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Pianissimo virtual grand piano crack

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Acoustica – Pianissimo Virtual Grand Piano VSTi Standalone Год выпуска: Версия: Разработчик: acoustica Платформа: pc Системные требования: Windows 98, ME, NT, , XP, or. Desde los orígenes, la humanidad ha tenido que hacer frente a una cuestión fundamental: la forma de preservar y transmitir su cultura, es decir, sus creencias y conocimientos, tanto en el espacio como en el tiempo. Web oficial de la Universidade da Coruña. Enlaces a centros, departamentos, servicios, planes de estudios.
It can be further categorized as a branch of psychophysics. Crack main style was homophony[49] where a prominent melody Piano a subordinate chordal Grand part are clearly distinct. All of the main instrumental forms of the Classical era, from string quartets to symphonies and concertos, were based on the structure of the sonata. Music theory is Virtual study of music, generally in a highly Pianissimo manner outside of other disciplines. Romantic music expanded beyond the rigid styles and forms of the Classical era into more passionate, dramatic expressive pieces and songs.
Acoustica – Pianissimo Virtual Grand Piano VSTi Standalone Год выпуска: Версия: Разработчик: acoustica Платформа: pc Системные требования: Windows 98, ME, NT, , XP, or. Desde los orígenes, la humanidad ha tenido que hacer frente a una cuestión fundamental: la forma de preservar y transmitir su cultura, es decir, sus creencias y conocimientos, tanto en el espacio como en el tiempo. Web oficial de la Universidade da Coruña. Enlaces a centros, departamentos, servicios, planes de estudios.

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It has also a large repertoire of styles, which involve only percussion music such as the talavadya performances famous in South India. Composers continued to develop opera and ballet music, exploring new styles and themes. Oxford University Press, Cultural and regional genres. This interdisciplinary field investigates topics such as the parallels between language and music in the brain. In the Western art music tradition, improvisation was an important skill during the Baroque era and during the Classical era. To read music notation, a person must have an understanding of music theory, harmony and the performance practice associated with a particular song or piece’s genre.

Sophisticated algorithms analyse and interpret the timing, pressure, key-off velocity and other aspects of your keystrokes as you play, feeding the Harmonic Imaging engine the information it needs to produce a sound that is rich and nuanced, with enormous and customisable dynamic range, and as close to the performance instruments from which it was born as any digital piano available today.

Harmonic Imaging available in: Progressive Harmonic Imaging available in: Harmonic Imaging XL available in: The total sound of a piano is extremely complex, with strings resonating in sympathy with harmonically related strings, sounds produced by the action, the interplay of pedals with the positioning of dampers and much more, and there is much in this complexity that traditional sampling techniques are unable to capture.

By augmenting raw sample data with highly sophisticated modelling, performed by powerful on-board computer processors, Kawai digital pianos are able to articulate even the subtlest of these ancillary sounds and produce an astonishingly rich, detailed acoustic portrait in our digital piano sounds.

Onkyo processing, as well as premium Onkyo speakers and soundboard transducers are available in: Inspired by the same soundboards that give our acoustic pianos such rich, versatile resonances, Kawai’s Soundboard Speaker System is a genuine Spruce soundboard mounted directly into the rear of your digital piano.

Driven by a powerful internal transducer, this unique technology embraces timber’s harmonic qualities, channelling sound energy onto a traditional soundboard in order to produce a natural, organic tone.

Long wooden ribs securely attached to the soundboard further broaden the frequency range and volume of the resonating sound, resulting in a remarkably authentic playing experience that faithfully reproduces the tonal ambience of an acoustic piano.

The latest generation TwinDrive soundboard harnesses two Onkyo transducers to channel sound energy onto a real wooden soundboard, resulting in a richer, more natural piano tone that immerses the performer.

TwinDrive Soundboard is available in: Spatial Headphone Sound SHS technology enhances both the depth and realism of the sound when listening through any type of headphones. Tell your piano whether your headphones are open, closed, in-ear or any other kind, then select one of three different acoustic presets to adjust the spatial positioning of the sound, while also helping to reduce auditory fatigue when playing or listening for an extended period of time.

In addition, SHS works alongside a new dedicated, high fidelity headphone amplifier, utilising the same premium hardware found in audiophile music devices. The technology significantly improves sound quality when using headphones and allow players to select a variety of headphone types for an optimised listening experience.

