number.

These identical infos will be combined into a single line – with a count column showing how often they appeared in the capture file. Clicking on the plus sign shows the individual packet numbers in a tree view.

As the amount of expert infos for a capture file can easily become very large, getting an idea of the interesting infos with this view can take quite a while. The advantage of this tab is to have all entries in the sequence as they appeared, this is sometimes a help to pinpoint problems.

The protocol field causing an expert info is colorized, e. To easier find that item in the packet tree, the IP protocol toplevel item is marked cyan as well.

Laboratory activities are performed to provide relevant hands-on experience to the students. Also engine aspiration, combustion using the principles of fluid dynamics and thermodynamics, volumetric efficiency and fuel metering systems will be discussed in this course.

AET – Combustion Engine Theory This is a theory course designed to introduce the student to basic heat engine types, their physical configurations and various engine operating cycles. Engine-vehicle performance parameters are analyzed, utilizing individual and group problem solving techniques.

Topics discussed include engine aspiration and combustion using the principles of fluid dynamics and thermodynamics as they apply to the intake, exhaust, volumetric efficiency and fuel metering systems.

Performance characteristics of SI Engines utilizing alternate types of fuels are also examined. Related laboratory activities and demonstrations are included in the required laboratory section AETL.

Topics will include a study of the vehicle frame, suspension, steering, wheels, tires and braking systems. Emphasis is directed to the analysis of the vehicle’s systems during operation.

Topics will include the design, construction, inspection techniques, and service and associated repair operations of the drivetrain and driveaxle components. The topics will include clutches, propeller shafts, universal joints, CV joints, manual transmissions, differentials and other components used in both front and rear wheel drive systems.

Related laboratory activities and demonstrations are included in the required laboratory section. AET – Automotive Electrical Principles This is an automotive theory course designed to introduce students to basic automotive-oriented electrical principles as they relate to both A.

Topics include a thorough introduction to personal computers, instruction in and development of basic programming. Students will be required to develop basic programs for technical automotive problem solving and practical automotive applications.

Extensive use of the computer laboratory will be provided in the required laboratory section AETL. The course also covers automotive electrical and electronic systems and their application.

The student is required to utilize and understand the operation of various types of electronic equipment, including both computerized engine and emissions analyzers. Related laboratory activities and demonstrations are included in the required laboratory section AET L.

Topics will include the study of current high-pressure diesel fuel-injection systems and the diesel engine combustion process with respect to fuel injection and combustion changer design.

Specific examination of design and performance characteristics of diesel engine air induction, scavenging, supercharging and turbo-charging systems will be covered. Students will also analyze engine governing methods and devices necessary for control, as well as current methods and devices utilized in solving common diesel engine starting problems.

Relevant laboratory activities and demonstrations are provided to support the trainings provided during the lecture hours. Topics will include examination of industrial methods of testing, analysis and reporting in the areas of pressure, temperature, speed time and velocity, fluid flow and exhaust emissions and the testing of common fuels and lubricants.

Also included is the evaluation of a series of gasoline engine performance tests and their resulting data, including computer programmed computation and graphical analysis of the completed testing, as presented in a student developed technical paper.

Typical engineering measurement instruments and devices will be encountered and utilized in laboratory support of the course AETL. AET – Applied Mechanics and Engineering Materials This course is designed to introduce the fundamental principles of applied engineering mechanics and materials.

Topics include forces, couples, equilibrium, friction, kinematics of rectilinear and rotational motion, work, energy and power. Principles and applications of hydraulics are also discussed.

Engineering materials topics include classifications, structure, properties, phase transformation and heat treatment of metals, inspection and testing techniques of automotive engineering materials.

Related problem-solving activities are included. Topics covered are casting, cold and hot metal forming, machining and joining processes. Related laboratory activities include projects and experiments with technical reports.

Individual laboratory projects will be assigned to each student to reinforce the topics covered in the theory. Students completing this course may not receive credit for MET The course includes computerized fuel and emission control systems, with emphasis on the diagnosis of basic engine malfunctions.

The student will also analyze the principles and operation of feedback type systems. Electronic diagnostic equipment is used to identify system malfunctions in order to indicate necessary corrective actions.

Laboratory activities provide an opportunity for a practical application of diagnostic procedures on current vehicles which is covered in the laboratory section AETL. Topics covered include applications of the principles of the planetary gear systems, fluids, seals, hydrodynamic drives, hydraulic controls and application devices.

The power flow within selected automatic transmissions is discussed and is supported with related activities in the required laboratory section AETL. AET – Project Seminar This course is designed to provide the student with the challenge of an independent project.

This project must be related to the automotive field. The student is responsible for the original project concept, which must be supported by preliminary, progress and final technical reports.

A video-taped oral presentation is also required. This is a writing-intensive course. EGL with a grade of C or higher Credits: AET – Senior Project An independent investigation of a technical or managerial problem of interest to both the student and a faculty member who shall act as Project Advisor.

The project selected will utilize skills and knowledge acquired in earlier AET studies. Senior status and permission of the Department Chair Credits: AET W – Senior Project – Writing Intensive An independent investigation of a technical or managerial problem of interest to both the student and a faculty member who shall act as Project Advisor.

This is a writing intensive course. AET – Special Topics: Internship Selected topics of current interest in Automotive Engineering Technology. Air Force I This is a survey course designed to introduce students to the United States Air Force and provides an overview of the basic characteristics, missions, and organization of the Air Force.

The course covers the history and structure of the US Air Force, the Air Force’s capabilities, career opportunities, benefits, and Air Force installations. Air and Space Power I This course features topics on Air Force heritage and leaders; introduction to air power through examination of the Air Force Core Functions; and continued application of communication skills.

Its purpose is to instill an appreciation of the development and employment of air power. AFR – Air Force Leadership and Management I This course is a study of leadership, management, professional knowledge, Air Force personnel and evaluation systems, leadership ethics, evaluation systems, and the communication skills required of an Air Force junior officer.

Case studies are used to examine Air Force leadership and management situations as a means of demonstrating and exercising practical applications of the concepts being studied.

Special topics of interest focus on the military as a profession, officer ship, military justice, civilian control of the military, preparation for active duty, and current issues affecting military professionalism.

Within this structure, continued emphasis is given to refining communication skills. This course offers an introduction to its four major sub-fields, namely; Physical or Biological anthropology human evolution, the fossil record, ethology ; Archaeology extinct cultures, classical civilizations, pre-history ; Linguistics language origins, development, diffusion, structure, and change ; Sociocultural Anthropology pioneers in the field, cross-cultural research, case studies, and the future.

By focusing on the broad cultural implications and complexities of social communication and interaction, anthropology seeks to understand the whole human experience. ANT – Sociocultural Anthropology Sociocultural Anthropology is concerned with examination of the social and cultural similarities and differences in the world’s human populations.

Subsistence patterns, social organization, economic structures, political systems, religion and creative behavior are the major areas we cover. By examining examples ranging from small gathering and hunting groups to large modern day communities, this course provides a broad perspective of the sociocultural realities of our world.

ANT – Archaeology Archaeology is the study of the cultural evolution of humankind using the material remains of past human behavior. This course introduces the methods, logic and history of archaeology through an examination of several ancient civilizations as understood through their architecture and artifacts.

Topics include theoretical issues, fieldwork, and interpretation of artifacts and reconstruction of past cultural patterns. Students will visit at least one relevant site, exhibit or museum as a course requirement.

ANT – North American Indians This course provides a comprehensive history of the human groups who populated North America before, during and after this continent became involved with the culture, politics and economics of Europe.

It focuses on the dynamic heritages, languages, knowledge, technology, arts, and values that have been passed on through the generations. Students will be introduced to the anthropological literature concerned with the study and understanding of Native American cultures and societies.

Some field study may be required. ANT – Modern Anthropology and Globalization Cultural change and the social processes involved are major areas of cultural anthropological research. By introducing students to the application of anthropological methodologies such as field work and cross-cultural comparison, the course examines some of the major issues which confront human beings in a complex rapidly growing and changing world including: Any level social science or business course.

An in-depth study of these topics will provide knowledge, understanding and appreciation of this region while offering insights into the development of communities in the U.

ANT – Introduction to Medical Anthropology Medical Anthropology is a subfield of Anthropology that draws upon social, cultural, biological, and linguistic anthropology to better understand those factors which influence health and well being broadly defined, the experience and distribution of illness, the prevention and treatment of sickness, healing processes, the social relations of therapy management, and the cultural importance and utilization of pluralistic medical systems.

SMA This course introduces students to the subject and basic methods used in cross-cultural comparisons and research, as well as providing a better understanding of Western and non-Western perceptions and treatments of the body and health issues.

This course provides the opportunity to study, explore, examine and analyze areas of special, short-term interest in anthropology. Each topic builds on knowledge learned in the level courses.

