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Tecno i3 swd mtk flashing tools





Valid till 2017/5/25



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Wireless charging is one of our favorite smartphone features. In the late s and started working with Acorn on newer versions of the ARM core. R13 and R14 are banked across all privileged CPU modes except system mode. Android compatible devices MUST be compatible with:. It features a comprehensive instruction set, separate register files and independent execution hardware.
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tecno i3 swd mtk flashing tools

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ARM cores are used in a number of products, particularly and. Some examples are ‘s and, ‘s, and ‘s. Others include Apple’s and, , and turn-by-turn. ARM chips are also used in, , , and other, because they are very small, inexpensive and consume very little power.

Since, the has been the primary source of documentation on the ARM processor architecture and instruction set, distinguishing interfaces that all ARM processors are required to support such as instruction semantics from implementation details that may vary.

The architecture has evolved over time, and version seven of the architecture, ARMv7, defines three architecture “profiles”:. At any moment in time, the CPU can be in only one mode, but it can switch modes due to external events interrupts or programmatically.

The original and subsequent ARM implementation was hardwired without, like the much simpler processor used in prior Acorn microcomputers. To compensate for the simpler design, compared with processors like the Intel and, some additional design features were used:.

ARM includes integer arithmetic operations for add, subtract, and multiply; some versions of the architecture also support divide operations. FIQ mode has its own distinct R8 through R12 registers.

R13 and R14 are banked across all privileged CPU modes except system mode. That is, each mode that can be entered because of an exception has its own R13 and R These registers generally contain the stack pointer and the return address from function calls, respectively.

Almost every ARM instruction has a conditional execution feature called, which is implemented with a 4-bit condition code selector the predicate. To allow for unconditional execution, one of the four-bit codes causes the instruction to be always executed.

Most other CPU architectures only have condition codes on branch instructions. If Ri and Rj are equal then neither of the SUB instructions will be executed, eliminating the need for a conditional branch to implement the while check at the top of the loop, for example had SUBLE less than or equal been used.

One of the ways that Thumb code provides a more dense encoding is to remove the four bit selector from non-branch instructions. Another feature of the is the ability to fold shifts and rotates into the “data processing” arithmetic, logical, and register-register move instructions, so that, for example, the C statement.

This results in the typical ARM program being denser than expected with fewer memory accesses; thus the pipeline is used more efficiently. The ARM instruction set has increased over time.

The ARM7 and earlier implementations have a three-stage ; the stages being fetch, decode and execute. Higher-performance designs, such as the ARM9, have deeper pipelines: Cortex-A8 has thirteen stages.

Additional implementation changes for higher performance include a faster and more extensive logic. In ARM-based machines, peripheral devices are usually attached to the processor by mapping their physical registers into ARM memory space, into the coprocessor space, or by connecting to another device a bus that in turn attaches to the processor.

Coprocessor accesses have lower latency, so some peripherals—for example, an XScale interrupt controller—are accessible in both ways: In other cases, chip designers only integrate hardware using the coprocessor mechanism.

All modern ARM processors include hardware debugging facilities, allowing software debuggers to perform operations such as halting, stepping, and breakpointing of code starting from reset.

These facilities are built using support, though some newer cores optionally support ARM’s own two-wire “SWD” protocol. The ARMv7 architecture defines basic debug facilities at an architectural level.

These include breakpoints, watchpoints and instruction execution in a “Debug Mode”; similar facilities were also available with EmbeddedICE. Both “halt mode” and “monitor” mode debugging are supported.

The actual transport mechanism used to access the debug facilities is not architecturally specified, but implementations generally include JTAG support. E-variants also imply T, D, M and I. The new instructions are common in DSP architectures.

They include variations on signed, saturated add and subtract, and count leading zeros. Support for this state is required starting in ARMv6 except for the ARMv7-M profile, though newer cores only include a trivial implementation that provides no hardware acceleration.

When in this state, the processor executes the Thumb instruction set, a compact bit encoding for a subset of the ARM instruction set. Most of the Thumb instructions are directly mapped to normal ARM instructions.

The space-saving comes from making some of the instruction operands implicit and limiting the number of possibilities compared to the ARM instructions executed in the ARM instruction set state.

In Thumb, the bit opcodes have less functionality. For example, only branches can be conditional, and many opcodes are restricted to accessing only half of all of the CPU’s general-purpose registers.

The shorter opcodes give improved code density overall, even though some operations require extra instructions. Embedded hardware, such as the, typically have a small amount of RAM accessible with a full bit datapath; the majority is accessed via a bit or narrower secondary datapath.

In this situation, it usually makes sense to compile Thumb code and hand-optimise a few of the most CPU-intensive sections using full bit ARM instructions, placing these wider instructions into the bit bus accessible memory.

The Thumb instruction set was originally inspired by ‘s ; ARM licensed several patents from. Thumb-2 extends the limited bit instruction set of Thumb with additional bit instructions to give the instruction set more breadth, thus producing a variable-length instruction set.

A stated aim for Thumb-2 was to achieve code density similar to Thumb with performance similar to the ARM instruction set on bit memory. Thumb-2 extends the Thumb instruction set with bit-field manipulation, table branches and conditional execution.

At the same time, the ARM instruction set was extended to maintain equivalent functionality in both instruction sets. This requires a bit of care, and use of a new “IT” if-then instruction, which permits up to four successive instructions to execute based on a tested condition, or on its inverse.

When compiling into ARM code, this is ignored, but when compiling into Thumb it generates an actual instruction. All ARMv7 chips support the Thumb instruction set. ThumbEE is a fourth instruction set state, making small changes to the Thumb-2 extended instruction set.

These changes make the instruction set particularly suited to code generated at runtime e. ThumbEE is a target for languages such as, , , and, and allows to output smaller compiled code without impacting performance.

New features provided by ThumbEE include automatic null pointer checks on every load and store instruction, an instruction to perform an array bounds check, and special instructions that call a handler.

Handlers are small sections of frequently called code, commonly used to implement high level languages, such as allocating memory for a new object. These changes come from repurposing a handful of opcodes, and knowing the core is in the new ThumbEE state.

It provides low-cost and floating-point computation fully compliant with the. VFP provides floating-point computation suitable for a wide spectrum of applications such as PDAs, smartphones, voice compression and decompression, three-dimensional graphics and digital audio, printers, set-top boxes, and automotive applications.

The VFP architecture was intended to support execution of short “vector mode” instructions but these operated on each vector element sequentially and thus did not offer the performance of true SIMD vector parallelism.

They provide some of the same functionality as VFP but are not – compatible with it. Software packages and cross-compiler tools use the armhf vs. It features a comprehensive instruction set, separate register files and independent execution hardware.

NEON supports 8-, , and bit integer and single-precision bit floating-point data and SIMD operations for handling audio and video processing as well as graphics and gaming processing.

The code is available on. It provides a low-cost alternative to adding another dedicated security core to an SoC, by providing two virtual processors backed by hardware based access control.

This lets the application core switch between two states, referred to as worlds to reduce confusion with other names for capability domains, in order to prevent information from leaking from the more trusted world to the less trusted world.

This world switch is generally orthogonal to all other capabilities of the processor, thus each world can operate independently of the other while using the same core. Memory and peripherals are then made aware of the operating world of the core and may use this to provide access control to secrets and code on the device.

Typically, a rich operating system is run in the less trusted world, with smaller security-specialized code in the more trusted world, aiming to reduce the. Typical applications include functionality for controlling the use of media on ARM-based devices, and preventing any unapproved use of the device.

Trusted Foundations Software was acquired by Gemalto. In practice, since the specific implementation details of proprietary TrustZone implementations have not been publicly disclosed for review, it is unclear what level of assurance is provided for a given, but they are not immune from attack.

Open Virtualization and T6 are open source implementations of the trusted world architecture for TrustZone. Enabled in some but not all products, AMD’s include a Cortex-A5 processor for handling secure processing.

It adds an optional bit architecture e. AArch64 provides compatibility with ARMv7-A, the bit architecture, therein referred to as “AArch32” and the old bit instruction set, now named “A32”.

The Thumb instruction sets are referred to as “T32” and have no bit counterpart. Apple was the first to release an ARMv8-A compatible core in a consumer product. In December, ARMv8. The enhancements fell into two categories: In January, ARMv8.

Its enhancements fell into four categories:. This document enumerates the requirements that must be met in order for devices to be compatible with Android 7. To be considered compatible with Android 7.

Where this definition or the software tests described in is silent, ambiguous, or incomplete, it is the responsibility of the device implementer to ensure compatibility with existing implementations.

For this reason, the is both the reference and preferred implementation of Android. Finally, note that certain component substitutions and modifications are explicitly forbidden by this document.

Any technical details provided in the linked resources throughout this document are considered by inclusion to be part of this Compatibility Definition. While the Android Open Source Project has been used in the implementation of a variety of device types and form factors, many aspects of the architecture and compatibility requirements were optimized for handheld devices.

Starting from Android 5. Android Handheld device refers to an Android device implementation that is typically used by holding it in the hand, such as mp3 players, phones, and tablets.

Android Handheld device implementations:. Android Watch device refers to an Android device implementation intended to be worn on the body, perhaps on the wrist, and:. All Android device implementations that do not fit into any of the above device types still MUST meet all requirements in this document to be Android 7.

This is a summary of major differences in hardware configuration by device type. Not all configurations are covered in this table; see relevant hardware sections for more detail.

The managed Dalvik bytecode execution environment is the primary vehicle for Android applications. The Android application programming interface API is the set of Android platform interfaces exposed to applications running in the managed runtime environment.

This Compatibility Definition permits some types of hardware for which Android includes APIs to be omitted by device implementations. See for specific requirements for this scenario. For example, Android 7.

Device implementers MUST support and enforce all permission constants as documented by the. Note that lists additional requirements related to the Android security model.

The Android APIs include a number of constants on the that are intended to describe the current device. To provide consistent, meaningful values across device implementations, the table below includes additional restrictions on the formats of these values to which device implementations MUST conform.

Android intents allow application components to request functionality from other Android components. The Android upstream project includes a list of applications considered core Android applications, which implements several intent patterns to perform common actions.

The core Android applications are:. Device implementations MUST include the core Android applications as appropriate or a component implementing the same intent patterns defined by all the Activity or Service components of these core Android applications exposed to other applications, implicitly or explicitly, through the android: As Android is an extensible platform, device implementations MUST allow each intent pattern referenced in to be overridden by third-party applications.

The upstream Android open source implementation allows this by default; device implementers MUST NOT attach special privileges to system applications’ use of these intent patterns, or prevent third-party applications from binding to and assuming control of these patterns.

Device implementations MUST provide a user interface for users to modify the default activity for intents. Android also includes a mechanism for third-party apps to declare an authoritative default for certain types of web URI intents.

When such authoritative declarations are defined in an app’s intent filter patterns, device implementations:. Device implementations MAY include intent patterns using namespaces clearly and obviously associated with their own organization.

This prohibition is analogous to that specified for Java language classes in. Third-party applications rely on the platform to broadcast certain intents to notify them of changes in the hardware or software environment.

Android-compatible devices MUST broadcast the public broadcast intents in response to appropriate system events. Broadcast intents are described in the SDK documentation. Android includes settings that provide users an easy way to select their default applications, for example for Home screen or SMS.

Where it makes sense, device implementations MUST provide a similar settings menu and be compatible with the intent filter pattern and API methods described in the SDK documentation as below. Native code compatibility is challenging.

Managed Dalvik bytecode can call into native code provided in the application. Although all the symbols must be present, only the corresponding functions for OpenGL ES versions and extensions actually supported by the device must be fully implemented.

The platform feature android. Because it is not feasible to develop a comprehensive test suite for a web rendering system, device implementers MUST use the specific upstream build of Chromium in the WebView implementation.

However, even if an alternate Browser application is used, the android. Implementations MAY ship a custom user agent string in the standalone Browser application. Note that as the web development standards bodies are transitioning to favor IndexedDB over webstorage, IndexedDB is expected to become a required component in a future version of Android.

The behaviors of each of the API types managed, soft, native, and web must be consistent with the preferred implementation of the upstream. Some specific areas of compatibility are:.

The above list is not comprehensive. The Compatibility Test Suite CTS tests significant portions of the platform for behavioral compatibility, but not all. It is the responsibility of the implementer to ensure behavioral compatibility with the Android Open Source Project.

Android follows the package and class namespace conventions defined by the Java programming language. To ensure compatibility with third-party applications, device implementers MUST NOT make any prohibited modifications see below to these package namespaces:.

If a device implementer proposes to improve one of the package namespaces above such as by adding useful new functionality to an existing API, or adding a new API, the implementer SHOULD visit and begin the process for contributing changes and code, according to the information on that site.

Note that the restrictions above correspond to standard conventions for naming APIs in the Java programming language; this section simply aims to reinforce those conventions and make them binding through inclusion in this Compatibility Definition.