An experienced piano technician is essential to fully realise the potential of a fine acoustic piano. In addition to meticulously tuning each individual note, the technician also performs numerous regulation and voicing adjustments that allow an instrument to truly sing.

Virtual Technician brings exquisite control over the sound of your instrument to your fingertips or iPad. Perform touch and voicing adjustments, regulate hammer and key release noises, and fine-tune string, lid, and damper resonances.

Then, with the desired refinements complete, save the personally prepared instrument to internal memory or a connected USB device, or exchange favourite settings with other Kawai owners online.

Connect your piano without wires to a world of mobile phones, tablets, and other devices, with the global standard. MIDI over Bluetooth allows you to effortlessly tap into an enormous – and growing – ecosystem of apps designed for musicians, for pianists, and for players of Kawai digital pianos.

Use our own Virtual Technician app to navigate through the deepest settings, crafting the perfect piano sound for your own ears, right from your iPad, create your own scores with Touch Notation and play it back through your piano, or use all your favourite MIDI-enabled apps in whatever fun and creative ways you can think of.

More advanced pianos also feature Bluetooth Audio, allowing you to stream music wirelessly from your phone, tablet, or computer, directly through the instruments’ premium amplifier and speaker systems without the need to connect additional cables.

Bluetooth MIDI available in: Playing along with your favourite artists is a great way to learn music, and Kawai’s USB audio features make it as easy as inserting a USB stick of WAV and MP3 files, and listening through the piano’s internal speakers, headphones or outboard gear, while you play along.

Songs already saved into the piano’s internal memory can be converted to WAV and MP3, and most sound parameters and settings can also be saved directly to USB for storing or sharing with friends.

Make the most of your music with easy to use features to recording and sharing your own music. Discreetly embedded within the left cheekblock, a 5″ full-colour, high resolution touchscreen allows sounds and settings to be selected from an attractive user interface simply by tapping or swiping the display with a finger.

Our Technology, Materials and Processes. Exclusive Shiko Seion hammers. Japanese Ezo spruce soundboard. Hand notched, reduced mass bridges. Premium aged Matoa inner rim. Concert style, dual pivot damper system.

Grand Feel wooden key actions. Grand Feel available in: The weight of the keyboard is appropriately graded to mirror the heavier bass hammers and lighter treble hammers of an acoustic piano, while let-off simulation recreates the subtle notch” sensation felt when softly playing the keys of a grand piano.

Finely textured synthetic Ivory Touch key surfaces replicate the control and gentle absorbency of traditional ivory, and counterweights lighten the touch of the keyboard during pianissimo passages, while adding a feel of greater substance when playing with force.

These important characteristics allow players to practise their expanding repertoire with confidence, and ensure a smooth transition to larger instruments for more advances studies or performance.

Responsive Hammer Compact available in: Onkyo premium sound processing. The latest of our digital pianos utilise specialist components designed for high-end audio reproduction, designed in partnership with the legendary Onkyo corporation.

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Real acoustic pianos that incorporate an acoustic muting feature and powerful digital audio components. Novus NV Hybrid Description. Kawai News Environment History Timeline.

Church choirs grew in size, and the church remained an important patron of music. By the middle of the 15th century, composers wrote richly polyphonic sacred music, in which different melody lines were interwoven simultaneously.

As musical activity shifted from the church to the aristocratic courts, kings, queens and princes competed for the finest composers. Many leading important composers came from the Netherlands, Belgium, and northern France.

They are called the Franco-Flemish composers. They held important positions throughout Europe, especially in Italy. Other countries with vibrant musical activity included Germany, England, and Spain.

The Baroque era of music took place from to, as the Baroque artistic style flourished across Europe; and during this time, music expanded in its range and complexity.

Baroque music began when the first operas dramatic solo vocal music accompanied by orchestra were written. During the Baroque era, polyphonic contrapuntal music, in which multiple, simultaneous independent melody lines were used, remained important counterpoint was important in the vocal music of the Medieval era.

German Baroque composers wrote for small ensembles including strings, brass, and woodwinds, as well as for choirs and keyboard instruments such as pipe organ, harpsichord, and clavichord.

During this period several major music forms were defined that lasted into later periods when they were expanded and evolved further, including the fugue, the invention, the sonata, and the concerto.

The music of the Classical period to aimed to imitate what were seen as the key elements of the art and philosophy of Ancient Greece and Rome: Music from the Classical period has a lighter, clearer and considerably simpler texture than the Baroque music which preceded it.