ANT – Special Topics in Anthropology This course provides the opportunity to study, explore, examine and analyze areas of special, short-term interest in anthropology. ANT – Women, Men and Social Change This course studies men’s and women’s changing roles, relationships, and participation in the labor force both cross-culturally and historically.

We give special emphasis to those changes which occur as technology changes. A major part of the course concerns how and why today’s women and men arrive at their social, economic, political and legal statuses.

Students completing this course may not receive credit for SOC ANT – Forensic Anthropology This course provides a broad overview of Forensic Anthropology – an applied field within Anthropology – dealing with the osteological skeletal anatomy and biology analysis of human remains.

We will employ and discuss scientific methods used to explore and a broad range of problems associated with identification and trauma analysis using data gathering methods such as: ANT – Anthropological Theory This course explores the broad historical outline of major theoretical approaches in the field of Anthropology, from the late 19th century to the present.

Debates within the discipline and the larger historical, cultural and intellectual contexts in which they were produced, will be examined, as will the enduring relevance of these theories.

The course includes reading and critical analysis of texts, as well as class discussions. ANT 3 credits 3,0. ANT – Anthropological Research This course focuses on research methods in anthropology as the means for learning ethnographic research methods and how to talk and write about culture, as a basis of anthropological research.

The purpose of the course is to gain experience in ethnographic practices, including interviewing, fieldwork research, qualitative analysis, and writing critically informed accounts.

This course offers students the chance to study short term topics of specialized, more advanced areas of anthropology. Each topic builds and expands on information learned in introductory courses.

This course is particularly recommended to students in the Anthropology Minor program, but is open to other interested students who meet the prerequisites. ANT – Advanced Topics in Anthropology This course offers students the chance to study short term topics of specialized, more advanced areas of anthropology.

All with a grade of C or higher. ANT – Anthropological Research Methods This course focuses on research methods in anthropology as the means for learning ethnographic research methods and how to talk and write about culture, as a basis of anthropological research.

ANT – Research Internship I The research internship provides students with insight into the personal qualities and skills that make a good researcher, as well as learning about the broader impact of scientific discovery.

While working alongside a faculty member students will be able to hone their research and analytical skills, through hands-on experiences. Students will create a research plan in consultation with the faculty member and spend hours during the semester working on research.

While each course design will vary, students will be involved in library research, compiling literature reviews, data collection, and data analysis. Students must either complete a paper or poster at the conclusion of their research internship.

ANT with a grade of C or higher Credits: ANT – Research Intership I The research internship provides students with insight into the personal qualities and skills that make a good researcher, as well as learning about the broader impact of scientific discovery.

ANT – Research Internship II The research internship provides students with insight into the personal qualities and skills that make a good researcher, as well as learning about the broader impact of scientific discovery.

This course emphasizes the gradual development of the four language skills: This intermediate course further emphasizes the development of the four language skills: A literary and cultural reading will be introduced.

This course emphasizes structural review, intensified practice in oral expression with increased emphasis on reading and writing skills. Continued attention will be given to contemporary Arabic culture.

Selections from Arabic authors will be read. The use of reading scales, lengths, areas and volumes in drawings is developed to help students visualize and understand building elements and plans.

The course will include basic CAD fundamentals, site visits and future employment requirements and opportunities for those interested in the major. CAD topics include software commands and drawing strategies for 2-D and 3-D CAD work, plans, sections, elevations, and details, information management, assembly of drawings and scales.

This course includes a required laboratory designed to provide extra time for the studio experience. The diagram and sketch model are introduced as methods of understanding design. Concepts are explored in both three dimensional and graphic form.

Emphasis is placed on the process by which design decisions are made and the methods of analysis in context to the existing environment. Intended to develop students’ ability to analyze energy requirements of buildings and various methods of energy conservation and thermal efficiency.

Topics covered include heat flow, system and equipment for heating and cooling. Also included are water supply and wastewater treatments for buildings. ARC – Construction Design Construction Design is a technology-based design studio emphasizing a methodological approach to the assembly of the building’s envelope, materials and systems.

The integration of building code requirements, life safety, accessibility, building energy systems, structure, construction, and materials are central to effectively achieving design intent.

ARC W – Architectural Theory and Design Factors Writing Intensive This course will examine a series of architectural theories and design factors that attempts to explain, predict or influence design decisions that result in the built environment.

ARC – History of Western Architecture A study of the development of building design from the Ancient Egyptians and Greeks throughout the major historical periods to the present.

Emphasis is on the evolution of the forms derived from indigenous technologies of periods surveyed. ARC – Site Design and Construction This is an advanced course in the utilization of engineering and architectural principles from concept through the construction techniques of traditional and sustainable site development.

Site planning techniques, municipal land development requirements, zoning regulations, soil stabilization techniques, erosion control parameters, stormwater management practices, and site construction details are applied to a site design project.

Computer-aided programs in site design and survey data management will be introduced. Emphasis is placed on the urban and natural environment. The role of aesthetics, symbols, and the use of historical elements in the making of places, spaces and communicating meaning are explored.

ARC – Applied Research Topics A program of applied research and independent study on topics a faculty member is currently working on. Applied research work will be presented in an appropriate form.

Emphasis is placed a project that integrates principles of architectural design and includes elements of building systems, structural and site design, zoning and building codes, etc.

Students will present their final project to invited architects at the end of the semester. ARC – Architectural Design V This architectural design course integrates several architectural and engineering design philosophies and methodologies into a comprehensive studio project.

This course introduces very little new material; rather it is to synthesize knowledge learned in the following areas of design and analysis: This multidisciplinary project uses a student design team approach.

ART – Art History An analysis of the social, physical and psychological influences affecting the artist during various historical periods through the present. Emphasis is on the interrelationship between the changing purposes of art and variations in the meaning and form of artistic expression.

ART – History of Graphic Design Graphic design has great power and has both reflected and influenced our society and culture throughout history. This course identifies the key movements within the history of graphic design from the Graphic Renaissance throughout today and highlights how these movements have mirrored and changed the course of our society and the field of graphic design.

Lectures, images and texts will be used in of each of the following periods: Prehistoric Times through The Middle Ages A survey of the history of the visual arts from their beginnings in prehistoric times to the end of the Middle Ages.

Works of art are studied both as monuments of intrinsic aesthetic value and as expressions of the needs, ideals, and aspirations of the societies in which they were created. Prehistoric Times through The Middle Ages – Writing Intensive A survey of the history of the visual arts from their beginnings in prehistoric times to the end of the Middle Ages.

Early Renaissance to the Present A survey of the history of the visual arts from the Early Renaissance to the Present. Early Renaissance-Present; Writing Intensive. ART – History of Interaction Design The foundations of interaction design preceded the invention and use of the first computers and have evolved with the constant changes in technology.

From punch cards to voice recognition, from the earliest computers to the mobile platforms of today, the need for a formal definition and definitive history of Interaction Design has increased as quickly as the technology has changed.

This class will provide an over view of the history of the relationship between human beings and the tools and technology they use. The evolution of the computer and other digital devices will be explored with the emphasis on the events that lead to the formalization of Interaction Design into a vibrant and growing discipline.

Students will be required to meet on campus prior to departing for Europe to study the great masterpieces of the Ancient, Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque periods of art found in their original contexts throughout Italy.

Works of Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, Illuminated Manuscripts and other applied arts will be studied as they relate to the periods in which they were created. The class will meet four times on campus prior to departing for Europe to study the great masterpieces of the Gothic Medieval, Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Neo Classical, Romantic, Realistic and Impressionist and Post-Impressionist periods of art found in their original contexts throughout Europe.

The Great institutions to be visited may include: Students will study the art and the history surrounding the art’s creation during three lectures on the campus of Farmingdale State.

This will occur before departing to Europe to visit the country of Greece to study the original art first hand over the period of two weeks. In Europe, students will explore the Aegean, Classical, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine art styles by studying works of architecture, sculpture, painting, illuminated manuscripts, archaeological and other applied arts in the context of churches, archaeological sites and art museums.

Mythology and Homeric literature will be introduced in order to gain an insight into the cultural foundations of Western Art and Civilization. Students will be assigned a term paper based on specific works studied, and will also be expected to maintain a journal including notes, drawings and other entries related to their experience abroad.

ART – Arts in the Twentieth Century An analysis of the development of music, art, film, theater, dance, architecture, and design through the nine decades of the twentieth century. Field trips to various cultural events and extensive use of audio-visual materials are included.

EGL with a grade of C or higher. ART – Art History: Survey of American Art A survey of the development of painting, sculpture, and architecture in the United States from the early colonial period to the present.

Lectures, supplemented by slides and textbook illustrations, will provide the basis for an analysis of the “schools” styles, and influences that determined and are affecting the direction of American Art.

American Art Survey – Writing Intensive. The class will introduce the student to visual works of art including sculpture, painting, architecture and other applied arts. The course begins with prehistoric art of the Clovis peoples of the American Southwest and concludes with the contemporary era.