Device implementations MUST configure Dalvik runtimes to allocate memory in accordance with the upstream Android platform, and as specified by the following table.

See for screen size and screen density definitions. Note that memory values specified below are considered minimum values and device implementations MAY allocate more memory per application.

Android includes a launcher application home screen and support for third-party applications to replace the device launcher home screen. Device implementations that allow third-party applications to replace the device home screen MUST declare the platform feature android.

Device implementations that support embedding widgets on the home screen MUST meet the following requirements and declare support for platform feature android. Android includes APIs that allow developers to using hardware and software features of the device.

Some APIs allow applications to perform notifications or attract attention using hardware—specifically sound, vibration, and light. Device implementations MUST support notifications that use hardware features, as described in the SDK documentation, and to the extent possible with the device implementation hardware.

This behavior is further detailed in. Additionally, the implementation MUST correctly render all icons, animation files etc. Device implementers MAY provide an alternative user experience for notifications than that provided by the reference Android Open Source implementation; however, such alternative notification systems MUST support existing notification resources, as above.

Android includes Notification Listener Service APIs that allow apps once explicitly enabled by the user to receive a copy of all notifications as they are posted or updated. Device implementations MUST correctly and promptly send notifications in their entirety to all such installed and user-enabled listener services, including any and all metadata attached to the Notification object.

Handheld device implementations MUST support the behaviors of updating, removing, replying to, and bundling notifications as described in this. All 6 direct subclasses of the Notification.

Style class MUST be supported as described in the. Generally speaking, this functionality consists of a single, system-wide user interface that allows users to enter queries, displays suggestions as users type, and displays results.

The Android APIs allow developers to reuse this interface to provide search within their own apps and allow developers to supply results to the common global search user interface. Android device implementations SHOULD include global search, a single, shared, system-wide search user interface capable of real-time suggestions in response to user input.

Device implementations that implement the global search interface MUST implement the APIs that allow third-party applications to add suggestions to the search box when it is run in global search mode.

If no third-party applications are installed that make use of this functionality, the default behavior SHOULD be to display web search engine results and suggestions. Android also includes the to allow applications to elect how much information of the current context is shared with the assistant on the device.

Device implementations supporting the Assist action MUST indicate clearly to the end user when the context is shared by displaying a white light around the edges of the screen. To ensure clear visibility to the end user, the indication MUST meet or exceed the duration and brightness of the Android Open Source Project implementation.

The preinstalled app MUST request the context to be shared only when the user invoked the app by one of the following means, and the app is running in the foreground:. The device implementation MUST provide an affordance to enable the indication, less than two navigations away from the default voice input and assistant app settings menu.

Applications can use the to display short non-modal strings to the end user that disappear after a brief period of time. Device implementations MUST display Toasts from applications to end users in some high-visibility manner.

Device implementations MAY modify the exposed to applications. Android supports a variant theme with translucent system bars, which allows application developers to fill the area behind the status and navigation bar with their app content.

To enable a consistent developer experience in this configuration, it is important the status bar icon style is maintained across different device implementations. When an app requests a light status bar, Android device implementations MUST change the color of the system status icons to black for details, refer to.

Android defines a component type and corresponding API and lifecycle that allows applications to expose one or more to the end user. Live wallpapers are animations, patterns, or similar images with limited input capabilities that display as a wallpaper, behind other applications.

Hardware is considered capable of reliably running live wallpapers if it can run all live wallpapers, with no limitations on functionality, at a reasonable frame rate with no adverse effects on other applications.

As an example, some live wallpapers may use an OpenGL 2. Live wallpaper will not run reliably on hardware that does not support multiple OpenGL contexts because the live wallpaper use of an OpenGL context may conflict with other applications that also use an OpenGL context.

Device implementations capable of running live wallpapers reliably as described above SHOULD implement live wallpapers, and when implemented MUST report the platform feature flag android. Device implementations including the recents function navigation key as detailed in MAY alter the interface but MUST meet the following requirements:.

Android includes support for and support for third-party input method editors. Device implementations that allow users to use third-party input methods on the device MUST declare the platform feature android.

Device implementations that declare the android. Device implementations MUST display the settings interface in response to the android. Android includes support for, previously referred to as Dreams.

Screen savers allow users to interact with applications when a device connected to a power source is idle or docked in a desk dock. Android Watch devices MAY implement screen savers, but other types of device implementations SHOULD include support for screen savers and provide a settings option for users toconfigure screen savers in response to the android.

When a device has a hardware sensor e. Android includes support for the emoji characters defined in. Android includes support for Roboto 2 font with different weights—sans-serif-thin, sans-serif-light, sans-serif-medium, sans-serif-black, sans-serif-condensed, sans-serif-condensed-light—which MUST all be included for the languages available on the device and full Unicode 7.

A device implementation MAY choose not to implement any multi-window modes, but if it has the capability to display multiple activities at the same time it MUST implement such multi-window mode s in accordance with the application behaviors and APIs described in the Android SDK and meet the following requirements:.

Android includes features that allow security-aware applications to perform device administration functions at the system level, such as enforcing password policies or performing remote wipe, through the ].

Device implementations MUST provide an implementation of the class. Device implementations that supports a secure lock screen MUST implement the full range of policies defined in the Android SDK documentation and report the platform feature android.

If a device implementation declares the android. Device implementations MAY have a preinstalled application performing device administration functions but this application MUST NOT be set as the Device Owner app without explicit consent or action from the user or the administrator of the device.

Device implementations MUST provide the following user affordances within the Settings user interface to indicate to the user when a particular system function has been disabled by the Device Policy Controller DPC:.

Android provides an accessibility layer that helps users with disabilities to navigate their devices more easily. Device implementations Android Automotive and Android Watch devices with no audio output excluded, MUST provide a user-accessible mechanism to enable and disable accessibility services, and MUST display this interface in response to the android.

Device implementations reporting the feature android. The simplifies the delivery of live content to Android Television devices. Android Television device implementations MUST support, which allows all inputs to provide activity links from the current activity to another activity i.

Android Television device implementations MUST support time shifting, which allows the user to pause and resume live content. Device implementations MUST provide the user a way to pause and resume the currently playing program, if time shifting for that program.

Android includes the API allowing third party apps to implement tiles that can be added by the user alongside the system-provided tiles in the Quick Settings UI component. If a device implementation has a Quick Settings UI component, it:.

The UI framework supporting third-party apps that depend on MediaBrowser and MediaSession has the following visual requirements:. Devices implementations MUST NOT extend either the, , , or RenderScript bytecode formats in such a way that would prevent those files from installing and running correctly on other compatible devices.

Device implementations MUST NOT allow apps other than the current “installer of record” for the package to silently uninstall the app without any prompt, as documented in the SDK for the permission.

The only exceptions are the system package verifier app handling intent and the storage manager app handling intent. MUST support the media formats, encoders, decoders, file types, and container formats defined in the tables below and reported via.

MUST be able to decode all formats it can encode. This includes all bitstreams that its encoders generate. All of the codecs listed in the table below are provided as software implementations in the preferred Android implementation from the Android Open Source Project.

Please note that neither Google nor the Open Handset Alliance make any representation that these codecs are free from third-party patents. Those intending to use this source code in hardware or software products are advised that implementations of this code, including in open source software or shareware, may require patent licenses from the relevant patent holders.

Video codecs MUST support output and input bytebuffer sizes that accommodate the largest feasible compressed and uncompressed frame as dictated by the standard and configuration but also not overallocate.

Android device implementations with H. MUST properly display Dolby Vision content on the device screen or on a standard video output port e. Implementations that provide a Dolby Vision-capable extractor MUST set the track index of backward-compatible base-layer s if present to be the same as the combined Dolby Vision layer’s track index.

Device implementations that declare android. If capture for the above sample rates is supported, then the capture MUST be done without up-sampling at any ratio higher than Any up-sampling or down-sampling MUST include an appropriate anti-aliasing filter.

In addition to the above recording specifications, when an application has started recording an audio stream using the android. If the platform supports noise suppression technologies tuned for speech recognition, the effect MUST be controllable from the android.

Devices that declare android. AudioRecord API to record from this audio source, it can capture a mix of all audio streams except for the following:. Android provides an for device implementations.

Device implementations that declare the feature android. Android Television device implementations MUST include support for system Master Volume and digital audio output volume attenuation on supported outputs, except for compressed audio passthrough output where no audio decoding is done on the device.

Android Automotive device implementations SHOULD allow adjusting audio volume separately per each audio stream using the content type or usage as defined by and car audio usage as publicly defined in android.

Audio latency is the time delay as an audio signal passes through a system. Many classes of applications rely on short latencies, to achieve real-time sound effects.

Device implementations that include android. Specifically, devices MUST support the following media network protocols:. For exceptions please see the table footnotes in. Device implementations that support secure video output and are capable of supporting secure surfaces MUST declare support for Display.

Device implementations that declare support for Display. The upstream Android open source implementation includes support for wireless Miracast and wired HDMI displays that satisfies this requirement.

Starting from Android 7. It can be accessed using the android. A device MUST satisfy all of the following requirements to report support of the unprocessed audio source via the android.

The device MUST exhibit approximately flat amplitude-versus-frequency characteristics in the mid-frequency range: The device MUST exhibit amplitude levels in the low frequency range: The device MUST exhibit amplitude levels in the high frequency range: The only signal processing allowed in the path is a level multiplier to bring the level to desired range.

If any signal processing is present in the architecture for any reason, it MUST be disabled and effectively introduce zero delay or extra latency to the signal path.

Android compatible devices MUST be compatible with:. Android includes support for developers to configure application development-related settings. Android Automotive implementations MAY limit access to the Developer Options menu by visually hiding or disabling the menu when the vehicle is in motion.

If an API in the SDK interacts with a hardware component that is stated to be optional and the device implementation does not possess that component:. A typical example of a scenario where these requirements apply is the telephony API: Even on non-phone devices, these APIs must be implemented as reasonable no-ops.

Device implementations MUST consistently report accurate hardware configuration information via the getSystemAvailableFeatures and hasSystemFeature String methods on the class for the same build fingerprint.

Android includes facilities that automatically adjust application assets and UI layouts appropriately for the device to ensure that third-party applications run well on a. Specifically, device implementations MUST report the correct screen size according to the following logical density-independent pixel dp screen dimensions.

Device implementations MUST correctly honor applications’ stated support for small, normal, large, and xlarge screens, as described in the Android SDK documentation. The screen aspect ratio MUST be a value from 1.

The Android UI framework defines a set of standard logical densities to help application developers target application resources. Device implementations MUST report only one of the following logical Android framework densities through the android.

Device implementations SHOULD define the standard Android framework density that is numerically closest to the physical density of the screen, unless that logical density pushes the reported screen size below the minimum supported.

If the standard Android framework density that is numerically closest to the physical density results in a screen size that is smaller than the smallest supported compatible screen size dp width, device implementations SHOULD report the next lowest standard Android framework density.

Device implementations MUST report correct values for all display metrics defined in and MUST report the same values regardless of whether the embedded or external screen is used as the default display.

Devices MUST report which screen orientations they support android. For example, a device with a fixed orientation landscape screen, such as a television or laptop, SHOULD only report android.

Devices that report both screen orientations MUST support dynamic orientation by applications to either portrait or landscape screen orientation. Device implementations MAY select either portrait or landscape orientation as the default.

If the extension pack is supported in its entirety, the device MUST identify the support through the android. Note that Android includes support for applications to optionally specify that they require specific OpenGL texture compression formats.

These formats are typically vendor-specific. Device implementations are not required by Android to implement any specific texture compression format. Android includes a mechanism for applications to declare that they want to enable hardware acceleration for 2D graphics at the Application, Activity, Window, or View level through the use of a manifest tag or direct API calls.

Device implementations MUST enable hardware acceleration by default, and MUST disable hardware acceleration if the developer so requests by setting android: Device implementations MUST support extension.

The Android platform includes APIs that allow applications to render rich graphics to the display. Android includes support for secondary display to enable media sharing capabilities and developer APIs for accessing external displays.

If a device supports an external display either via a wired, wireless, or an embedded additional display connection then the device implementation MUST implement the as described in the Android SDK documentation.

Devices MUST support a touchscreen or meet the requirements listed in 7. All other device implementations MUST implement a soft keyboard and:. The availability and visibility requirement of the Home, Recents, and Back functions differ between device types as described in this section.

These functions MAY be implemented via dedicated physical buttons such as mechanical or capacitive touch buttons, or MAY be implemented using dedicated software keys on a distinct portion of the screen, gestures, touch panel, etc.

Android supports both implementations. All of these functions MUST be accessible with a single action e. Recents function, if provided, MUST have a visible button or icon unless hidden together with other navigation functions in full-screen mode.

This does not apply to devices upgrading from earlier Android versions that have physical buttons for navigation and no recents key. The Menu function is deprecated in favor of action bar since Android 4.