The history, mythologies, politics, religions, and philosophical thought of the periods are introduced in order to provide a context for the visual art. AVN – General Aeronautics This course provides introductory orientation and practical information essential to the career progression of both pilots and aviation administrators.

AVN – Aviation Industry: A History Perspective This course is a basic survey of the aviation industry viewed from a historical perspective. Topics covered will range from the early days of aviation to the present.

The course will also examine the chronology of aviation laws and regulations and how they have changed from aviation beginnings in the United States to present day. At the conclusion of this course, the student will have a comprehensive knowledge of the U.

During this course, the student obtains the foundations for all future aviation training. The student becomes familiar with the training airplane and learns how the airplane controls are used to establish and maintain specific flight attitudes and ground tracks.

At the conclusion of the course, the student demonstrates proficiency in basic flight maneuvers and the student pilot will have successfully completed no less than three 3 takeoffs and full stop landings in the traffic pattern as Pilot-in-Command.

Aero fees will be charged. Private Pilot Flight to Certificate will enable the student to meet the requirements necessary to obtain a Private Pilot certificate.

Selected subject areas will include engine starting, normal and crosswind taxiing, radio communications, normal takeoffs, power on and power off stalls, maneuvering during slow flight, traffic patterns, go around from a rejected landing, crosswind and normal landings, cross country flying, radio navigation, cockpit management, low level wind shear precautions, airport and runway marking and lighting, constant airspeed climbs and descents, stall spin awareness, and steep turns.

AVN – Introduction to Flight Introduction to Flight offers students with no prior flight time an opportunity to begin training in normal preflight, in-flight and post-flight procedures as provided by the SUNY Flight Line.

The student is afforded 5 hours combined flight and simulator time and may then commence flight training for Private Pilot. Flight courses must be completed within a year from the date a student registers.

Within this time frame a student must either 1 Successfully complete the course and be issued a grade, OR 2 Withdraw from the course, due to the following extenuating circumstances: Active Military Obligations, Medical conditions requiring removal from active flight status for a duration of 60 consecutive days or more.

If neither of the above occurs, a failing grade will be assigned. AVN – Pilot Proficiency Prior to beginning training at FSC students with prior flight experience of solo privileges or higher will be required to go through an evaluation.

Aero Fees will be charged. Prior flight experience of solo or higher Credits: AVN – Aviation Security Management I This course will introduce students to techniques and procedures necessary to maintain security in the aviation industry.

In this course, students will become familiar with the above security methods by using hands on techniques. Students will learn how to operate and maintain Explosive Trace Detection machines and X-Rays, properly screen passengers and monitor CCTV systems to prevent breaches in security.

AVN with a grade of C or higher Credits: AVN – Safety Ethics This course emphasizes ethical decision making as it applies to Complex Systems, aviation and aerospace, nuclear power plant, civil and IT engineering and the medical field.

These systems have an extremely narrow tolerance for error, often resulting in monumental impact on the public, the economy of the nation and human life. This course seeks to increase the awareness levels of ethical issue for industry professionals and to provide the necessary skills to effectively deal with such critical problem solving issues.

Topics include complex systems ethical decision making, safety with human factors emphasis, applied ethics for members of complex systems, corporate culture and risk management theory, moral and values.

Weather theory including differential heating, air mass development, wind frontal activity and systems, weather hazards, weather reporting and weather forecasting is covered.

Selected subject areas will include Federal Aviation Regulations that apply to flight operations under IFR, appropriate information that applies to flight operations under IFR in the “Aeronautical Information Manual,” Air Traffic Control system and procedures for instrument flight operations, IFR navigation and approaches by use of navigation systems, use of IFR enroute and instrument approach procedure charts, procurement and use of aviation weather reports and the elements of forecasting weather trends based on that information and personal observation of weather conditions, safe and efficient operation of aircraft under instrument flight rules and conditions, recognition of critical weather situations and wind shear avoidance, aeronautical decision making and judgment, and crew resource management, including crew communication and coordination.

Instrument Pilot Flight will enable the student to meet the requirements necessary to obtain an Instrument Rating. Selected subject areas will include airplane attitude control by reference to instruments, use of full and partial panel reference, accurate use of navigation systems by maintaining positional awareness, holding patterns, instrument approaches, and IFR cross country procedures.

AVN with a grade of C or higher Corequisite s: Selected subject areas will include: Commercial Pilot Flight will enable the student to meet the requirements necessary to obtain a Commercial Pilot Certificate.

Selected subject areas include accurate planning of VFR cross country flights, pilotage, dead reckoning, navigation systems, and commercial maneuvers as well as provide the skill necessary to safely fly a complex airplane.

AVN – Airline Management This course will give the students an integrated study of airline operations and functions. Domestic and international regulation of air carries and the industry’s changing structure due to alliances and globalization are addressed.

Topics include the annual profit plan, uniform system of accounts and reports, demand analysis, scheduling, the theory of pricing, fleet planning, facilities planning, airline financing, airline economics, airline marketing and pricing, computer reservation and revenue management systems, fleet planning and scheduling, aircraft maintenance aircraft finance, labor relations, organizational structure, and strategic planning.

AVN with a grade of C or higher. AVN – Introduction to Air Cargo Operations The course introduces the student to the growing, technical and multi-faceted air cargo industry.

The student will understand the role that air cargo has played in the development of the air carrier industry, contractual and legally binding regulations, and national and international trade.

A visit to off-campus air cargo facilities will compliment classroom discussions, lectures and videos. It includes a study of and compliance with government and air carrier regulations; with practical applications of the specialized manuals and penalties of non-compliance.

The student will acquire work skills and cooperative attitudes that will complement and enhance the academic competencies learned during the prior year. It is a study of the constitutional, legislative, executive and judicial control of aviation from the local, state, federal and international perspective.

This course forms the foundation for AVN Aviation law. Junior or Senior standing required. Students cannot get credit for AVN and W. Offered at the discretion of the Aviation Administration Department.

Selected subject areas will include applicable Federal Aviation Regulations of this chapter that relate to Certified Flight Instructor pilot privileges, limitations, and flight operations, the fundamentals of instructing, including: Also included are the aeronautical knowledge areas for a recreational, private, and commercial pilot certificate applicable to the aircraft category for which flight instructor privileges are sought.

A grade will be issued based on the completion of the following written exams: The learning process; elements of effective teaching; student evaluation and testing; course development; lesson planning; and classroom training techniques.

AVN – Physiology of Flight Operational and lifestyle considerations and consequences arising from physiological factors will be introduced, with an emphasis on the atmosphere and high-altitude flight Hyperbarism.

General fundamentals of anatomy and psychology will be reviewed to impart career-prolonging health maintenance and stress reduction techniques. Subtle yet critical aviation issues such as situational awareness and crew resource management will be explored.

AVN – Advanced Aircraft Systems This course exposes the student to the advanced aircraft systems commonly found in air carrier aircraft. At the conclusion of this course, the student should have a good level of operational understanding of these systems.

AVN – Air Carrier Flight Planning This course exposes the student to the area of flight planning for the major carrier’s operations. The main area of study will include the following subjects: There will be an initial review of the structure of the air transport market and the industry marketing environment.

This will be followed by a detailed study examining the airline business and marketing strategies, product design, pricing, revenue management, distribution channels, and selling and advertising policies.

AVN – Air Cargo Sales Management The students will be introduced to the topic through a variety of pedagogical methods that will include lectures, hands-on use of the most prominent manuals, regulations related to the industry, group discussions and videos.

AVN – Air Cargo Management Techniques This course will provide students with an overview of the air cargo management in relation to leadership, safety, cost effectiveness, and problem solving.

This course will cover various managerial topics that pertain to air cargo operations, with a particular focus on identifying staffing needs, providing acceptable customer service, determining practical goals for maintaining service levels over an extended period of time.

This course will also review IATA rules and regulations, and provide students with practical in-class exercises which will focus on developing operational flight schedules for an air cargo operator while maintaining the objective of remaining compliant with various human resources and labor regulations.

AVN – Aviation Law Aviation Law develops the student’s knowledge to the application level of learning by emphasis on real cases to demonstrate the legal, regulatory and government theory previously discussed in AVN and AVN Emphasis will be on the FAA’s roles in regulating aviation including the rule making process, certification of airmen, medical certification and enforcement.

AVN – Aviation Economics This course covers the economic history of the air carrier industry from to the present. The details of airline deregulation prior to are discussed as is the transition from regulation to deregulation – to present and Marketing and financial practices as they exist today under deregulation.

AVN – Corporate and Business Aviation Study of the flight operations, administration, maintenance and financial functions of a corporate flight department. The FBO and small airplane business will be discussed including applications in aerial photography and spraying, aircraft sales and financing.

AVN or W Credits: Additionally, the student will gain practical experience applying the concepts of Crew Resource Management in the cockpit by utilizing a series of Flight Training Device sessions and defined flight training sessions.

The student will be introduced to multi crew operations by applying newly acquired skills applicable to the multi crew environment such as Pilot Flying, Pilot Monitoring, advanced aircraft briefings, emergency and abnormal situations in various phases of flight, cockpit automation, Crew Resource Management to include crew communication and coordination, and Aeronautical decision making and judgment.

Training will consist of at least 20 hours flight and 15 hours ground instruction. AVN with grade of a C or higher Credits: Training will consist of at least 25 hours flight and 20 hours ground instruction.

AVN – Homeland Security in Aviation This course will expose the student to the importance of Homeland Security in the aviation industry and the important role each employee in the industry is charged with.

Students will gain experience in identifying false travel documents and identifying suspicious air travelers. This course will focus on current national security threats in the aviation industry.

Upon the successful completion of this course the students will meet the requirements of the initial and recurrent security training requirements mandated by the Transportation Security Administration TSA under Title 49 CFR AVN or W with a grade of C or higher.

AVN – Gas Turbine Engines An in-depth study of gas turbine engines as found in air carrier and high performance aircraft. Topics include the history of turbine development, jet propulsion, theory engine design and construction and control systems.

AVN – Aerodynamics and Aircraft Performance Advanced aerodynamic principles will be introduced following extensive review of fundamentals. Emphasis will be on practical design and performance considerations including mission, cost, and feasibility.

This course will familiarize the student with the application of aeronautical principles and design practices. The course will focus steps in preliminary design of general aviation aircraft with emphasis on the iterative aspects of design.

It includes, but is not limited to: Principles, operations and limitations of advanced avionics suites typically found in this category aircraft. AVN – Safety of Flight Safety of Flight is an essential course for students to understand the principles and regulatory practices of commercial aviation safety in the United States and worldwide community in the 21st century.

The student will obtain the necessary safety of flight knowledge to be able to effectively work in the aviation industry. At the completion of the course, students will be able to assess contemporary issues in safety of flight and demonstrate understanding of aviation safety and human factors.

Topics to be covered include hull and liability coverage, subrogation and the insurer’s interests after covering a loss, underwriting and claims management. This course helps students to explain the various types of insurance coverage found in aviation such as, hangar keepers, employers, pilots, airlines and airport operators.

AVN – Commuter Turboprop Training This course exposes the student to an actual air carrier transport aircraft initial training ground school. The course will examine all of the specific aircraft and engine systems for this airplane and will be conducted so as to simulate the intensity of an airline training course.

All major systems and subsystems of the aircraft as well as its limitation and normal and emergency operating procedures will be covered in detail. At the conclusion of this course, the student should be able to pass an airline style written and oral exam on the aircraft.

AVN – Specialty Flying Specialty flying is a vital area in General Aviation although it does not attract the attention that airline and military flying do. This course will deal with Agricultural Aviation; Bush Flying using float, large wheel and ski equipped aircraft.

The seminar will require students to examine key aviation concepts presented in the Pro Pilot track and connect key learning objectives associated with these concepts to the skills necessary for success in the aviation industry as a pilot.

Selected subject areas will include but not be limited to aviation safety, aviation law, crew resource management, safety ethics, physiology of flight, and aviation meteorology and how these relate to the requirements to be a certificated instrument-rated commercial pilot and fly as a certified flight instructor or a multiengine airplane pilot.

Students will be required to complete comprehensive case studies of aviation accidents, present results to the seminar participants and lead the case discussion. A Capstone mentorship flight or simulator event summarizing the key course concepts will be included as part of the course flight fees as applicable.

AVN with C or higher. It is designed to integrate all the topics that students have learned during their courses of study. The research project will culminate in a formal presentation of results to members of the university community and also representatives from industry.

Students will be exposed to various in-class exercises that will address the importance of identifying the variables involved in the flow of typical air cargo operations.

Communication skills in air cargo operations management will also be stressed. AVN – Aviation Internship This course is designed to give students the opportunity to earn elective credit for acquiring hands-on industry experience.

Prior work site approval by the Aviation Department is required before enrolling in this course. Completion of 30 credits with an overall GPA of 2. BCS – Programming Concepts and Problem Solving This course will provide an introduction to programming logic and problem solving techniques using different programming languages.

Topics include such items as constants and variables, data types, scope of variables, basic logic constructs, subroutines and functions. BCS – Computer Concepts and Applications This is an introductory course in the use of personal computers in today’s society.

Students will receive instruction in basic computer concepts and terminology, the fundamentals of the Windows operating system and have hands on experience at the beginning to intermediate level using Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint.

The Internet will be used to supplement textbook and lecture materials. Topics may vary from semester to semester and reflects the interests and needs of students, faculty and industry.

Permission of Department Chair is required. Permission of Department Chair 3,0 Credits: Permission of Department Chair Credits: Students will be taught to develop algorithms using top-down stepwise refinement.

Students will be introduced to the concept of Object Oriented programming. In addition to the introductory topics of changing text appearance, creating hyperlinks, and inserting images into a Web page, advanced topics such as layout, tables, and forms will also be covered.

Among the topics studied are elements of the COBOL programming language and application of the language to solving business computer applications. BCS – Computers, Society and Technology This is an introductory course that provides students with the knowledge to stay current and informed in a technology-oriented, global society.

Students will receive instruction in basic computer concepts and terminology, the fundamentals of the Windows operating system and have hands-on experience at the beginning to intermediate level using Microsoft Excel and Access.

Students taking this course may not receive credit for BCS or This course will present the main components of a Visual Basic program, and will use these components to develop increasingly more complex Windows applications.

The standard Windows forms and controls will be explored in providing the skills and knowledge necessary to write these event driven graphical interfaces.

This course will cover file management and have hands on experience at the beginning through advanced level using microcomputer spreadsheet and database applications.

Students will use a spreadsheet program to enter formulas, create charts, execute functions and macros, create, sort and query lists, create pivot tables, create templates, and work with multiple worksheets and workbooks.

Students will use a database program to create data table structures, queries, reports, and forms, create switchboards, pivot tables, and pivot charts. This course may not be used to satisfy the requirements of the B.

Students completing this course may not receive credit for SMT BCS with a grade of C or higher Credits: BCS – Introduction to Networks This course introduces the architecture, structure, functions, components, and models of the Internet and other computer networks.

The principles and structure of IPv4 and IPv6 addressing and the fundamentals of Ethernet concepts, media, and operations are introduced to provide a foundation for the curriculum. The laboratory component of this course will give the students hands-on experience configuring equipment needed to build a LAN.

BCS – Routing and Switching Essentials This course describes the architecture, components, and operations of routers and switches in a small network. Students learn how to configure a router and a switch for basic functionality.

The laboratory component of this course will give the students hands-on experience configuring routers, switches and basic WAN connectivity. Topics include basic understanding of the UNIX system, utilizing the file system, programming language and security system.

BCS may be taken as a Prerequisite or Corequisite. BCS Corequisite s: Among the topics covered are: BCS – Electronic Commerce This cross-listed business management and business computer systems course covers electronic commerce EC foundations, retailing methodologies, and marketing research.

Focus will be on the various forms, strategies, and implementations of EC including business-to-business B2B, business-to-consumer B2C, and consumer-to-consumer C2C. Also covered will be social networking, electronic payment systems, and public policy issues including privacy and intellectual property matters as well as recent information technology advancements.

Students will learn how to devise jQuery and jQuery UI scripting techniques such as effects, animation, tabbed panels, menus, accordions, content sliders, drag and drop, tooltips, date pickers, custom tooltips, dialogs and portlets, and interactive image sliders and carousels.

Students who have taken BCS cannot receive credit for this course. BCS with a grade of C or higher. Topics to be covered include multi-level control break processing, file handling techniques for both sequential and indexed files, table processing, and searching and sorting methods.

BCS – Website Development II In this course, students will learn how to create websites that deliver a seamless experience across a diverse range of desktop and mobile devices using the same code base.

In addition, students will learn how to perform forms validation, create navigation and menuing systems, build responsive layouts with flexible content, code media queries, and create and modify template and child pages.

Students will use CSS 3 to create user interfaces with toolbars, animations, buttons, forms, lists, events, and themes. BCS – Operating Systems This course develops the fundamental knowledge of computer operating systems.

Topics included in this study are types of operating systems, facilities and features of the different systems and user techniques. Topics studied will include the history and advantages of database systems, and the process of database design including entity-relationship diagrams and database normalization.

BCS – Data Communications This course is an introduction to the concepts and applications of computer networking and its role in the business world today. It is intended to reinforce and build upon the introductory Visual Basic by extending coverage of the programming language and introducing more advanced features of the language.

Some of the advanced topics covered will include multitier applications, database programming, programming for the web and web forms, using report mechanisms, object – oriented terminology, creating classes and instantiating objects.

BCS – Management Information Systems Managers have increasing responsibility for determining their information system needs and for designing and implementing information systems that support these needs.

Management information systems integrate, for purposes of information requirements, the accounting, finance, and operations management functions of an organization. This course will examine the various levels and types of software and information systems required by an organization to integrate these functions.