Therefore the new device implementations shipping with Android 7. For backwards compatibility, device implementations MUST make the Menu function available to applications when targetSdkVersion is less than 10, either by a physical button, a software key, or gestures.

This Menu function should be presented unless hidden together with other navigation functions. Device implementations MAY use a distinct portion of the screen to display the navigation keys, but if so, MUST meet these requirements:.

Device implementations that do include a pointer input system:. Android includes support for a variety of touchscreens, touch pads, and fake touch input devices. Since the user is directly touching the screen, the system does not require any additional affordances to indicate the objects being manipulated.

In contrast, a fake touch interface provides a user input system that approximates a subset of touchscreen capabilities. For example, a mouse or remote control that drives an on-screen cursor approximates touch, but requires the user to first point or focus then click.

Numerous input devices like the mouse, trackpad, gyro-based air mouse, gyro-pointer, joystick, and multi-touch trackpad can support fake touch interactions. Android includes the feature constant android.

Device implementations that declare the fake touch feature MUST meet the fake touch requirements in. Device implementations MUST report the correct feature corresponding to the type of input used.

Device implementations that include a touchscreen single-touch or better MUST report the platform feature constant android. Device implementations that report the platform feature constant android.

Devices that declare support for android. Android Television device implementations MUST support button mappings for game controllers as listed below. The upstream Android implementation includes implementation for game controllers that satisfies this requirement.

The logical value is defined to be the clockwise rotation away from the vertical axis; for example, a logical value of 0 represents no rotation and the up button being pressed, while a logical value of 1 represents a rotation of 45 degrees and both the up and left keys being pressed.

The remote control MAY be a physical remote or can be a software-based remote that is accessible from a mobile phone or tablet. The remote control MUST meet the requirements defined below.

Android includes APIs for accessing a variety of sensor types. Devices implementations generally MAY omit these sensors, as provided for in the following subsections. For example, device implementations:.

The list above is not comprehensive; the documented behavior of the Android SDK and the Android Open Source Documentations on is to be considered authoritative. Some sensor types are composite, meaning they can be derived from data provided by one or more other sensors.

Examples include the orientation sensor and the linear acceleration sensor. Device implementations SHOULD implement these sensor types, when they include the prerequisite physical sensors as described in.

If a device implementation includes a composite sensor it MUST implement the sensor as described in the Android Open Source documentation on. Some Android sensors support a, which returns data continuously.

If a device implementation does include a 3-axis accelerometer, it:. If a device does include a 3-axis magnetometer, it:. If a device implementation includes a gyroscope, it:.

If a device implementation includes a barometer, it:. Device implementations MAY include an ambient thermometer temperature sensor. Device implementations MAY include a proximity sensor.

If a device implementation does include a proximity sensor, it:. Device implementations supporting a set of higher quality sensors that can meet all the requirements listed in this section MUST identify the support through the android.

A device declaring android. Note that all power consumption requirements in this section do not include the power consumption of the Application Processor. It is inclusive of the power drawn by the entire sensor chain—the sensor, any supporting circuitry, any dedicated sensor processing system, etc.

The following sensor types MAY also be supported on a device implementation declaring android. If a device implementation includes a fingerprint sensor and has a corresponding API for third-party developers, it:.

Automotive-specific sensors are defined in the android. The underlying ambient light sensor MAY be the same as. Device implementations MAY support pose sensor with 6 degrees of freedom.

If a device implementation does support pose sensor with 6 degrees of freedom, it:. While these voice calls may or may not be packet-switched, they are for the purposes of Android considered independent of any data connectivity that may be implemented using the same network.

Android MAY be used on devices that do not include telephony hardware. That is, Android is compatible with devices that are not phones. If a device implementation does include support for If a device implementation includes support for Wi-Fi Direct, then it:.

Device implementations that support android. Android includes support for. If a device implementation does include NFC hardware and plans to make it available to third-party apps, then it:.

If a device implementation does include an NFC controller chipset capable of HCE for NfcF, and it implements the feature for third-party applications, then it:. As the classes android.

Device implementations MUST include support for one or more forms of data networking. Device implementations where a physical networking standard such as Ethernet is the primary data connection SHOULD also include support for at least one common wireless data standard, such as The required level of IPv6 support depends on the network type, as follows:.

Redundant multicast IPv6 packets, such as repeated identical Router Advertisements, MAY be rate-limited in hardware or firmware if doing so is necessary to save power.

MUST provide a user interface in the settings, allowing users to add applications to or remove applications from the whitelist. MUST have an activity that handles the Settings. A rear-facing camera is a camera located on the side of the device opposite the display; that is, it images scenes on the far side of the device, like a traditional camera.

A front-facing camera is a camera located on the same side of the device as the display; that is, a camera typically used to image the user, such as for video conferencing and similar applications.

If a device implementation includes at least one rear-facing camera, it:. Device implementations MAY include a front-facing camera. If a device implementation includes at least one front-facing camera, it:.

Device implementations MAY include support for an external camera that is not necessarily always connected. If a device includes support for an external camera, it:. Android includes two API packages to access the camera, the newer android.

The older API package, android. Camera, is marked as deprecated in Android 5. Device implementations MUST still implement the full included in the Android SDK documentation, regardless of whether the device includes hardware autofocus or other capabilities.

For instance, cameras that lack autofocus MUST still call any registered android. AutoFocusCallback instances even though this has no relevance to a non-autofocus camera. Device implementations MUST recognize and honor each parameter name defined as a constant on the class, if the underlying hardware supports the feature.

If the device hardware does not support a feature, the API must behave as documented. Because not all device implementations can fully support all the features of the android.

That is, when the device is held in the landscape orientation, cameras MUST capture images in the landscape orientation. The memory available to the kernel and userspace on device implementations MUST be at least equal or larger than the minimum values specified by the following table.

See for screen size and density definitions. If this slot is used to satisfy the shared storage requirement, the device implementation:. Alternatively, device implementations MAY allocate internal non-removable storage as shared storage for apps as included in the upstream Android Open Source Project; device implementations SHOULD use this configuration and software implementation.

Device implementations MUST enforce as documented the android. Shared storage MUST otherwise be writable by any application that obtains that permission. Regardless of the form of shared storage used, if the device implementation has a USB port with USB peripheral mode support, it MUST provide some mechanism to access the contents of shared storage from a host computer.

If the device implementation supports Media Transfer Protocol, it:. Device implementations such as a television, MAY enable adoption through USB ports as the device is expected to be static and not mobile.

Device implementations MAY omit a microphone. Conversely, device implementations that do possess a microphone:. In order to be compatible with the using the 3. If a device implementation has a 4 conductor 3.

Near-Ultrasound audio is the Android handheld device implementations that support a mode for VR applications that handles stereoscopic rendering of notifications and disable monocular system UI components while a VR application has user focus MUST declare android.

Devices declaring this feature MUST include an application implementing android. VrListenerService that can be enabled by VR applications via android. Android handheld device implementations MUST identify the support of high performance virtual reality for longer user periods through the android.

Some minimum performance and power criteria are critical to the user experience and impact the baseline assumptions developers would have when developing an app.

Device implementations MUST provide a smooth user interface by ensuring a consistent frame rate and response times for applications and games. Device implementations MUST meet the following requirements:.

Device implementations MUST ensure internal storage file access performance consistency for read and write operations. Further, the triggering, maintenance, wakeup algorithms and the use of global system settings of these power-saving modes MUST not deviate from the Android Open Source Project.

In addition to the power-saving modes, Android device implementations MAY implement any or all of the 4 sleeping power states as defined by the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface ACPI, but if it implements S3 and S4 power states, it can only enter these states when closing a lid that is physically part of the device.

A more accurate accounting and reporting of the power consumption provides the app developer both the incentives and the tools to optimize the power usage pattern of the application.

Performance can fluctuate dramatically for high-performance long-running apps, either because of the other apps running in the background or the CPU throttling due to temperature limits.

Android includes programmatic interfaces so that when the device is capable, the top foreground application can request that the system optimize the allocation of the resources to address such fluctuations.

If provided, implementations MUST meet the following requirements:. Device implementations MUST implement a security model consistent with the Android platform security model as defined in in the APIs in the Android developer documentation.

Specifically, compatible devices MUST support the security mechanisms described in the follow subsections. Specifically, implementations MUST enforce each permission defined as described in the SDK documentation; no permissions may be omitted, altered, or ignored.

Implementations MAY add additional permissions, provided the new permission ID strings are not in the android. Permissions with a protection level of dangerous are runtime permissions.

Device implementations MUST support running multiple applications as the same Linux user ID, provided that the applications are properly signed and constructed, as defined in the.

Device implementations MAY include runtime environments that execute applications using some other software or technology than the Dalvik Executable Format or native code.

However, such alternate execution environments MUST NOT compromise the Android security model or the security of installed Android applications, as described in this section.

Alternate runtimes MUST themselves be Android applications, and abide by the standard Android security model, as described elsewhere in. When installing applications, alternate runtimes MUST obtain user consent for the Android permissions used by the application.

If an application needs to make use of a device resource for which there is a corresponding Android permission such as Camera, GPS, etc. If the runtime environment does not record application capabilities in this manner, the runtime environment MUST list all permissions held by the runtime itself when installing any application using that runtime.

Android includes and provides support for full user isolation. Android includes support for warning users of any outgoing. Premium SMS messages are text messages sent to a service registered with a carrier that may incur a charge to the user.

Device implementations that declare support for android.

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Google provides Android users with a dedicated SDK that contains various types of tool-kits for developers. ADB and Fastboot are among the most known tools that every Android user uses regularly or in special situations like fixing an issue or installing stock firmware.

Android encourages developers and users to engage in development activities. And therefore, all Android devices come with Developer Options built in. You can find the developer options under your device settings.

Developer options are useful in various development activities, such as:. Once enabled on your device, this option prepares your device to communicate with your computer and allow it to write data on itself.

If you wish to install stock firmware, root your device, unlock bootloader or flash factory images or kernels, you will have to enable USB Debugging on your device to activate the debug bridge between the device and your computer.

The Developer options could easily be found on any Android device running Android 4. Making the option visible has now been made a little tricky. We would not talk about that in detail here as we already have a comprehensive tutorial on the topic:.

I have really no idea as to why anyone would wish to hide the Developer options after enabling it. Suppose your device in caught in a bootloop for some reason and you have to flash stock firmware to fix it.

To avoid such situations, keeping USB Debugging enable all the time is a must-do thing. Anyway, if you are still interested in hiding or disabling Developer options on your Android device, we have come up with a few tips to make the option invisible again.

I tried method 1 on Samsung devices too but the Clear Dat a option was not executable there at all. If you own a Samsung device and are desperate to get rid of Developer option driven by some freak of mind, you will have take some more pain to do that.

Following the method described below will wipe all data and installed apps on your device. Doing this will not delete any data stored on the internal SD card. Try the methods give above and let us know which of them worked for you.

For more tips and tricks on Android,. The Android Build Cookbook offers code snippets to help you quickly implement some common build tasks. For additional instruction, please see the other build documents in this section.

These are the variables that you’ll commonly see in Android. First, a note on the variable naming:. These paths are rooted at the top of the tree. The set of files to copy to the install include tree.

This is going away because copying headers messes up the error messages, and may lead to people editing those headers instead of the correct ones. It also makes it easier to do bad layering in the system, which we want to avoid.

There is a very short list of libraries that we have in static form currently only libc. See the template makefile for an example. Currently there are two of these: In most cases, it will look like this:.

The appropriate libraries will be included automatically. Keep in mind that the order of parameters is very important to ld, so test whatever you do on all platforms.

Specify the libraries you want in – lxxx format; they’re passed directly to the link line. However, keep in mind that there will be no dependency generated for these libraries.

It’s most useful in simulator builds where you want to use a library preinstalled on the host. The linker ld is a particularly fussy beast, so it’s sometimes necessary to pass other flags here if you’re doing something sneaky.

For host executables, you can specify a command to run on the module after it’s been linked. You might have to go through some contortions to get variables right because of early or late variable evaluation:.

If this module is installed, all of the modules that it requires will be installed as well. This can be used to, e. Wireless charging is one of our favorite smartphone features. The problem is that there are very few Android devices that have wireless charging abilities right out of the box.

In the coming years, wireless charging will be included in every gadget that we buy. Android “Ice Cream Sandwich” is a codename for the developed by, that is no longer supported.

The Ice Cream Sandwich release also introduced a number of other new features, including a refreshed home screen, NFC support and the ability to “beam” content to another user using the technology, an updated web browser, a new contacts manager with social network integration, the ability to access the camera and control music playback from the, support, for device unlocking “Face Unlock” , the ability to monitor and limit usage, and other internal improvements.

Following the – only release “Honeycomb”, it was announced at that the next version of Android, code named “Ice Cream Sandwich” ICS, would be emphasized providing a unified user experience between both and tablets.