BCS – Systems Analysis and Design This course explores the major issues in the analysis and design of a system, including methods of data collection, information requirements analysis, and the analysis process are discussed.

Emphasis is placed on the importance of the user in the design process and focuses on approaches that improve the successful implementation of a computer system. Topics include general systems theory, Systems Development Life Cycle, data flow diagrams, data dictionary, hardware and software evaluation, feasibility analysis, CASE tools and prototyping.

Students are required to demonstrate their skill in using project management and diagramming application software. Students will utilize the tools covered in BCS to analyze system designs.

Topics covered in the design phase will include input, output, and database and user interface design. Additional topics in the implementation and maintenance phases will include testing, implementation and maintenance.

Object-oriented systems and UML will also be covered. Students will analyze and prepare various case projects and will present and document their results. BCS – Data Visualization Data visualization describes any effort to help people understand the significance of data by placing it in a visual context.

Patterns, trends and correlations that might go undetected in text-based or spreadsheet data are recognized using data visualization software. In this course, students will use data visualization software to display data using infographics, dials and gauges, geographic maps, spark lines, and heat maps, as well as creating detailed bar, pie, and fever charts.

These maps and charts will include interactive capabilities, enabling users to manipulate the data or drill into the data for querying and analysis. These ideas will be explored in conjunction with an introduction to the concepts and tools necessary to implement, administer and troubleshoot the Microsoft Windows network.

Hands-on experience will be used in the presentation of system administration tools. Topics include selecting and installing operating systems, adding users, virtualization, and the configuration and management of storage, networks and servers.

Particular stress is paid system administration practices that foster the creation and maintenance of scalable and secure systems. Students will learn the Pearl syntax, the basics of using regular expressions, how to use Pearl data types, and how to access and manipulate files.

Students are also introduced to database connectivity and debugging techniques. BCS – Enterprise Resource Planning Enterprise Resource Planning ERP is an organizational and information systems approach that integrates planning, customer relationship management, decision making, master scheduling, material requirements planning, marketing, forecasting, sales, finance, electronic commerce, and human resources.

The course will include lectures and extensive use of supporting ERP software. Students completing this course cannot receive credit for BUS This advanced course prepares the student to understand OS virtualization, Storage Virtualization, and Cloud Computing.

This menu item saves the current capture. You cannot save a live capture while the capture is in progress. You must stop the capture in order to save. This menu item allows you to save the current capture file to whatever file you would like.

This menu item allows you to show a list of files in a file set. If the currently loaded file is part of a file set, jump to the next file in the set. If the currently loaded file is part of a file set, jump to the previous file in the set.

This menu item allows you to export all or some of the packets in the capture file to file. These menu items allow you to export the currently selected bytes in the packet bytes pane to a text file file in a number of formats including plain, CSV, and XML.

This menu item allows you to print all or some of the packets in the capture file. This menu item allows you to quit from Wireshark. These menu items will copy the packet list, packet detail, or properties of the currently selected packet to the clipboard.

This menu item brings up a toolbar that allows you to find a packet by many criteria. This menu item marks the currently selected packet. This menu item marks the currently selected packet as ignored.

This menu item set a time reference on the currently selected packet. This will show the Time Shift dialog, which allows you to adjust the timestamps of some or all packets.

This will let you add a comment to a single packet. Note that the ability to save packet comments depends on your file format. This will let you add a capture comment. Note that the ability to save capture comments depends on your file format.

This menu item brings up a dialog box for handling configuration profiles. This menu item brings up a dialog box that allows you to set preferences for many parameters that control Wireshark.

You can also save your preferences so Wireshark will use them the next time you start it. Selecting this tells Wireshark to display time stamps in seconds since This item allows you to specify that Wireshark should scroll the packet list pane as new packets come in, so you are always looking at the last packet.

If you do not specify this, Wireshark simply adds new packets onto the end of the list, but does not scroll the packet list pane. This menu items folds out with a list of all configured columns.

These columns can now be shown or hidden in the packet list. Wireshark keeps a list of all the protocol subtrees that are expanded, and uses it to ensure that the correct subtrees are expanded when you display a packet.

This menu item expands all subtrees in all packets in the capture. This menu item brings up a submenu that allows you to color packets in the packet list pane based on the addresses of the currently selected packet.

This makes it easy to distinguish packets belonging to different conversations. These menu items enable one of the ten temporary color filters based on the currently selected conversation.

This menu item opens a dialog window in which a new permanent coloring rule can be created based on the currently selected conversation. This menu item brings up a dialog box that allows you to color packets in the packet list pane according to filter expressions you choose.

This menu item brings up the selected packet in a separate window. The separate window shows only the tree view and byte view panes. Jump to the recently visited packet in the packet history, much like the page history in a web browser.

Jump to the next visited packet in the packet history, much like the page history in a web browser. Bring up a window frame that allows you to specify a packet number, and then goes to that packet.

Go to the corresponding packet of the currently selected protocol field. Move to the previous packet in the list. Move to the next packet in the list. Move to the previous packet in the current conversation.

Move to the next packet in the current conversation. This menu item stops the currently running capture and starts again with the same options, this is just for convenience.

This menu item brings up a dialog box that allows you to create and edit capture filters. You can name filters, and you can save them for future use. This menu item brings up a dialog box that allows you to create and edit display filters.

This menu item brings up a dialog box that allows you to create and edit display filter macros. You can name filter macros, and you can save them for future use.

This menu item adds the selected protocol item in the packet details pane as a column to the packet list. These menu items will change the current display filter and apply the changed filter immediately.

Depending on the chosen menu item, the current display filter string will be replaced or appended to by the selected protocol field in the packet details pane. Open a dialog showing some expert information about the captured packets.

The amount of information will depend on the protocol and varies from very detailed to non-existent. XXX – add a new section about this and link from here. Display user specified graphs e.

All menu items will bring up a new window showing specific telephony related statistical information. These options allow you to work with the Lua interpreter optionally build into Wireshark. This menu item starts a Web browser showing the webpage from: This menu item starts a Web browser showing the downloads from: This menu item starts a Web browser showing the front page from: This menu item starts a Web browser showing the sample captures from: Opening a Web browser might be unsupported in your version of Wireshark.

If this is the case the corresponding menu items will be hidden. If calling a Web browser fails on your machine, nothing happens, or the browser starts but no page is shown, have a look at the web browser setting in the preferences dialog.

The main toolbar provides quick access to frequently used items from the menu. This toolbar cannot be customized by the user, but it can be hidden using the View menu, if the space on the screen is needed to show even more packet data.

As in the menu, only the items useful in the current program state will be available. The others will be greyed out e. This item stops the currently running live capture process and restarts it again, for convenience.

This item brings up the file open dialog box that allows you to load a capture file for viewing. This item allows you to save the current capture file to whatever file you would like.

This item closes the current capture. If you have not saved the capture, you will be asked to save it first. This item allows you to print all or some of the packets in the capture file. This item brings up a dialog box that allows you to find a packet.

This item jumps back in the packet history. Hold down the Alt key Option on macOS to go back in the selection history. This item jumps forward in the packet history. Hold down the Alt key Option on macOS to go forward in the selection history.

This item brings up a dialog box that allows you to specify a packet number to go to that packet. This item brings up a dialog box that allows you to create and edit capture filters. This item brings up a dialog box that allows you to create and edit display filters.

This item brings up a dialog box that allows you to color packets in the packet list pane according to filter expressions you choose. It can be very useful for spotting certain types of packets.

This item brings up a dialog box that allows you to set preferences for many parameters that control Wireshark. The filter toolbar lets you quickly edit and apply display filters.

A syntax check of your filter string is done while you are typing. The background will turn red if you enter an incomplete or invalid string, and will become green when you enter a valid string. You can click on the pull down arrow to select a previously-entered filter string from a list.

The entries in the pull down list will remain available even after a program restart. Each line in the packet list corresponds to one packet in the capture file. While dissecting a packet, Wireshark will place information from the protocol dissectors into the columns.

As higher level protocols might overwrite information from lower levels, you will typically see the information from the highest possible level only. The Ethernet dissector will write its data such as the Ethernet addresses, the IP dissector will overwrite this by its own such as the IP addresses, the TCP dissector will overwrite the IP information, and so on.

There are a lot of different columns available. The first column shows how each packet is related to the selected packet. For example, in the image above the first packet is selected, which is a DNS request.

Wireshark shows a rightward arrow for the request itself, followed by a leftward arrow for the response in packet 2. Why is there a dashed line? There are more DNS packets further down that use the same port numbers.

Wireshark treats them as belonging to the same conversation and draws a line connecting them. The packet list has an Intelligent Scrollbar which shows a miniature map of nearby packets.

Each raster line of the scrollbar corresponds to a single packet, so the number of packets shown in the map depends on your physical display and the height of the packet list. In the image above the scrollbar shows the status of more than packets along with the 15 shown in the packet list itself.

The protocols and fields of the packet shown in a tree which can be expanded and collapsed. There is a context menu right mouse click available. Depending on the packet data, sometimes more than one page is available, e.

In this case you can see each data source by clicking its corresponding tab at the bottom of the pane. The context menu right mouse click of the tab labels will show a list of all available pages.

This can be helpful if the size in the pane is too small for all the tab labels. In general, the left side will show context related information, the middle part will show information about the current capture file, and the right side will show the selected configuration profile.

Drag the handles between the text areas to change the size. The middle part shows the current number of packets in the capture file. The following values are displayed:.

This is displayed if you are trying to use a display filter which may have unexpected results. Setting up Wireshark to capture packets for the first time can be tricky. If you have any problems setting up your capture environment you should have a look at the guide mentioned above.

This will start Wireshark capturing on interface eth0. This dialog box will only show the local interfaces Wireshark can access. As Wireshark might not be able to detect all local interfaces and it cannot detect the remote interfaces available there could be more capture interfaces available than listed.

If you are unsure which options to choose in this dialog box just try keeping the defaults as this should work well in many cases. By marking the checkboxes in the first column the interfaces are selected to be captured from.

This field allows you to specify a capture filter for all interfaces that are currently selected. Once a filter has been entered in this field, the newly selected interfaces will inherit the filter.

It defaults to empty, or no filter. To make the change persistent you can use sysfsutils. This field allows you to specify the file name that will be used for the capture file.

This field is left blank by default. If the field is left blank, the capture data will be stored in a temporary file. You can also click on the button to the right of this field to browse through the filesystem.

Once you have set the values you desire and have selected the options you need, simply click on Start to commence the capture or Cancel to cancel the capture. If some other process has put the interface in promiscuous mode you may be capturing in promiscuous mode even if you turn off this option.

See the Wireshark FAQ for more information. This field allows you to specify the maximum amount of data that will be captured for each packet, and is sometimes referred to as the snaplen. If disabled the value is set to the maximum which will be sufficient for most protocols.

Some rules of thumb:. This field allows you to specify a capture filter. In the left window the interface names are listed. The results of an individual interface are shown in the right window when it is selected.

As a central point to manage interfaces this dialog box consists of three tabs to add or remove interfaces. To successfully add a pipe, this pipe must have already been created. Click the New button and type the name of the pipe including its path.

Alternatively, the Browse button can be used to locate the pipe. With the Save button the pipe is added to the list of available interfaces. Afterwards, other pipes can be added.

To remove a pipe from the list of interfaces it first has to be selected. Then click the Delete button. If a new local interface is added, for example, a wireless interface has been activated, it is not automatically added to the list to prevent the constant scanning for a change in the list of available interfaces.

To renew the list a rescan can be done. One way to hide an interface is to change the preferences. The changes are also saved in the preferences file. In this tab interfaces on remote hosts can be added.

One or more of these interfaces can be hidden. In contrast to the local interfaces they are not saved in the preferences file. To remove a host including all its interfaces from the list, it has to be selected.

Besides doing capture on local interfaces Wireshark is capable of reaching out across the network to a so called capture daemon or service processes to receive captured data from. This dialog and capability is only available on Microsoft Windows.

The Remote Packet Capture Protocol service must first be running on the target platform before Wireshark can connect to it. The easiest way is to install WinPcap from https: Once installation is completed go to the Services control panel, find the Remote Packet Capture Protocol service and start it.

Make sure you have outside access to port on the target platform. This is the port where the Remote Packet Capture Protocol service can be reached by default. The remote capture can be further fine tuned to match your situation.

The recursion in this saturates the link with duplicate traffic. You only should switch this off when capturing on an interface other than the interface connecting back to Wireshark.

This dialog shows various characteristics and statistics for the selected interface. While capturing the underlying libpcap capturing engine will grab the packets from the network card and keep the packet data in a relatively small kernel buffer.

This data is read by Wireshark and saved into a capture file. By default Wireshark saves packets to a temporary file. Working with large files several hundred MB can be quite slow.

This will spread the captured packets over several smaller files which can be much more pleasant to work with. Using Multiple files may cut context related information. Wireshark keeps context information of the loaded packet data, so it can report context related problems like a stream error and keeps information about context related protocols e.

As it keeps this information only for the loaded file, using one of the multiple file modes may cut these contexts. If the establishing phase is saved in one file and the things you would like to see is in another, you might not see some of the valuable context related information.

If you are capturing on an Wireshark uses the libpcap filter language for capture filters. A brief overview of the syntax follows. Complete documentation can be found in the pcap-filter man page.

You can find a lot of Capture Filter examples at https: A capture filter for telnet that captures traffic to and from a particular host. This example captures telnet traffic to and from the host You can optionally precede this primitive with the keywords src dst and tcp udp which allow you to specify that you are only interested in source or destination ports and TCP or UDP packets respectively.

The keywords tcp udp must appear before src dst. If these are not specified, packets will be selected for both the TCP and UDP protocols and when the specified address appears in either the source or destination port field.

If Wireshark is running remotely using e. A running capture session can be restarted with the same capture options as the last time, this will remove all packets previously captured.

Restart is a convenience function and equivalent to a capture stop following by an immediate capture start. A restart can be triggered in one of the following ways:. Wireshark can read in previously saved capture files.

However, drag-and-drop may not be available in all desktop environments. This warning can be disabled in the preferences. In addition to its native file format pcapng, Wireshark can read and write capture files from a large number of other packet capture programs as well.

The appearance of this dialog depends on the system. However, the functionality should be the same across systems. You can change the display filter and name resolution settings later while viewing the packets.

However, loading huge capture files can take a significant amount of extra time if these settings are changed later, so in such situations it can be a good idea to set at least the filter in advance here.

It may not be possible to read some formats dependent on the packet types captured. Ethernet captures are usually supported for most file formats but it may not be possible to read other packet types such as PPP or IEEE You can choose which packets to save and which file format to be used.

Not all information will be saved in a capture file. The following sections show some examples of this dialog box. You can convert capture files from one format to another by reading in a capture file and writing it out using a different format.

Wireshark can save the packet data in its native file format pcapng and in the file formats of other protocol analyzers so other tools can read the capture data. Some other protocol analyzers only look at a filename extensions.

For example, you might need to use the. Sometimes you need to merge several capture files into one. For example, this can be useful if you have captured simultaneously from multiple interfaces at once e.

This dialog box let you select a file to be merged into the currently loaded file. If your current data has not been saved you will be asked to save it first. Wireshark can read in an ASCII hex dump and write the data described into a temporary libpcap capture file.

It can read hex dumps with multiple packets in them, and build a capture file of multiple packets. Wireshark understands a hexdump of the form generated by od – Ax – tx1 – v.

In other words, each byte is individually displayed and surrounded with a space. Each line begins with an offset describing the position in the file. The offset is a hex number can also be octal or decimal, of more than two hex digits.

Here is a sample dump that can be imported:. There is no limit on the width or number of bytes per line. Also the text dump at the end of the line is ignored. Byte and hex numbers can be uppercase or lowercase.

Any lines of text between the bytestring lines are ignored. The offsets are used to track the bytes, so offsets must be correct. Any line which has only bytes without a leading offset is ignored.

An offset is recognized as being a hex number longer than two characters. Any text after the bytes is ignored e. Any hex numbers in this text are also ignored. An offset of zero is indicative of starting a new packet, so a single text file with a series of hexdumps can be converted into a packet capture with multiple packets.

Packets may be preceded by a timestamp. These are interpreted according to the format given. If not the first packet is timestamped with the current time the import takes place.

Multiple packets are read in with timestamps differing by one microsecond each. In general, short of these restrictions, Wireshark is pretty liberal about reading in hexdumps and has been tested with a variety of mangled outputs including being forwarded through email multiple times, with limited line wrap etc.

There are a couple of other special features to note. Any line where the first non-whitespace character is will be ignored as a comment. Currently there are no directives implemented.

In the future these may be used to give more fine grained control on the dump and the way it should be processed e. Wireshark also allows the user to read in dumps of application-level data, by inserting dummy L2, L3 and L4 headers before each packet.

This allows Wireshark or any other full-packet decoder to handle these dumps. This dialog box lets you select a text file, containing a hex dump of packet data, to be imported and set import parameters.

Once all input and import parameters are setup click OK to start the import. When completed there will be a new capture file loaded with the frames imported from the text file.

As it can become tedious to work with a file set by hand, Wireshark provides some features to handle these file sets in a convenient way. All files of a file set share the same prefix e.

To find the files of a file set, Wireshark scans the directory where the currently loaded file resides and checks for files matching the filename pattern prefix and suffix of the currently loaded file.

This simple mechanism usually works well but has its drawbacks. If several file sets were captured with the same prefix and suffix, Wireshark will detect them as a single file set.

If files were renamed or spread over several directories the mechanism will fail to find all files of a set. The last line will contain info about the currently used directory where all of the files in the file set can be found.