In June, details also began to surface surrounding a by to accompany ICS, which would notably exclude hardware navigation keys. Android blog RootzWiki released photos in August showing a running a build of ICS, depicting a new application menu layout resembling that of Honeycomb, and a new interface with blue-colored accenting.

However, out of respect for the death of co-founder, Google and Samsung postponed the event to October 19, , in. The overall visual appearance of Android was streamlined for Ice Cream Sandwich, building upon the changes made on the tablet-oriented Android 3.

He characterized the revised look of Ice Cream Sandwich as having “toned down the geeky nerd quotient” in comparison to Honeycomb, which carried a more futuristic appearance that was compared by critics to the aesthetics of.

In January, following the official launch of Ice Cream Sandwich, Duarte and Google launched an Android Design portal, which features, best practices, and other resources for developers building Android apps designed for Ice Cream Sandwich.

However, on December 20, , the Nexus S roll-out was “paused” so the company could “monitor feedback” related to the update. Ice Cream Sandwich also introduces a new default system font, ; designed in-house to replace the, Roboto is primarily optimized for use on high-resolution mobile displays.

The new visual appearance of Ice Cream Sandwich is implemented by a known as “Holo”; to ensure access to the Holo style across all devices—even if they use a customized interface skin elsewhere, all Android devices certified to ship with formerly Android Market must provide the capability for apps to use the unmodified Holo theme.

As with Honeycomb, devices can render navigation buttons—”Back”, “Home”, and “Recent apps”—on a “system bar” across the bottom of the screen, removing the need for physical equivalents.

The “Menu” button that was present on previous generations of Android devices is deprecated, in favor of presenting buttons for actions within apps on “”, and menu items which do not fit on the bar in “action overflow” menus, designated by three vertical dots.

Hardware “Search” buttons are also deprecated, in favor of search buttons within action bars. On devices without a “Menu” key, a temporary “Menu” key is displayed on-screen while running apps that are not coded to support the new navigation scheme.

On devices that use a hardware “Menu” key, action overflow buttons are hidden in apps and are mapped to the “Menu” key. The default home screen of Ice Cream Sandwich displays a persistent Google Search bar across the top of the screen, and a dock across the bottom containing the app drawer button in the middle, and four slots for app shortcuts alongside it.

Folders of apps can be formed by dragging an app and hovering it over another. The app drawer is split into two tabs; one for apps, and the latter holding to be placed on home screen pages.

Widgets themselves can be resizable and contain scrolling content. The phone app was updated with a Holo design, the ability to send pre-configured text message responses in response to incoming calls, and integration within the call log display.

The web browser app incorporates updated versions of and, supports syncing with, has an override mode for loading a desktop-oriented version of a website rather than a mobile-oriented version, as well as.

The “Contacts” section of the phone app was split off into a new “People” app, which offers integration with social networks such as to display recent posts and synchronize contacts, and a “Me” profile for the device’s user.

The camera app was redesigned, with a reduction in shutter lag, face detection, a new mode, and the ability to take still photos from a video being recorded in camcorder mode. The photo gallery app now contains basic photo editing tools.

The now supports, includes a shortcut for launching the camera app, and can house playback controls for music players. The keyboard incorporates improved algorithms, and improvements to voice input allow for continuous dictation.

The ability to take by holding down the power and “Volume down” buttons together was also added. On devices supporting NFC, “Android Beam” allows users to share links to content from compatible apps by holding the back of their device up against the back of another NFC-equipped Android device, and tapping the screen when prompted.

Certain “System” apps particularly those that cannot be uninstalled can now be disabled. This hides the application and prevents it from launching, but the application is not removed from storage.

Background data usage can be disabled globally or on a per-app basis, and a cap can be set to automatically disable data if usage reaches a certain as calculated by the device. The operating system also provides improved support for and input, along with new accessibility, , keychain, , social networking, and.

Other features were noted, such as the improvements to text and voice input, along with the data usage controls especially given the increasing use of metered data plans, and its overall performance improvements in comparison to Gingerbread.

However, the Face Unlock feature was panned for being an insecure, and although providing an improved experience over previous version, some of its stock applications such as its were panned for still being inferior to third-party alternatives.

It also designs that implement this and licenses these designs to a number of companies that incorporate those core designs into their own products. A means processors require fewer than typical CISC processors in most.

This approach reduces costs, heat and power use. For, which consume large amounts of electricity, ARM could also be a power-efficient solution. ARM Holdings periodically releases updates to architectures and core designs.

All of them support a only pre-ARMv3 chips, made before ARM Holdings was formed, as in original, had smaller and bit arithmetic; instructions for ARM Holdings’ cores have bit fixed-length instructions, but later versions of the architecture also support a variable-length instruction set that provides both and bit instructions for improved.

Some older cores can also provide hardware execution of. The ARMv8-A architecture, announced in October, adds support for a address space and bit arithmetic with its new bit fixed-length instruction set.

Currently, the widely used Cortex, older “classic” cores, and specialized cores variants are available for each of these to include or exclude optional capabilities.

Its first ARM-based products were coprocessor modules for the series of computers. After the successful BBC Micro computer, Acorn Computers considered how to move on from the relatively simple processor to address business markets like the one that was soon dominated by the, launched in The ABC plan required that a number of be made to work with the BBC Micro platform, but processors such as the and were considered unsuitable, and the was not powerful enough for a.

After testing all available processors and finding them lacking, Acorn decided it needed a new architecture. Inspired by white papers on the project, Acorn considered designing its own processor.

A visit to the in Phoenix, where the was being updated by what was effectively a single-person company, showed Acorn engineers and Sophie Wilson they did not need massive resources and state-of-the-art facilities.

Wilson developed the instruction set, writing a simulation of the processor in that ran on a BBC Micro with a. This convinced Acorn engineers they were on the right track. Wilson approached Acorn’s CEO, , and requested more resources.

Hauser gave his approval and assembled a small team to implement Wilson’s model in hardware. They chose as the silicon partner, as they were a source of ROMs and custom chips for Acorn.

Wilson and Furber led the design. They implemented it with a similar efficiency ethos as the The ‘s memory access architecture had let developers produce fast machines without costly DMA hardware.

The first samples of ARM silicon worked properly when first received and tested on 26 April The original aim of a principally ARM-based computer was achieved in with the release of the. In, Acorn once more won the for the ARM.

The ARM2 had a of just 30,, compared to Motorola’s six-year-older model with around 40, Much of this simplicity came from the lack of which represents about one-quarter to one-third of the and from like most CPUs of the day not including any.

This simplicity enabled low power consumption, yet better performance than the. In the late s and started working with Acorn on newer versions of the ARM core. This work was later passed to Intel as part of a lawsuit settlement, and Intel took the opportunity to supplement their line with the StrongARM.

Intel later developed its own high performance implementation named XScale, which it has since sold to. In, producers of chips based on ARM architectures reported shipments of 6. In, the bit ARM architecture was the most widely used architecture in mobile devices and the most popular bit one in embedded systems.

The combines the ARM core with other parts to produce a complete device, typically one that can be built in existing fabs at low cost and still deliver substantial performance.

The most successful implementation has been the with hundreds of millions sold. In, some manufacturers introduced netbooks based on ARM architecture CPUs, in direct competition with netbooks based on.

ARM Holdings offers a variety of licensing terms, varying in cost and deliverables. For these customers, ARM Holdings delivers a description of the chosen ARM core, along with an abstracted simulation model and test programs to aid design integration and verification.

More ambitious customers, including integrated device manufacturers IDM and foundry operators, choose to acquire the processor IP in form. With the synthesizable RTL, the customer has the ability to perform architectural level optimisations and extensions.

This allows the designer to achieve exotic design goals not otherwise possible with an unmodified netlist, very low power consumption, instruction set extensions, etc.

While ARM Holdings does not grant the licensee the right to resell the ARM architecture itself, licensees may freely sell manufactured product such as chip devices, evaluation boards and complete systems.

Lower performing ARM cores typically have lower licence costs than higher performing cores. In implementation terms, a synthesizable core costs more than a hard macro blackbox core.

Complicating price matters, a merchant foundry that holds an ARM licence, such as Samsung or Fujitsu, can offer fab customers reduced licensing costs. In exchange for acquiring the ARM core through the foundry’s in-house design services, the customer can reduce or eliminate payment of ARM’s upfront licence fee.

For high volume mass-produced parts, the long term cost reduction achievable through lower wafer pricing reduces the impact of ARM’s NRE Non-Recurring Engineering costs, making the dedicated foundry a better choice.

Companies that have designed chips with ARM cores include ‘s subsidiary, , , , , , , now, , , , , , and. These cores must comply fully with the ARM architecture. ARM cores are used in a number of products, particularly and.

Some examples are ‘s and, ‘s, and ‘s. Others include Apple’s and, , and turn-by-turn. ARM chips are also used in, , , and other, because they are very small, inexpensive and consume very little power.

Since, the has been the primary source of documentation on the ARM processor architecture and instruction set, distinguishing interfaces that all ARM processors are required to support such as instruction semantics from implementation details that may vary.

The architecture has evolved over time, and version seven of the architecture, ARMv7, defines three architecture “profiles”:. At any moment in time, the CPU can be in only one mode, but it can switch modes due to external events interrupts or programmatically.

The original and subsequent ARM implementation was hardwired without, like the much simpler processor used in prior Acorn microcomputers. To compensate for the simpler design, compared with processors like the Intel and, some additional design features were used:.

ARM includes integer arithmetic operations for add, subtract, and multiply; some versions of the architecture also support divide operations. FIQ mode has its own distinct R8 through R12 registers.

R13 and R14 are banked across all privileged CPU modes except system mode. That is, each mode that can be entered because of an exception has its own R13 and R These registers generally contain the stack pointer and the return address from function calls, respectively.

Almost every ARM instruction has a conditional execution feature called, which is implemented with a 4-bit condition code selector the predicate. To allow for unconditional execution, one of the four-bit codes causes the instruction to be always executed.

Most other CPU architectures only have condition codes on branch instructions. If Ri and Rj are equal then neither of the SUB instructions will be executed, eliminating the need for a conditional branch to implement the while check at the top of the loop, for example had SUBLE less than or equal been used.

One of the ways that Thumb code provides a more dense encoding is to remove the four bit selector from non-branch instructions. Another feature of the is the ability to fold shifts and rotates into the “data processing” arithmetic, logical, and register-register move instructions, so that, for example, the C statement.

This results in the typical ARM program being denser than expected with fewer memory accesses; thus the pipeline is used more efficiently. The ARM instruction set has increased over time.

The ARM7 and earlier implementations have a three-stage ; the stages being fetch, decode and execute. Higher-performance designs, such as the ARM9, have deeper pipelines: Cortex-A8 has thirteen stages.

Additional implementation changes for higher performance include a faster and more extensive logic. In ARM-based machines, peripheral devices are usually attached to the processor by mapping their physical registers into ARM memory space, into the coprocessor space, or by connecting to another device a bus that in turn attaches to the processor.

Coprocessor accesses have lower latency, so some peripherals—for example, an XScale interrupt controller—are accessible in both ways: In other cases, chip designers only integrate hardware using the coprocessor mechanism.

All modern ARM processors include hardware debugging facilities, allowing software debuggers to perform operations such as halting, stepping, and breakpointing of code starting from reset.

These facilities are built using support, though some newer cores optionally support ARM’s own two-wire “SWD” protocol. The ARMv7 architecture defines basic debug facilities at an architectural level.

These include breakpoints, watchpoints and instruction execution in a “Debug Mode”; similar facilities were also available with EmbeddedICE. Both “halt mode” and “monitor” mode debugging are supported.

The actual transport mechanism used to access the debug facilities is not architecturally specified, but implementations generally include JTAG support. E-variants also imply T, D, M and I.

The new instructions are common in DSP architectures. They include variations on signed, saturated add and subtract, and count leading zeros. Support for this state is required starting in ARMv6 except for the ARMv7-M profile, though newer cores only include a trivial implementation that provides no hardware acceleration.

When in this state, the processor executes the Thumb instruction set, a compact bit encoding for a subset of the ARM instruction set. Most of the Thumb instructions are directly mapped to normal ARM instructions.

The space-saving comes from making some of the instruction operands implicit and limiting the number of possibilities compared to the ARM instructions executed in the ARM instruction set state.

In Thumb, the bit opcodes have less functionality. For example, only branches can be conditional, and many opcodes are restricted to accessing only half of all of the CPU’s general-purpose registers.

The shorter opcodes give improved code density overall, even though some operations require extra instructions. Embedded hardware, such as the, typically have a small amount of RAM accessible with a full bit datapath; the majority is accessed via a bit or narrower secondary datapath.

In this situation, it usually makes sense to compile Thumb code and hand-optimise a few of the most CPU-intensive sections using full bit ARM instructions, placing these wider instructions into the bit bus accessible memory.