Wireshark provides several ways and formats to export packet data. This section describes general ways to export data from the main Wireshark application. There are more specialized functions to export specific data which are described elsewhere.

If you would like to be able to import any previously exported packets from a plain text file it is recommended that you:. Export packet data into PSML. This is an XML based format including only the packet summary.

The PSML file specification is available at: Export packet data into PDML. This is an XML based format including the packet details. The PDML file specification is available at: This feature scans through HTTP streams in the currently open capture file or running capture and takes reassembled objects such as HTML documents, image files, executables and anything else that can be transferred over HTTP and lets you save them to disk.

If you have a capture running, this list is automatically updated every few seconds with any new objects seen. The saved objects can then be opened with the proper viewer or executed in the case of executables if it is for the same platform you are running Wireshark on without any further work on your part.

This field is where you enter the file to print to if you have selected Print to a file, or you can click the button to browse the filesystem. It is greyed out if Print to a file is not selected.

Print command specifies that a command be used for printing. These Print command fields are not available on windows platforms. This field specifies the command to use for printing.

It is typically lpr. You would change it to specify a particular queue if you need to print to a queue other than the default. An example might be:. This field is greyed out if Output to file: The packet range frame is a part of various output related dialog boxes.

It provides options to select which packets should be processed by the output function. If the Captured button is set default, all packets from the selected rule will be processed.

If the Displayed button is set, only the currently displayed packets are taken into account to the selected rule. The packet format frame is a part of various output related dialog boxes.

It provides options to select which parts of a packet should be used for the output function. Once you have captured some packets or you have opened a previously saved capture file, you can view the packets that are displayed in the packet list pane by simply clicking on a packet in the packet list pane, which will bring up the selected packet in the tree view and byte view panes.

You can then expand any part of the tree to view detailed information about each protocol in each packet. Clicking on an item in the tree will highlight the corresponding bytes in the byte view.

It also has the Acknowledgment number in the TCP header selected, which shows up in the byte view as the selected bytes. This allows you to easily compare two or more packets, even across multiple files.

Along with double-clicking the packet list and using the main menu there are a number of other ways to open a new packet window:. The following table gives an overview of which functions are available in this header, where to find the corresponding function in the main menu, and a short description of each item.

The following table gives an overview of which functions are available in this pane, where to find the corresponding function in the main menu, and a short description of each item. This menu item applies a display filter with the address information from the selected packet.

XXX – add a new section describing this better. This menu item uses a display filter with the address information from the selected packet to build a new colorizing rule. Prepare a display filter based on the currently selected item and copy that filter to the clipboard.

Copy the packet bytes to the clipboard as raw binary. This menu item collapses the tree view of all packets in the capture list. This menu item uses a display filter with the information from the selected protocol item to build a new colorizing rule.

Copy the packet bytes to the clipboard in hexdump-like format; similar to the Packet List Pane command, but copies only the bytes relevant to the selected part of the tree the bytes selected in the Packet Bytes Pane.

Copy the packet bytes to the clipboard in hexdump-like format, but without the text portion; similar to the Packet List Pane command, but copies only the bytes relevant to the selected part of the tree the bytes selected in the Packet Bytes Pane.

Copy the packet bytes to the clipboard as ASCII text, excluding non-printable characters; similar to the Packet List Pane command, but copies only the bytes relevant to the selected part of the tree the bytes selected in the Packet Bytes Pane.

Copy the packet bytes to the clipboard as an unpunctuated list of hex digits; similar to the Packet List Pane command, but copies only the bytes relevant to the selected part of the tree the bytes selected in the Packet Bytes Pane.

Copy the packet bytes to the clipboard as raw binary; similar to the Packet List Pane command, but copies only the bytes relevant to the selected part of the tree the bytes selected in the Packet Bytes Pane.

This menu item is the same as the File menu item of the same name. It allows you to export raw packet bytes to a binary file. Show the filter field reference web page corresponding to the currently selected protocol in your web browser.

The menu item takes you to the properties dialog and selects the page corresponding to the protocol if there are properties associated with the highlighted field. Allows you to temporarily disable a protocol dissector, which may be blocking the legitimate dissector.

Causes a name resolution to be performed for the selected packet, but NOT every packet in the capture. If the selected field has a corresponding packet, go to it. Wireshark has two filtering languages: One used when capturing packets, and one used when displaying packets.

In this section we explore that second type of filter: Display filters allow you to concentrate on the packets you are interested in while hiding the currently uninteresting ones. They allow you to select packets by:.

To select packets based on protocol type, simply type the protocol in which you are interested in the Filter: All protocol and field names are entered in lowercase. As you might have noticed, only packets of the TCP protocol are displayed now e.

The packet numbering will remain as before, so the first packet shown is now packet number When using a display filter, all packets remain in the capture file.

The display filter only changes the display of the capture file but not its content! You can filter on any protocol that Wireshark understands. You can also filter on any field that a dissector adds to the tree view, but only if the dissector has added an abbreviation for the field.

For example, to narrow the packet list pane down to only those packets to or from the IP address To remove the filter, click on the Clear button to the right of the filter field.

Wireshark provides a simple but powerful display filter language that allows you to build quite complex filter expressions. You can compare values in packets as well as combine expressions into more specific expressions.

The following sections provide more information on doing this. Every field in the packet details pane can be used as a filter string, this will result in showing only the packets where this field exists.

You can build display filters that compare values using a number of different comparison operators. You can use English and C-like terms in the same way, they can even be mixed in a filter string.

Protocol or text field match Perl regualar expression. In addition, all protocol fields have a type. Display Filter Field Types provides a list of the types and example of how to express them.

Can be 8, 16, 24, 32, or 64 bits. You can express integers in decimal, octal, or hexadecimal. The following display filters are equivalent:. A boolean field is present in the protocol decode only if its value is true.

The example above match packets that contains the 3-byte sequence 0x81, 0x60, 0x03 anywhere in the UDP header or payload. Above example match packets where SIP To-header contains the string “a” anywhere in the header.

Wireshark needs to be built with libpcre in order to be able to use the matches resp. Wireshark allows you to select subsequences of a sequence in rather elaborate ways. After a label you can place a pair of brackets [] containing a comma separated list of range specifiers.

The example above uses the n: In this case n is the beginning offset and m is the length of the range being specified. The example above uses the n-m format to specify a single range.

In this case n is the beginning offset and m is the ending offset. The example above uses the: It is equivalent to 0: The example above uses the n format to specify a single range. In this case the element in the sequence at offset n is selected.

This is equivalent to n: Wireshark allows you to string together single ranges in a comma separated list to form compound ranges as shown above. Wireshark allows you to test a field for membership in a set of values or fields.

This can be considered a shortcut operator, as the previous expression could have been expressed as:. Often people use a filter string to display something like ip.

Then they use ip. Unfortunately, this does not do the expected. Instead, that expression will even be true for packets where either source or destination IP address equals 1.

The reason for this, is that the expression ip. As an IP datagram contains both a source and a destination address, the expression will evaluate to true whenever at least one of the two addresses differs from 1.

If you want to filter out all packets containing IP datagrams to or from IP address 1. However if you are new to Wireshark or are working with a slightly unfamiliar protocol it can be very confusing to try to figure out what to type.

When you first bring up the Filter Expression dialog box you are shown a tree of field names, organized by protocol, and a box for selecting a relation. You can define filters with Wireshark and give them labels for later use.

This can save time in remembering and retyping some of the more complex filters you use. The mechanisms for defining and saving capture filters and display filters are almost identical.

Both will be described here but the differences between these two will be marked as such. You must use Save to save your filters permanently. OK or Apply will not save the filters and they will be lost when you close Wireshark.

The filter name will only be used in this dialog to identify the filter for your convenience, it will not be used elsewhere. You can add multiple filters with the same name, but this is not very useful.

You can define filter macros with Wireshark and give them labels for later use. You can easily find packets once you have captured some packets or have read in a previously saved capture file.

Simply enter a display filter string into the Filter: For example, to find the three way handshake for a connection from host The value to be found will be syntax checked while you type it in.

If the syntax check of your value succeeds, the background of the entry field will turn green, if it fails, it will turn red. This dialog box will let you enter a packet number.

When you press OK, Wireshark will jump to that packet. If a protocol field is selected which points to another packet in the capture file, this command will jump to that packet. A marked packet will be shown with black background, regardless of the coloring rules set.

Marking a packet can be useful to find it later while analyzing in a large capture file. The packet marks are not stored in the capture file or anywhere else. All packet marks will be lost when you close the capture file.

You can use packet marking to control the output of packets when saving, exporting, or printing. Wireshark will then pretend that this packets does not exist in the capture file.

An ignored packet will be shown with white background and gray foreground, regardless of the coloring rules set. The packet ignored marks are not stored in the capture file or anywhere else. While packets are captured, each packet is timestamped.