The Thumb instruction set was originally inspired by ‘s ; ARM licensed several patents from. Thumb-2 extends the limited bit instruction set of Thumb with additional bit instructions to give the instruction set more breadth, thus producing a variable-length instruction set.

A stated aim for Thumb-2 was to achieve code density similar to Thumb with performance similar to the ARM instruction set on bit memory. Thumb-2 extends the Thumb instruction set with bit-field manipulation, table branches and conditional execution.

At the same time, the ARM instruction set was extended to maintain equivalent functionality in both instruction sets. This requires a bit of care, and use of a new “IT” if-then instruction, which permits up to four successive instructions to execute based on a tested condition, or on its inverse.

When compiling into ARM code, this is ignored, but when compiling into Thumb it generates an actual instruction. All ARMv7 chips support the Thumb instruction set. ThumbEE is a fourth instruction set state, making small changes to the Thumb-2 extended instruction set.

These changes make the instruction set particularly suited to code generated at runtime e. ThumbEE is a target for languages such as, , , and, and allows to output smaller compiled code without impacting performance.

New features provided by ThumbEE include automatic null pointer checks on every load and store instruction, an instruction to perform an array bounds check, and special instructions that call a handler.

Handlers are small sections of frequently called code, commonly used to implement high level languages, such as allocating memory for a new object. These changes come from repurposing a handful of opcodes, and knowing the core is in the new ThumbEE state.

It provides low-cost and floating-point computation fully compliant with the. VFP provides floating-point computation suitable for a wide spectrum of applications such as PDAs, smartphones, voice compression and decompression, three-dimensional graphics and digital audio, printers, set-top boxes, and automotive applications.

The VFP architecture was intended to support execution of short “vector mode” instructions but these operated on each vector element sequentially and thus did not offer the performance of true SIMD vector parallelism.

They provide some of the same functionality as VFP but are not – compatible with it. Software packages and cross-compiler tools use the armhf vs. It features a comprehensive instruction set, separate register files and independent execution hardware.

NEON supports 8-, , and bit integer and single-precision bit floating-point data and SIMD operations for handling audio and video processing as well as graphics and gaming processing. The code is available on.

It provides a low-cost alternative to adding another dedicated security core to an SoC, by providing two virtual processors backed by hardware based access control.

This lets the application core switch between two states, referred to as worlds to reduce confusion with other names for capability domains, in order to prevent information from leaking from the more trusted world to the less trusted world.

This world switch is generally orthogonal to all other capabilities of the processor, thus each world can operate independently of the other while using the same core. Memory and peripherals are then made aware of the operating world of the core and may use this to provide access control to secrets and code on the device.

Typically, a rich operating system is run in the less trusted world, with smaller security-specialized code in the more trusted world, aiming to reduce the. Typical applications include functionality for controlling the use of media on ARM-based devices, and preventing any unapproved use of the device.

Trusted Foundations Software was acquired by Gemalto. In practice, since the specific implementation details of proprietary TrustZone implementations have not been publicly disclosed for review, it is unclear what level of assurance is provided for a given, but they are not immune from attack.

Open Virtualization and T6 are open source implementations of the trusted world architecture for TrustZone. Enabled in some but not all products, AMD’s include a Cortex-A5 processor for handling secure processing.

It adds an optional bit architecture e. AArch64 provides compatibility with ARMv7-A, the bit architecture, therein referred to as “AArch32” and the old bit instruction set, now named “A32”.

The Thumb instruction sets are referred to as “T32” and have no bit counterpart. Apple was the first to release an ARMv8-A compatible core in a consumer product. In December, ARMv8.

The enhancements fell into two categories: In January, ARMv8. Its enhancements fell into four categories:. This document enumerates the requirements that must be met in order for devices to be compatible with Android 7.

To be considered compatible with Android 7. Where this definition or the software tests described in is silent, ambiguous, or incomplete, it is the responsibility of the device implementer to ensure compatibility with existing implementations.

For this reason, the is both the reference and preferred implementation of Android. Finally, note that certain component substitutions and modifications are explicitly forbidden by this document.

Any technical details provided in the linked resources throughout this document are considered by inclusion to be part of this Compatibility Definition.

While the Android Open Source Project has been used in the implementation of a variety of device types and form factors, many aspects of the architecture and compatibility requirements were optimized for handheld devices.

Starting from Android 5. Android Handheld device refers to an Android device implementation that is typically used by holding it in the hand, such as mp3 players, phones, and tablets. Android Handheld device implementations:.

Android Watch device refers to an Android device implementation intended to be worn on the body, perhaps on the wrist, and:. All Android device implementations that do not fit into any of the above device types still MUST meet all requirements in this document to be Android 7.

This is a summary of major differences in hardware configuration by device type. Not all configurations are covered in this table; see relevant hardware sections for more detail.

The managed Dalvik bytecode execution environment is the primary vehicle for Android applications. The Android application programming interface API is the set of Android platform interfaces exposed to applications running in the managed runtime environment.

This Compatibility Definition permits some types of hardware for which Android includes APIs to be omitted by device implementations. See for specific requirements for this scenario.

For example, Android 7. Device implementers MUST support and enforce all permission constants as documented by the. Note that lists additional requirements related to the Android security model.

The Android APIs include a number of constants on the that are intended to describe the current device. To provide consistent, meaningful values across device implementations, the table below includes additional restrictions on the formats of these values to which device implementations MUST conform.

Android intents allow application components to request functionality from other Android components. The Android upstream project includes a list of applications considered core Android applications, which implements several intent patterns to perform common actions.

The core Android applications are:. Device implementations MUST include the core Android applications as appropriate or a component implementing the same intent patterns defined by all the Activity or Service components of these core Android applications exposed to other applications, implicitly or explicitly, through the android: As Android is an extensible platform, device implementations MUST allow each intent pattern referenced in to be overridden by third-party applications.

The upstream Android open source implementation allows this by default; device implementers MUST NOT attach special privileges to system applications’ use of these intent patterns, or prevent third-party applications from binding to and assuming control of these patterns.

Device implementations MUST provide a user interface for users to modify the default activity for intents. Android also includes a mechanism for third-party apps to declare an authoritative default for certain types of web URI intents.

When such authoritative declarations are defined in an app’s intent filter patterns, device implementations:. Device implementations MAY include intent patterns using namespaces clearly and obviously associated with their own organization.

This prohibition is analogous to that specified for Java language classes in. Third-party applications rely on the platform to broadcast certain intents to notify them of changes in the hardware or software environment.

Android-compatible devices MUST broadcast the public broadcast intents in response to appropriate system events. Broadcast intents are described in the SDK documentation.

Android includes settings that provide users an easy way to select their default applications, for example for Home screen or SMS. Where it makes sense, device implementations MUST provide a similar settings menu and be compatible with the intent filter pattern and API methods described in the SDK documentation as below.

Native code compatibility is challenging. Managed Dalvik bytecode can call into native code provided in the application. Although all the symbols must be present, only the corresponding functions for OpenGL ES versions and extensions actually supported by the device must be fully implemented.

The platform feature android. Because it is not feasible to develop a comprehensive test suite for a web rendering system, device implementers MUST use the specific upstream build of Chromium in the WebView implementation.

However, even if an alternate Browser application is used, the android. Implementations MAY ship a custom user agent string in the standalone Browser application. Note that as the web development standards bodies are transitioning to favor IndexedDB over webstorage, IndexedDB is expected to become a required component in a future version of Android.

The behaviors of each of the API types managed, soft, native, and web must be consistent with the preferred implementation of the upstream. Some specific areas of compatibility are:.

The above list is not comprehensive. The Compatibility Test Suite CTS tests significant portions of the platform for behavioral compatibility, but not all. It is the responsibility of the implementer to ensure behavioral compatibility with the Android Open Source Project.

Android follows the package and class namespace conventions defined by the Java programming language. To ensure compatibility with third-party applications, device implementers MUST NOT make any prohibited modifications see below to these package namespaces:.

If a device implementer proposes to improve one of the package namespaces above such as by adding useful new functionality to an existing API, or adding a new API, the implementer SHOULD visit and begin the process for contributing changes and code, according to the information on that site.

Note that the restrictions above correspond to standard conventions for naming APIs in the Java programming language; this section simply aims to reinforce those conventions and make them binding through inclusion in this Compatibility Definition.

Device implementations MUST configure Dalvik runtimes to allocate memory in accordance with the upstream Android platform, and as specified by the following table.

See for screen size and screen density definitions. Note that memory values specified below are considered minimum values and device implementations MAY allocate more memory per application. Android includes a launcher application home screen and support for third-party applications to replace the device launcher home screen.

Device implementations that allow third-party applications to replace the device home screen MUST declare the platform feature android. Device implementations that support embedding widgets on the home screen MUST meet the following requirements and declare support for platform feature android.

Android includes APIs that allow developers to using hardware and software features of the device. Some APIs allow applications to perform notifications or attract attention using hardware—specifically sound, vibration, and light.

Device implementations MUST support notifications that use hardware features, as described in the SDK documentation, and to the extent possible with the device implementation hardware.

This behavior is further detailed in. Additionally, the implementation MUST correctly render all icons, animation files etc. Device implementers MAY provide an alternative user experience for notifications than that provided by the reference Android Open Source implementation; however, such alternative notification systems MUST support existing notification resources, as above.

Android includes Notification Listener Service APIs that allow apps once explicitly enabled by the user to receive a copy of all notifications as they are posted or updated.

Device implementations MUST correctly and promptly send notifications in their entirety to all such installed and user-enabled listener services, including any and all metadata attached to the Notification object.

Handheld device implementations MUST support the behaviors of updating, removing, replying to, and bundling notifications as described in this. All 6 direct subclasses of the Notification.

Style class MUST be supported as described in the. Generally speaking, this functionality consists of a single, system-wide user interface that allows users to enter queries, displays suggestions as users type, and displays results.

The Android APIs allow developers to reuse this interface to provide search within their own apps and allow developers to supply results to the common global search user interface.

Android device implementations SHOULD include global search, a single, shared, system-wide search user interface capable of real-time suggestions in response to user input. Device implementations that implement the global search interface MUST implement the APIs that allow third-party applications to add suggestions to the search box when it is run in global search mode.

If no third-party applications are installed that make use of this functionality, the default behavior SHOULD be to display web search engine results and suggestions. Android also includes the to allow applications to elect how much information of the current context is shared with the assistant on the device.

Device implementations supporting the Assist action MUST indicate clearly to the end user when the context is shared by displaying a white light around the edges of the screen.

To ensure clear visibility to the end user, the indication MUST meet or exceed the duration and brightness of the Android Open Source Project implementation. The preinstalled app MUST request the context to be shared only when the user invoked the app by one of the following means, and the app is running in the foreground:.

The device implementation MUST provide an affordance to enable the indication, less than two navigations away from the default voice input and assistant app settings menu. Applications can use the to display short non-modal strings to the end user that disappear after a brief period of time.

Device implementations MUST display Toasts from applications to end users in some high-visibility manner. Device implementations MAY modify the exposed to applications.

Android supports a variant theme with translucent system bars, which allows application developers to fill the area behind the status and navigation bar with their app content.

To enable a consistent developer experience in this configuration, it is important the status bar icon style is maintained across different device implementations. When an app requests a light status bar, Android device implementations MUST change the color of the system status icons to black for details, refer to.

Android defines a component type and corresponding API and lifecycle that allows applications to expose one or more to the end user. Live wallpapers are animations, patterns, or similar images with limited input capabilities that display as a wallpaper, behind other applications.

Hardware is considered capable of reliably running live wallpapers if it can run all live wallpapers, with no limitations on functionality, at a reasonable frame rate with no adverse effects on other applications.

As an example, some live wallpapers may use an OpenGL 2. Live wallpaper will not run reliably on hardware that does not support multiple OpenGL contexts because the live wallpaper use of an OpenGL context may conflict with other applications that also use an OpenGL context.

Device implementations capable of running live wallpapers reliably as described above SHOULD implement live wallpapers, and when implemented MUST report the platform feature flag android. Device implementations including the recents function navigation key as detailed in MAY alter the interface but MUST meet the following requirements:.

Android includes support for and support for third-party input method editors. Device implementations that allow users to use third-party input methods on the device MUST declare the platform feature android.

Device implementations that declare the android. Device implementations MUST display the settings interface in response to the android. Android includes support for, previously referred to as Dreams.

Screen savers allow users to interact with applications when a device connected to a power source is idle or docked in a desk dock. Android Watch devices MAY implement screen savers, but other types of device implementations SHOULD include support for screen savers and provide a settings option for users toconfigure screen savers in response to the android.

When a device has a hardware sensor e. Android includes support for the emoji characters defined in. Android includes support for Roboto 2 font with different weights—sans-serif-thin, sans-serif-light, sans-serif-medium, sans-serif-black, sans-serif-condensed, sans-serif-condensed-light—which MUST all be included for the languages available on the device and full Unicode 7.

A device implementation MAY choose not to implement any multi-window modes, but if it has the capability to display multiple activities at the same time it MUST implement such multi-window mode s in accordance with the application behaviors and APIs described in the Android SDK and meet the following requirements:.

Android includes features that allow security-aware applications to perform device administration functions at the system level, such as enforcing password policies or performing remote wipe, through the ].

Device implementations MUST provide an implementation of the class. Device implementations that supports a secure lock screen MUST implement the full range of policies defined in the Android SDK documentation and report the platform feature android.

If a device implementation declares the android. Device implementations MAY have a preinstalled application performing device administration functions but this application MUST NOT be set as the Device Owner app without explicit consent or action from the user or the administrator of the device.

Device implementations MUST provide the following user affordances within the Settings user interface to indicate to the user when a particular system function has been disabled by the Device Policy Controller DPC:.

Android provides an accessibility layer that helps users with disabilities to navigate their devices more easily. Device implementations Android Automotive and Android Watch devices with no audio output excluded, MUST provide a user-accessible mechanism to enable and disable accessibility services, and MUST display this interface in response to the android.

Device implementations reporting the feature android. The simplifies the delivery of live content to Android Television devices. Android Television device implementations MUST support, which allows all inputs to provide activity links from the current activity to another activity i.

Android Television device implementations MUST support time shifting, which allows the user to pause and resume live content. Device implementations MUST provide the user a way to pause and resume the currently playing program, if time shifting for that program.

Android includes the API allowing third party apps to implement tiles that can be added by the user alongside the system-provided tiles in the Quick Settings UI component. If a device implementation has a Quick Settings UI component, it:.

The UI framework supporting third-party apps that depend on MediaBrowser and MediaSession has the following visual requirements:. Devices implementations MUST NOT extend either the, , , or RenderScript bytecode formats in such a way that would prevent those files from installing and running correctly on other compatible devices.

Device implementations MUST NOT allow apps other than the current “installer of record” for the package to silently uninstall the app without any prompt, as documented in the SDK for the permission.

The only exceptions are the system package verifier app handling intent and the storage manager app handling intent. MUST support the media formats, encoders, decoders, file types, and container formats defined in the tables below and reported via.

MUST be able to decode all formats it can encode. This includes all bitstreams that its encoders generate. All of the codecs listed in the table below are provided as software implementations in the preferred Android implementation from the Android Open Source Project.

Please note that neither Google nor the Open Handset Alliance make any representation that these codecs are free from third-party patents. Those intending to use this source code in hardware or software products are advised that implementations of this code, including in open source software or shareware, may require patent licenses from the relevant patent holders.

Video codecs MUST support output and input bytebuffer sizes that accommodate the largest feasible compressed and uncompressed frame as dictated by the standard and configuration but also not overallocate.

Android device implementations with H. MUST properly display Dolby Vision content on the device screen or on a standard video output port e. Implementations that provide a Dolby Vision-capable extractor MUST set the track index of backward-compatible base-layer s if present to be the same as the combined Dolby Vision layer’s track index.

Device implementations that declare android. If capture for the above sample rates is supported, then the capture MUST be done without up-sampling at any ratio higher than Any up-sampling or down-sampling MUST include an appropriate anti-aliasing filter.

In addition to the above recording specifications, when an application has started recording an audio stream using the android. If the platform supports noise suppression technologies tuned for speech recognition, the effect MUST be controllable from the android.

Devices that declare android. AudioRecord API to record from this audio source, it can capture a mix of all audio streams except for the following:. Android provides an for device implementations.

Device implementations that declare the feature android. Android Television device implementations MUST include support for system Master Volume and digital audio output volume attenuation on supported outputs, except for compressed audio passthrough output where no audio decoding is done on the device.

Android Automotive device implementations SHOULD allow adjusting audio volume separately per each audio stream using the content type or usage as defined by and car audio usage as publicly defined in android.

Audio latency is the time delay as an audio signal passes through a system. Many classes of applications rely on short latencies, to achieve real-time sound effects. Device implementations that include android.

Specifically, devices MUST support the following media network protocols:. For exceptions please see the table footnotes in. Device implementations that support secure video output and are capable of supporting secure surfaces MUST declare support for Display.

Device implementations that declare support for Display. The upstream Android open source implementation includes support for wireless Miracast and wired HDMI displays that satisfies this requirement.

Starting from Android 7. It can be accessed using the android. A device MUST satisfy all of the following requirements to report support of the unprocessed audio source via the android.

The device MUST exhibit approximately flat amplitude-versus-frequency characteristics in the mid-frequency range: The device MUST exhibit amplitude levels in the low frequency range: The device MUST exhibit amplitude levels in the high frequency range: The only signal processing allowed in the path is a level multiplier to bring the level to desired range.

If any signal processing is present in the architecture for any reason, it MUST be disabled and effectively introduce zero delay or extra latency to the signal path. Android compatible devices MUST be compatible with:.

Android includes support for developers to configure application development-related settings. Android Automotive implementations MAY limit access to the Developer Options menu by visually hiding or disabling the menu when the vehicle is in motion.

If an API in the SDK interacts with a hardware component that is stated to be optional and the device implementation does not possess that component:. A typical example of a scenario where these requirements apply is the telephony API: Even on non-phone devices, these APIs must be implemented as reasonable no-ops.

Device implementations MUST consistently report accurate hardware configuration information via the getSystemAvailableFeatures and hasSystemFeature String methods on the class for the same build fingerprint.

Android includes facilities that automatically adjust application assets and UI layouts appropriately for the device to ensure that third-party applications run well on a. Specifically, device implementations MUST report the correct screen size according to the following logical density-independent pixel dp screen dimensions.

Device implementations MUST correctly honor applications’ stated support for small, normal, large, and xlarge screens, as described in the Android SDK documentation. The screen aspect ratio MUST be a value from 1.

The Android UI framework defines a set of standard logical densities to help application developers target application resources. Device implementations MUST report only one of the following logical Android framework densities through the android.

Device implementations SHOULD define the standard Android framework density that is numerically closest to the physical density of the screen, unless that logical density pushes the reported screen size below the minimum supported.

If the standard Android framework density that is numerically closest to the physical density results in a screen size that is smaller than the smallest supported compatible screen size dp width, device implementations SHOULD report the next lowest standard Android framework density.

Device implementations MUST report correct values for all display metrics defined in and MUST report the same values regardless of whether the embedded or external screen is used as the default display.

Devices MUST report which screen orientations they support android. For example, a device with a fixed orientation landscape screen, such as a television or laptop, SHOULD only report android.

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Where it makes sense, device implementations MUST provide a similar settings menu and be compatible with the intent filter pattern and API methods described in the SDK documentation as below.

Native code compatibility is challenging. Managed Dalvik bytecode can call into native code provided in the application. Although all the symbols must be present, only the corresponding functions for OpenGL ES versions and extensions actually supported by the device must be fully implemented.

The platform feature android. Because it is not feasible to develop a comprehensive test suite for a web rendering system, device implementers MUST use the specific upstream build of Chromium in the WebView implementation.

However, even if an alternate Browser application is used, the android. Implementations MAY ship a custom user agent string in the standalone Browser application.

Note that as the web development standards bodies are transitioning to favor IndexedDB over webstorage, IndexedDB is expected to become a required component in a future version of Android.

The behaviors of each of the API types managed, soft, native, and web must be consistent with the preferred implementation of the upstream. Some specific areas of compatibility are:. The above list is not comprehensive.

The Compatibility Test Suite CTS tests significant portions of the platform for behavioral compatibility, but not all. It is the responsibility of the implementer to ensure behavioral compatibility with the Android Open Source Project.

Android follows the package and class namespace conventions defined by the Java programming language. To ensure compatibility with third-party applications, device implementers MUST NOT make any prohibited modifications see below to these package namespaces:.

If a device implementer proposes to improve one of the package namespaces above such as by adding useful new functionality to an existing API, or adding a new API, the implementer SHOULD visit and begin the process for contributing changes and code, according to the information on that site.

Note that the restrictions above correspond to standard conventions for naming APIs in the Java programming language; this section simply aims to reinforce those conventions and make them binding through inclusion in this Compatibility Definition.

Device implementations MUST configure Dalvik runtimes to allocate memory in accordance with the upstream Android platform, and as specified by the following table. See for screen size and screen density definitions.

Note that memory values specified below are considered minimum values and device implementations MAY allocate more memory per application. Android includes a launcher application home screen and support for third-party applications to replace the device launcher home screen.

Device implementations that allow third-party applications to replace the device home screen MUST declare the platform feature android. Device implementations that support embedding widgets on the home screen MUST meet the following requirements and declare support for platform feature android.

Android includes APIs that allow developers to using hardware and software features of the device. Some APIs allow applications to perform notifications or attract attention using hardware—specifically sound, vibration, and light.

Device implementations MUST support notifications that use hardware features, as described in the SDK documentation, and to the extent possible with the device implementation hardware.

This behavior is further detailed in. Additionally, the implementation MUST correctly render all icons, animation files etc. Device implementers MAY provide an alternative user experience for notifications than that provided by the reference Android Open Source implementation; however, such alternative notification systems MUST support existing notification resources, as above.

Android includes Notification Listener Service APIs that allow apps once explicitly enabled by the user to receive a copy of all notifications as they are posted or updated.

Device implementations MUST correctly and promptly send notifications in their entirety to all such installed and user-enabled listener services, including any and all metadata attached to the Notification object.

Handheld device implementations MUST support the behaviors of updating, removing, replying to, and bundling notifications as described in this. All 6 direct subclasses of the Notification. Style class MUST be supported as described in the.

Generally speaking, this functionality consists of a single, system-wide user interface that allows users to enter queries, displays suggestions as users type, and displays results.

The Android APIs allow developers to reuse this interface to provide search within their own apps and allow developers to supply results to the common global search user interface.

Android device implementations SHOULD include global search, a single, shared, system-wide search user interface capable of real-time suggestions in response to user input.

Device implementations that implement the global search interface MUST implement the APIs that allow third-party applications to add suggestions to the search box when it is run in global search mode.

If no third-party applications are installed that make use of this functionality, the default behavior SHOULD be to display web search engine results and suggestions. Android also includes the to allow applications to elect how much information of the current context is shared with the assistant on the device.

Device implementations supporting the Assist action MUST indicate clearly to the end user when the context is shared by displaying a white light around the edges of the screen.

To ensure clear visibility to the end user, the indication MUST meet or exceed the duration and brightness of the Android Open Source Project implementation. The preinstalled app MUST request the context to be shared only when the user invoked the app by one of the following means, and the app is running in the foreground:.

The device implementation MUST provide an affordance to enable the indication, less than two navigations away from the default voice input and assistant app settings menu.

Applications can use the to display short non-modal strings to the end user that disappear after a brief period of time. Device implementations MUST display Toasts from applications to end users in some high-visibility manner.

Device implementations MAY modify the exposed to applications. Android supports a variant theme with translucent system bars, which allows application developers to fill the area behind the status and navigation bar with their app content.

To enable a consistent developer experience in this configuration, it is important the status bar icon style is maintained across different device implementations. When an app requests a light status bar, Android device implementations MUST change the color of the system status icons to black for details, refer to.

Android defines a component type and corresponding API and lifecycle that allows applications to expose one or more to the end user. Live wallpapers are animations, patterns, or similar images with limited input capabilities that display as a wallpaper, behind other applications.

Hardware is considered capable of reliably running live wallpapers if it can run all live wallpapers, with no limitations on functionality, at a reasonable frame rate with no adverse effects on other applications.

As an example, some live wallpapers may use an OpenGL 2. Live wallpaper will not run reliably on hardware that does not support multiple OpenGL contexts because the live wallpaper use of an OpenGL context may conflict with other applications that also use an OpenGL context.

Device implementations capable of running live wallpapers reliably as described above SHOULD implement live wallpapers, and when implemented MUST report the platform feature flag android.

Device implementations including the recents function navigation key as detailed in MAY alter the interface but MUST meet the following requirements:. Android includes support for and support for third-party input method editors.

Device implementations that allow users to use third-party input methods on the device MUST declare the platform feature android. Device implementations that declare the android.

Device implementations MUST display the settings interface in response to the android. Android includes support for, previously referred to as Dreams. Screen savers allow users to interact with applications when a device connected to a power source is idle or docked in a desk dock.

Android Watch devices MAY implement screen savers, but other types of device implementations SHOULD include support for screen savers and provide a settings option for users toconfigure screen savers in response to the android.

When a device has a hardware sensor e. Android includes support for the emoji characters defined in. Android includes support for Roboto 2 font with different weights—sans-serif-thin, sans-serif-light, sans-serif-medium, sans-serif-black, sans-serif-condensed, sans-serif-condensed-light—which MUST all be included for the languages available on the device and full Unicode 7.

A device implementation MAY choose not to implement any multi-window modes, but if it has the capability to display multiple activities at the same time it MUST implement such multi-window mode s in accordance with the application behaviors and APIs described in the Android SDK and meet the following requirements:.