These timestamps will be saved to the capture file, so they will be available for later analysis. A detailed description of timestamps, timezones and alike can be found at: If you use Seconds it would show simply 1 and if you use Nanoseconds it shows 1.

The user can set time references to packets. A time reference is the starting point for all subsequent packet time calculations. It will be useful, if you want to see the time values relative to a special packet, e.

The time references will not be saved permanently and will be lost when you close the capture file. If one of the other time display formats are used, time referencing will have no effect and will make no sense either.

All subsequent packets will show the time since the last time reference. If you are working with TCP based protocols it can be very helpful to see the data from a TCP stream in the way that the application layer sees it.

Perhaps you are looking for passwords in a Telnet stream, or you are trying to make sense of a data stream. Maybe you just need a display filter to show only the packets of that TCP stream.

The stream content is displayed in the same sequence as it appeared on the network. Traffic from A to B is marked in red, while traffic from B to A is marked in blue.

If a selected packet field does not show all the bytes i. This dialog can also be used to decode field bytes from base64, zlib compressed or quoted-printable and show the decoded bytes as configurable output.

This allows you to see all the data. This will require a lot of screen space and is best used with binary protocols. This allows you to see all the data formatted as a HTML document. This will try to convert the bytes into an image.

This allows you to load the unaltered stream data into a different program for further examination. The amount of expert infos largely depends on the protocol being used.

The following will first describe the components of a single expert info, then the User Interface. Every expert info has a specific severity level. The following severity levels are used, in parentheses are the colors in which the items will be marked in the GUI:.

An easy and quick way to find the most interesting infos rather than using the Details tab, is to have a look at the separate tabs for each severity level. There are usually a lot of identical expert infos only differing in the packet number.

These identical infos will be combined into a single line – with a count column showing how often they appeared in the capture file. Clicking on the plus sign shows the individual packet numbers in a tree view.

As the amount of expert infos for a capture file can easily become very large, getting an idea of the interesting infos with this view can take quite a while. The advantage of this tab is to have all entries in the sequence as they appeared, this is sometimes a help to pinpoint problems.

The protocol field causing an expert info is colorized, e. To easier find that item in the packet tree, the IP protocol toplevel item is marked cyan as well. Analysis is done once for each TCP packet when a capture file is first opened.

Packets are processed in the order in which they appear in the packet list. Each flag is described below. Checks for a retransmission based on analysis data in the reverse direction.

Set when all of the following are true:. Set when the segment size is non-zero, we know the window size in the reverse direction, and our segment size exceeds the window size in the reverse direction.

Set when the sequence number is equal to the next expected sequence number, the segment size is one, and last-seen window size in the reverse direction was zero. Time stamps, their precisions and all that can be quite confusing.

While packets are captured, each packet is time stamped as it comes in. These time stamps will be saved to the capture file, so they also will be available for later analysis. So where do these time stamps come from?

While capturing, Wireshark gets the time stamps from the libpcap WinPcap library, which in turn gets them from the operating system kernel. If the capture data is loaded from a capture file, Wireshark obviously gets the data from that file.

The internal format that Wireshark uses to keep a packet time stamp consists of the date in days since 1. While reading or writing capture files, Wireshark converts the time stamp data between the capture file format and the internal format as required.

While capturing, Wireshark uses the libpcap WinPcap capture library which supports microsecond resolution. Unless you are working with specialized capturing hardware, this resolution should be adequate.

Every capture file format that Wireshark knows supports time stamps. Most file formats store the time stamps with a fixed precision e. For example, if you load a capture file with nanosecond resolution and store the capture data in a libpcap file with microsecond resolution Wireshark obviously must reduce the precision from nanosecond to microsecond.

So accuracy will depend on the capture system operating system, performance, etc that you use. Because of this, the above question is difficult to answer in a general way.

USB connected network adapters often provide a very bad time stamp accuracy. As the incoming packets are time stamped when they are processed by the kernel, this time stamping mechanism becomes very inaccurate.

If you travel across the planet, time zones can be confusing. If you get a capture file from somewhere around the world time zones can even be a lot more confusing ;-.

People expect that the time reflects the sunset. Dawn should be in the morning maybe around These times will obviously vary depending on the season. It would be very confusing if everyone on earth would use the same global time as this would correspond to the sunset only at a small part of the world.

For that reason, the earth is split into several different time zones, each zone with a local time that corresponds to the local sunset. Further information can be found at: To do this, a lot of countries but not all!

So you may need to take another hour or in very rare cases even two hours! Unfortunately, the date at which DST actually takes effect is different throughout the world. Further information can be found at https: Further time zone and DST information can be found at http: This way you will tell your computer both the local time and also the time offset to UTC.

Many organizations simply set the time zone on their servers and networking gear to UTC in order to make coordination and troubleshooting easier. For your computer, the time is essentially the same as before, you are simply in a different time zone with a different local time.

NTP clients are available for all operating systems that Wireshark supports and for a lot more, for examples see http: When Wireshark is capturing, no conversion is necessary. Internally to Wireshark, time stamps are represented in UTC.

This means that when reading capture files that save the arrival time of packets as local time values, Wireshark must convert those local time values to UTC values.

Wireshark in turn will display the time stamps always in local time. The displaying computer will convert them from UTC to local time and displays this local time. For capture files saving the arrival time of packets as UTC values, this means that the arrival time will be displayed as the local time in your time zone, which might not be the same as the arrival time in the time zone in which the packet was captured.

Now you have a phone call, video conference or Internet meeting with that one to talk about that capture file. The time displays are different as both Wireshark displays will show the different local times at the same point in time.

In any case, make sure that every computer in question has the correct time and time zone setting. Network protocols often need to transport large chunks of data which are complete in themselves, e.

The underlying protocol might not be able to handle that chunk size e. In that case the network protocol has to handle the chunk boundaries itself and if required spread the data over multiple packets.

It obviously also needs a mechanism to determine the chunk boundaries on the receiving side. Wireshark calls this mechanism reassembly, although a specific protocol specification might use a different term for this e.

For some of the network protocols Wireshark knows of, a mechanism is implemented to find, decode and display these chunks of data. Reassembly is enabled in the preferences by default but can be disabled in the preferences for the protocol in question.

Enabling or disabling reassembly settings for a protocol typically requires two things:. The tooltip of the higher level protocol setting will notify you if and which lower level protocol setting also has to be considered.

Name resolution tries to convert some of the numerical address values into a human readable format. There are two possible ways to do these conversions, depending on the resolution to be done: The name resolution feature can be enabled individually for the protocol layers listed in the following sections.

Name resolution can be invaluable while working with Wireshark and may even save you hours of work. Unfortunately, it also has its drawbacks. Name resolution in the packet list is done while the list is filled.

Try to resolve an Ethernet MAC address e. ARP name resolution system service: Wireshark will ask the operating system to convert an Ethernet address to the corresponding IP address e. Ethernet codes ethers file: If the ARP name resolution failed, Wireshark tries to convert the Ethernet address to a known device name, which has been assigned by the user using an ethers file e.

Ethernet manufacturer codes manuf file: If neither ARP or ethers returns a result, Wireshark tries to convert the first 3 bytes of an ethernet address to an abbreviated manufacturer name, which has been assigned by the IEEE e.

Wireshark will use a name resolver to convert an IP address to the hostname associated with it e. DNS name resolution can generally be performed synchronously or asynchronously. Both mechanisms can be used to convert an IP address to some human readable domain name.

A system call like gethostname will try to convert the address to a name. To do this, it will first ask the systems hosts file e. If that fails, it will ask the configured DNS server s about the name.

The system call gethostname will wait until a name is resolved or an error occurs. If the DNS server is unavailable, this might take quite a while several seconds.

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Upon the successful completion of this course the students will meet the requirements of the initial and recurrent security training requirements mandated by the Transportation Security Administration TSA under Title 49 CFR Checksums are used to ensure the integrity of data portions for data transmission or storage. Related laboratory activities and demonstrations are included in the required laboratory section AET L. BIO L – Essentials of Plant Pathology Lab The laboratory is designed to enable the student to acquire skills in collection and examination methods used for the diagnosis of plant diseases produced by biotic and abiotic agents, using microbial isolation and culturing techniques where applicable. Students must either complete a paper or poster at the conclusion of their research internship.

This menu item brings up a dialog box that allows you to color packets in the packet list pane according to filter expressions you choose. This field is left blank by default. ANT – Research Internship II The research internship provides students with insight into the personal qualities and skills that make a good researcher, as well as learning about the broader impact of scientific discovery.

In any case, make sure that every computer in question has the correct time and time zone setting. More specific rules should usually be listed before more general rules. For more information on capinfos consult your local manual page man capinfos or the online version. BUS and Credits:

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You would change it to specify a particular queue if you need to print to a queue other than the default. If not the first packet is timestamped with the current time the import takes place. As it keeps this information only for the loaded file, using one of the multiple file modes may cut these contexts. See…

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