Android includes features that allow security-aware applications to perform device administration functions at the system level, such as enforcing password policies or performing remote wipe, through the ].

Device implementations MUST provide an implementation of the class. Device implementations that supports a secure lock screen MUST implement the full range of policies defined in the Android SDK documentation and report the platform feature android.

If a device implementation declares the android. Device implementations MAY have a preinstalled application performing device administration functions but this application MUST NOT be set as the Device Owner app without explicit consent or action from the user or the administrator of the device.

Device implementations MUST provide the following user affordances within the Settings user interface to indicate to the user when a particular system function has been disabled by the Device Policy Controller DPC:.

Android provides an accessibility layer that helps users with disabilities to navigate their devices more easily. Device implementations Android Automotive and Android Watch devices with no audio output excluded, MUST provide a user-accessible mechanism to enable and disable accessibility services, and MUST display this interface in response to the android.

Device implementations reporting the feature android. The simplifies the delivery of live content to Android Television devices. Android Television device implementations MUST support, which allows all inputs to provide activity links from the current activity to another activity i.

Android Television device implementations MUST support time shifting, which allows the user to pause and resume live content. Device implementations MUST provide the user a way to pause and resume the currently playing program, if time shifting for that program.

Android includes the API allowing third party apps to implement tiles that can be added by the user alongside the system-provided tiles in the Quick Settings UI component. If a device implementation has a Quick Settings UI component, it:.

The UI framework supporting third-party apps that depend on MediaBrowser and MediaSession has the following visual requirements:. Devices implementations MUST NOT extend either the, , , or RenderScript bytecode formats in such a way that would prevent those files from installing and running correctly on other compatible devices.

Device implementations MUST NOT allow apps other than the current “installer of record” for the package to silently uninstall the app without any prompt, as documented in the SDK for the permission.

The only exceptions are the system package verifier app handling intent and the storage manager app handling intent. MUST support the media formats, encoders, decoders, file types, and container formats defined in the tables below and reported via.

MUST be able to decode all formats it can encode. This includes all bitstreams that its encoders generate. All of the codecs listed in the table below are provided as software implementations in the preferred Android implementation from the Android Open Source Project.

Please note that neither Google nor the Open Handset Alliance make any representation that these codecs are free from third-party patents. Those intending to use this source code in hardware or software products are advised that implementations of this code, including in open source software or shareware, may require patent licenses from the relevant patent holders.

Video codecs MUST support output and input bytebuffer sizes that accommodate the largest feasible compressed and uncompressed frame as dictated by the standard and configuration but also not overallocate.

Android device implementations with H. MUST properly display Dolby Vision content on the device screen or on a standard video output port e. Implementations that provide a Dolby Vision-capable extractor MUST set the track index of backward-compatible base-layer s if present to be the same as the combined Dolby Vision layer’s track index.

Device implementations that declare android. If capture for the above sample rates is supported, then the capture MUST be done without up-sampling at any ratio higher than Any up-sampling or down-sampling MUST include an appropriate anti-aliasing filter.

In addition to the above recording specifications, when an application has started recording an audio stream using the android. If the platform supports noise suppression technologies tuned for speech recognition, the effect MUST be controllable from the android.

Devices that declare android. AudioRecord API to record from this audio source, it can capture a mix of all audio streams except for the following:. Android provides an for device implementations.

Device implementations that declare the feature android. Android Television device implementations MUST include support for system Master Volume and digital audio output volume attenuation on supported outputs, except for compressed audio passthrough output where no audio decoding is done on the device.

Android Automotive device implementations SHOULD allow adjusting audio volume separately per each audio stream using the content type or usage as defined by and car audio usage as publicly defined in android.

Audio latency is the time delay as an audio signal passes through a system. Many classes of applications rely on short latencies, to achieve real-time sound effects. Device implementations that include android.

Specifically, devices MUST support the following media network protocols:. For exceptions please see the table footnotes in. Device implementations that support secure video output and are capable of supporting secure surfaces MUST declare support for Display.

Device implementations that declare support for Display. The upstream Android open source implementation includes support for wireless Miracast and wired HDMI displays that satisfies this requirement.

Starting from Android 7. It can be accessed using the android. A device MUST satisfy all of the following requirements to report support of the unprocessed audio source via the android.

The device MUST exhibit approximately flat amplitude-versus-frequency characteristics in the mid-frequency range: The device MUST exhibit amplitude levels in the low frequency range: The device MUST exhibit amplitude levels in the high frequency range: The only signal processing allowed in the path is a level multiplier to bring the level to desired range.

If any signal processing is present in the architecture for any reason, it MUST be disabled and effectively introduce zero delay or extra latency to the signal path. Android compatible devices MUST be compatible with:.

Android includes support for developers to configure application development-related settings. Android Automotive implementations MAY limit access to the Developer Options menu by visually hiding or disabling the menu when the vehicle is in motion.

If an API in the SDK interacts with a hardware component that is stated to be optional and the device implementation does not possess that component:. A typical example of a scenario where these requirements apply is the telephony API: Even on non-phone devices, these APIs must be implemented as reasonable no-ops.

Device implementations MUST consistently report accurate hardware configuration information via the getSystemAvailableFeatures and hasSystemFeature String methods on the class for the same build fingerprint.

Android includes facilities that automatically adjust application assets and UI layouts appropriately for the device to ensure that third-party applications run well on a.

Specifically, device implementations MUST report the correct screen size according to the following logical density-independent pixel dp screen dimensions. Device implementations MUST correctly honor applications’ stated support for small, normal, large, and xlarge screens, as described in the Android SDK documentation.

The screen aspect ratio MUST be a value from 1. The Android UI framework defines a set of standard logical densities to help application developers target application resources. Device implementations MUST report only one of the following logical Android framework densities through the android.

Device implementations SHOULD define the standard Android framework density that is numerically closest to the physical density of the screen, unless that logical density pushes the reported screen size below the minimum supported.

If the standard Android framework density that is numerically closest to the physical density results in a screen size that is smaller than the smallest supported compatible screen size dp width, device implementations SHOULD report the next lowest standard Android framework density.

Device implementations MUST report correct values for all display metrics defined in and MUST report the same values regardless of whether the embedded or external screen is used as the default display.

Devices MUST report which screen orientations they support android. For example, a device with a fixed orientation landscape screen, such as a television or laptop, SHOULD only report android. Devices that report both screen orientations MUST support dynamic orientation by applications to either portrait or landscape screen orientation.

Device implementations MAY select either portrait or landscape orientation as the default. If the extension pack is supported in its entirety, the device MUST identify the support through the android.

Note that Android includes support for applications to optionally specify that they require specific OpenGL texture compression formats. These formats are typically vendor-specific.

Device implementations are not required by Android to implement any specific texture compression format. Android includes a mechanism for applications to declare that they want to enable hardware acceleration for 2D graphics at the Application, Activity, Window, or View level through the use of a manifest tag or direct API calls.

Device implementations MUST enable hardware acceleration by default, and MUST disable hardware acceleration if the developer so requests by setting android: Device implementations MUST support extension.

The Android platform includes APIs that allow applications to render rich graphics to the display. Android includes support for secondary display to enable media sharing capabilities and developer APIs for accessing external displays.

If a device supports an external display either via a wired, wireless, or an embedded additional display connection then the device implementation MUST implement the as described in the Android SDK documentation.

Devices MUST support a touchscreen or meet the requirements listed in 7. All other device implementations MUST implement a soft keyboard and:. The availability and visibility requirement of the Home, Recents, and Back functions differ between device types as described in this section.

These functions MAY be implemented via dedicated physical buttons such as mechanical or capacitive touch buttons, or MAY be implemented using dedicated software keys on a distinct portion of the screen, gestures, touch panel, etc.

Android supports both implementations. All of these functions MUST be accessible with a single action e. Recents function, if provided, MUST have a visible button or icon unless hidden together with other navigation functions in full-screen mode.

This does not apply to devices upgrading from earlier Android versions that have physical buttons for navigation and no recents key. The Menu function is deprecated in favor of action bar since Android 4.

Therefore the new device implementations shipping with Android 7. For backwards compatibility, device implementations MUST make the Menu function available to applications when targetSdkVersion is less than 10, either by a physical button, a software key, or gestures.

This Menu function should be presented unless hidden together with other navigation functions. Device implementations MAY use a distinct portion of the screen to display the navigation keys, but if so, MUST meet these requirements:.

Device implementations that do include a pointer input system:. Android includes support for a variety of touchscreens, touch pads, and fake touch input devices. Since the user is directly touching the screen, the system does not require any additional affordances to indicate the objects being manipulated.

In contrast, a fake touch interface provides a user input system that approximates a subset of touchscreen capabilities. For example, a mouse or remote control that drives an on-screen cursor approximates touch, but requires the user to first point or focus then click.

Numerous input devices like the mouse, trackpad, gyro-based air mouse, gyro-pointer, joystick, and multi-touch trackpad can support fake touch interactions. Android includes the feature constant android.

Device implementations that declare the fake touch feature MUST meet the fake touch requirements in. Device implementations MUST report the correct feature corresponding to the type of input used.

Device implementations that include a touchscreen single-touch or better MUST report the platform feature constant android. Device implementations that report the platform feature constant android.

Devices that declare support for android. Android Television device implementations MUST support button mappings for game controllers as listed below. The upstream Android implementation includes implementation for game controllers that satisfies this requirement.

The logical value is defined to be the clockwise rotation away from the vertical axis; for example, a logical value of 0 represents no rotation and the up button being pressed, while a logical value of 1 represents a rotation of 45 degrees and both the up and left keys being pressed.

The remote control MAY be a physical remote or can be a software-based remote that is accessible from a mobile phone or tablet. The remote control MUST meet the requirements defined below.

Android includes APIs for accessing a variety of sensor types. Devices implementations generally MAY omit these sensors, as provided for in the following subsections.

For example, device implementations:. The list above is not comprehensive; the documented behavior of the Android SDK and the Android Open Source Documentations on is to be considered authoritative.

Some sensor types are composite, meaning they can be derived from data provided by one or more other sensors. Examples include the orientation sensor and the linear acceleration sensor.

Device implementations SHOULD implement these sensor types, when they include the prerequisite physical sensors as described in. If a device implementation includes a composite sensor it MUST implement the sensor as described in the Android Open Source documentation on.

Some Android sensors support a, which returns data continuously. If a device implementation does include a 3-axis accelerometer, it:. If a device does include a 3-axis magnetometer, it:.

If a device implementation includes a gyroscope, it:. If a device implementation includes a barometer, it:. Device implementations MAY include an ambient thermometer temperature sensor.

Device implementations MAY include a proximity sensor. If a device implementation does include a proximity sensor, it:. Device implementations supporting a set of higher quality sensors that can meet all the requirements listed in this section MUST identify the support through the android.

A device declaring android. Note that all power consumption requirements in this section do not include the power consumption of the Application Processor. It is inclusive of the power drawn by the entire sensor chain—the sensor, any supporting circuitry, any dedicated sensor processing system, etc.

The following sensor types MAY also be supported on a device implementation declaring android. If a device implementation includes a fingerprint sensor and has a corresponding API for third-party developers, it:.

Automotive-specific sensors are defined in the android. The underlying ambient light sensor MAY be the same as. Device implementations MAY support pose sensor with 6 degrees of freedom.

If a device implementation does support pose sensor with 6 degrees of freedom, it:. While these voice calls may or may not be packet-switched, they are for the purposes of Android considered independent of any data connectivity that may be implemented using the same network.

Android MAY be used on devices that do not include telephony hardware. That is, Android is compatible with devices that are not phones. If a device implementation does include support for If a device implementation includes support for Wi-Fi Direct, then it:.

Device implementations that support android. Android includes support for. If a device implementation does include NFC hardware and plans to make it available to third-party apps, then it:. If a device implementation does include an NFC controller chipset capable of HCE for NfcF, and it implements the feature for third-party applications, then it:.

As the classes android. Device implementations MUST include support for one or more forms of data networking. Device implementations where a physical networking standard such as Ethernet is the primary data connection SHOULD also include support for at least one common wireless data standard, such as The required level of IPv6 support depends on the network type, as follows:.

Redundant multicast IPv6 packets, such as repeated identical Router Advertisements, MAY be rate-limited in hardware or firmware if doing so is necessary to save power. MUST provide a user interface in the settings, allowing users to add applications to or remove applications from the whitelist.

MUST have an activity that handles the Settings. A rear-facing camera is a camera located on the side of the device opposite the display; that is, it images scenes on the far side of the device, like a traditional camera.

A front-facing camera is a camera located on the same side of the device as the display; that is, a camera typically used to image the user, such as for video conferencing and similar applications.

If a device implementation includes at least one rear-facing camera, it:. Device implementations MAY include a front-facing camera. If a device implementation includes at least one front-facing camera, it:.

Device implementations MAY include support for an external camera that is not necessarily always connected. If a device includes support for an external camera, it:. Android includes two API packages to access the camera, the newer android.

The older API package, android. Camera, is marked as deprecated in Android 5. Device implementations MUST still implement the full included in the Android SDK documentation, regardless of whether the device includes hardware autofocus or other capabilities.

For instance, cameras that lack autofocus MUST still call any registered android. AutoFocusCallback instances even though this has no relevance to a non-autofocus camera. Device implementations MUST recognize and honor each parameter name defined as a constant on the class, if the underlying hardware supports the feature.

If the device hardware does not support a feature, the API must behave as documented. Because not all device implementations can fully support all the features of the android. That is, when the device is held in the landscape orientation, cameras MUST capture images in the landscape orientation.

The memory available to the kernel and userspace on device implementations MUST be at least equal or larger than the minimum values specified by the following table.

See for screen size and density definitions. If this slot is used to satisfy the shared storage requirement, the device implementation:. Alternatively, device implementations MAY allocate internal non-removable storage as shared storage for apps as included in the upstream Android Open Source Project; device implementations SHOULD use this configuration and software implementation.

Device implementations MUST enforce as documented the android. Shared storage MUST otherwise be writable by any application that obtains that permission. Regardless of the form of shared storage used, if the device implementation has a USB port with USB peripheral mode support, it MUST provide some mechanism to access the contents of shared storage from a host computer.

If the device implementation supports Media Transfer Protocol, it:. Device implementations such as a television, MAY enable adoption through USB ports as the device is expected to be static and not mobile.

Device implementations MAY omit a microphone. Conversely, device implementations that do possess a microphone:. In order to be compatible with the using the 3. If a device implementation has a 4 conductor 3.

Near-Ultrasound audio is the Android handheld device implementations that support a mode for VR applications that handles stereoscopic rendering of notifications and disable monocular system UI components while a VR application has user focus MUST declare android.

Devices declaring this feature MUST include an application implementing android. VrListenerService that can be enabled by VR applications via android. Android handheld device implementations MUST identify the support of high performance virtual reality for longer user periods through the android.

Some minimum performance and power criteria are critical to the user experience and impact the baseline assumptions developers would have when developing an app. Device implementations MUST provide a smooth user interface by ensuring a consistent frame rate and response times for applications and games.

Device implementations MUST meet the following requirements:. Device implementations MUST ensure internal storage file access performance consistency for read and write operations.

Further, the triggering, maintenance, wakeup algorithms and the use of global system settings of these power-saving modes MUST not deviate from the Android Open Source Project.

In addition to the power-saving modes, Android device implementations MAY implement any or all of the 4 sleeping power states as defined by the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface ACPI, but if it implements S3 and S4 power states, it can only enter these states when closing a lid that is physically part of the device.

A more accurate accounting and reporting of the power consumption provides the app developer both the incentives and the tools to optimize the power usage pattern of the application.

Performance can fluctuate dramatically for high-performance long-running apps, either because of the other apps running in the background or the CPU throttling due to temperature limits. Android includes programmatic interfaces so that when the device is capable, the top foreground application can request that the system optimize the allocation of the resources to address such fluctuations.

If provided, implementations MUST meet the following requirements:. Device implementations MUST implement a security model consistent with the Android platform security model as defined in in the APIs in the Android developer documentation.

Specifically, compatible devices MUST support the security mechanisms described in the follow subsections. Specifically, implementations MUST enforce each permission defined as described in the SDK documentation; no permissions may be omitted, altered, or ignored.

Implementations MAY add additional permissions, provided the new permission ID strings are not in the android. Permissions with a protection level of dangerous are runtime permissions.

Device implementations MUST support running multiple applications as the same Linux user ID, provided that the applications are properly signed and constructed, as defined in the.

Device implementations MAY include runtime environments that execute applications using some other software or technology than the Dalvik Executable Format or native code. However, such alternate execution environments MUST NOT compromise the Android security model or the security of installed Android applications, as described in this section.

Alternate runtimes MUST themselves be Android applications, and abide by the standard Android security model, as described elsewhere in. When installing applications, alternate runtimes MUST obtain user consent for the Android permissions used by the application.

If an application needs to make use of a device resource for which there is a corresponding Android permission such as Camera, GPS, etc. If the runtime environment does not record application capabilities in this manner, the runtime environment MUST list all permissions held by the runtime itself when installing any application using that runtime.

Android includes and provides support for full user isolation. Android includes support for warning users of any outgoing. Premium SMS messages are text messages sent to a service registered with a carrier that may incur a charge to the user.

Device implementations that declare support for android. The upstream Android Open Source Project provides an implementation that satisfies this requirement. SELinux or any other security features implemented below the Android framework:.

Devices MUST implement a kernel application sandboxing mechanism which allows filtering of system calls using a configurable policy from multithreaded programs. If a device implementation has a mechanism that routes network data traffic through a proxy server or VPN gateway by default for example, preloading a VPN service with android.

When devices are routed through a VPN, or a user root CA is installed, the implementation MUST display a warning indicating the network traffic may be monitored to the user. If the device implementation supports a secure lock screen as described in section 9.

If a device implementation is already launched on an earlier Android version with encryption disabled by default, such a device cannot meet the requirement through a system software update and thus MAY be exempted.

The upstream Android Open Source project provides a preferred implementation of this feature based on the Linux kernel ext4 encryption feature. Device implementations supporting FDE.

The user MUST be provided with the possibility to AES encrypt the encryption key, except when it is in active use, with the lock screen credentials stretched using a slow stretching algorithm e.

If the user has not specified a lock screen credentials or has disabled use of the passcode for encryption, the system SHOULD use a default passcode to wrap the encryption key.

If the device provides a hardware-backed keystore, the password stretching algorithm MUST be cryptographically bound to that keystore. The upstream Android Open Source project provides a preferred implementation of this feature based on the Linux kernel feature dm-crypt.

The following requirements ensures there is transparancy to the status of the device integrity. Verified boot is a feature that guarantees the integrity of the device software.

If a device implementation supports the feature, it MUST:. The upstream Android Open Source Project provides a preferred implementation of this feature based on the Linux kernel feature dm-verity.

Starting from Android 6. If a device implementation is already launched without supporting verified boot on an earlier version of Android, such a device can not add support for this feature with a system software update and thus are exempted from the requirement.

The allows app developers to store cryptographic keys in a container and use them in cryptographic operations through the or the. Note that if a device implementation is already launched on an earlier Android version, and does not have a fingerprint scanner, such a device is exempted from the requirement to have a hardware-backed keystore.

Device implementations MAY add or modify the authentication methods to unlock the lock screen, but MUST still meet the following requirements:. Devices MUST provide users with a mechanism to perform a “Factory Data Reset” that allows logical and physical deletion of all data except for the following:.

All user-generated data MUST be deleted. Android provides a mode enabling users to boot up into a mode where only preinstalled system apps are allowed to run and all third-party apps are disabled.

This mode, known as “Safe Boot Mode”, provides the user the capability to uninstall potentially harmful third-party apps. Device implementations SHOULD provide the user an option to enter Safe Boot Mode from the boot menu which is reachable through a workflow that is different from that of normal boot.

Device implementations MUST provide the user an option to enter Safe Boot Mode in such a way that is uninterruptible from third-party apps installed on the device, except for when the third party app is a Device Policy Controller and has set the flag as true.

Android Automotive devices are expected to exchange data with critical vehicle subsystems, e. Android Automotive device implementations MUST implement security features below the Android framework layers to prevent malicious or unintentional interaction between the Android framework or third-party apps and vehicle subsystems.

These security features are as follows:. However, note that no software test package is fully comprehensive. This will minimize the risk of introducing bugs that create incompatibilities requiring rework and potential device updates.

The CTS is designed to be run on an actual device. Like any software, the CTS may itself contain bugs. The CTS Verifier is included with the Compatibility Test Suite, and is intended to be run by a human operator to test functionality that cannot be tested by an automated system, such as correct functioning of a camera and sensors.

The CTS Verifier has tests for many kinds of hardware, including some hardware that is optional. However, since many builds are very similar, device implementers are not expected to explicitly run the CTS Verifier on builds that differ only in trivial ways.

Specifically, device implementations that differ from an implementation that has passed the CTS Verifier only by the set of included locales, branding, etc. Device implementations MUST include a mechanism to replace the entirety of the system software.

Any method can be used, provided that it can replace the entirety of the software preinstalled on the device. For instance, any of the following approaches will satisfy this requirement:.

However, if the device implementation includes support for an unmetered data connection such as The update mechanism used MUST support updates without wiping user data. That is, the update mechanism MUST preserve application private data and application shared data.

Note that the upstream Android software includes an update mechanism that satisfies this requirement. For device implementations that are launching with Android 6. If an error is found in a device implementation after it has been released but within its reasonable product lifetime that is determined in consultation with the Android Compatibility Team to affect the compatibility of third-party applications, the device implementer MUST correct the error via a software update available that can be applied per the mechanism just described.

Android includes features that allow the Device Owner app if present to control the installation of system updates. To facilitate this, the system update subsystem for devices that report android.

CDD Substantive changes to the compatibility requirements. You can join the and ask for clarifications or bring up any issues that you think the document does not cover.

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Developer-only discussion of design, frameworks, libraries, analytics, and other tools. Developer-only discussion of app ad networks, monetization strategies, and funding sources. The Neon will be the first to market in either July or August and is said to come with these specs: First, a note on the variable naming: That means they’re only usable within the commands for that module.

It also means that they’re unlikely to change behind your back from modules that are included after yours. This describes more about target-specific variables. Any other name is fair-game for you to use in your Android.

However, remember that this is a non-recursive build system, so it is possible that your variable will be changed by another Android. In most cases, it will look like this: An error will occur if you forget to.

This variable controls what build flavors the package gets included in. For example, Dialer, Contacts, etc. You might have to go through some contortions to get variables right because of early or late variable evaluation: They’re located automatically into the right bin directory.

They’re located automatically into the right lib directory. You don’t need to pass transitively included libraries. Specify the name without the suffix: For lex and yacc files, it knows how to correctly do the intermediate.

If the files are in a subdirectory of the one containing the Android. Mostly, we use shared libraries, but there are a couple of places, like executables in sbin and host executables where we use static libraries instead.

This is mostly useful if you want to add a static library to a shared library and have the static library’s content exposed from the shared library. A known limitation here is that the flags will be the same for all invocations of YACC for your module.

This can be fixed. If you ever need it to be, just ask. Retrieved July 12, Cervantes, Edgar 24 December Retrieved 24 July Retrieved November 28, Retrieved 25 July Retrieved January 4, Retrieved March 31, Retrieved 6 July Retrieved February 9, Retrieved 31 October Retrieved 27 May Retrieved 25 May Retrieved 18 December Retrieved 20 September Retrieved 1 July Manners, David 29 April Retrieved 26 October Chisnall, David 23 August Retrieved 26 May Goodwins, Rupert 4 December Retrieved 7 March Retrieved 14 March Santanu Chattopadhyay 1 January Retrieved 15 March Retrieved 8 April Andrews, Jason A team of twelve employees produced the design of the first ARM microprocessor between and Weber, Jonathan 28 November Retrieved 6 February Apple has invested about million roughly 1.

DeMone, Paul 9 November Retrieved 6 October Krazit, Tom 3 April Tracy Robinson 12 February Sarah Murry 3 March McGrath, Dylan 18 July Retrieved 20 July Peter Clarke 7 January Retrieved 1 April Retrieved 27 October Retrieved November 10, Retrieved 10 July Retrieved 1 February Smith, Ryan 20 September Retrieved 10 November Retrieved 2 June

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I build custom-sized doors to be used in sliding door applications for the discriminating client. To provide consistent, meaningful values across device implementations, the table below includes additional restrictions on the formats of these values to which device implementations MUST conform. They include variations on signed, saturated add and subtract, and count leading zeros. When you connect a 4. The wifi part worked out of the box, most of the time, but the bluetooth did not.. Jones, vice president of Dallas Laboratory, which reviews test It provides a low-cost alternative to adding another dedicated security core to an SoC, by providing two virtual processors backed by hardware based access control.

Suzuki Grand Vitara Suzuki Liana Device implementations MUST include the core Android applications as appropriate or a component implementing the same intent patterns defined by all the Activity or Service components of these core Android applications exposed to other applications, implicitly or explicitly, through the android: CamScanner Full Version 1. With rodeo action, bouncy castles, sunshine, it was a top day!

If the files are in a subdirectory of the one containing the Android. Retrieved 25 May Alcatel PC Suite is a mobile application for your computer designed to be used with.

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Android Watch device refers to an Android device implementation intended to be worn on the body, perhaps on the wrist, and:. IAB Turkiye, ilk yar? If a device implementation includes a composite sensor it MUST implement the sensor as described in the Android Open Source documentation on. See…

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