The main style was homophony, [49] where a prominent melody and a subordinate chordal accompaniment part are clearly distinct. Classical instrumental melodies tended to be almost voicelike and singable.

New genres were developed, and the fortepiano, the forerunner to the modern piano, replaced the Baroque era harpsichord and pipe organ as the main keyboard instrument.

Importance was given to instrumental music. It was dominated by further development of musical forms initially defined in the Baroque period: Others main kinds were the trio, string quartet, serenade and divertimento.

The sonata was the most important and developed form. Although Baroque composers also wrote sonatas, the Classical style of sonata is completely distinct. All of the main instrumental forms of the Classical era, from string quartets to symphonies and concertos, were based on the structure of the sonata.

The instruments used chamber music and orchestra became more standardized. In place of the basso continuo group of the Baroque era, which consisted of harpsichord, organ or lute along with a number of bass instruments selected at the discretion of the group leader e.

The Baroque era improvised chord-playing of the continuo keyboardist or lute player was gradually phased out between and One of the most important changes made in the Classical period was the development of public concerts.

The aristocracy still played a significant role in the sponsorship of concerts and compositions, but it was now possible for composers to survive without being permanent employees of queens or princes.

The increasing popularity of classical music led to a growth in the number and types of orchestras. The expansion of orchestral concerts necessitated the building of large public performance spaces.

Beethoven and Schubert are also considered to be composers in the later part of the Classical era, as it began to move towards Romanticism. Romanticism was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature.

Romantic music expanded beyond the rigid styles and forms of the Classical era into more passionate, dramatic expressive pieces and songs. Romantic composers such as Wagner and Brahms attempted to increase emotional expression and power in their music to describe deeper truths or human feelings.

With symphonic tone poems, composers tried to tell stories and evoke images or landscapes using instrumental music. Some composers promoted nationalistic pride with patriotic orchestral music inspired by folk music.

The emotional and expressive qualities of music came to take precedence over tradition. Romantic composers grew in idiosyncrasy, and went further in the syncretism of exploring different art-forms in a musical context, such as literature, history historical figures and legends, or nature itself.

Romantic love or longing was a prevalent theme in many works composed during this period. In some cases the formal structures from the classical period continued to be used e. In many cases, new approaches were explored for existing genres, forms, and functions.

Also, new forms were created that were deemed better suited to the new subject matter. Composers continued to develop opera and ballet music, exploring new styles and themes. In the years after, the music developed by Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert introduced a more dramatic, expressive style.

In Beethoven’s case, short motifs, developed organically, came to replace melody as the most significant compositional unit an example is the distinctive four note figure used in his Fifth Symphony.

They generated complex and often much longer musical works. During the late Romantic period, composers explored dramatic chromatic alterations of tonality, such as extended chords and altered chords, which created new sound “colours”.

The late 19th century saw a dramatic expansion in the size of the orchestra, and the industrial revolution helped to create better instruments, creating a more powerful sound.

Public concerts became an important part of well-to-do urban society. It also saw a new diversity in theatre music, including operetta, and musical comedy and other forms of musical theatre.

In the 19th century, one of the key ways that new compositions became known to the public was by the sales of sheet music, which middle class amateur music lovers would perform at home on their piano or other common instruments, such as violin.

With 20th-century music, the invention of new electric technologies such as radio broadcasting and the mass market availability of gramophone records meant that sound recordings of songs and pieces heard by listeners either on the radio or on their record player became the main way to learn about new songs and pieces.

There was a vast increase in music listening as the radio gained popularity and phonographs were used to replay and distribute music, because whereas in the 19th century, the focus on sheet music restricted access to new music to the middle class and upper-class people who could read music and who owned pianos and instruments, in the 20th century, anyone with a radio or record player could hear operas, symphonies and big bands right in their own living room.

This allowed lower-income people, who would never be able to afford an opera or symphony concert ticket to hear this music. It also meant that people could hear music from different parts of the country, or even different parts of the world, even if they could not afford to travel to these locations.

This helped to spread musical styles. The focus of art music in the 20th century was characterized by exploration of new rhythms, styles, and sounds. The horrors of World War I influenced many of the arts, including music, and some composers began exploring darker, harsher sounds.

Traditional music styles such as jazz and folk music were used by composers as a source of ideas for classical music. Igor Stravinsky, Arnold Schoenberg, and John Cage were all influential composers in 20th-century art music.

Sound recording was also a major influence on the development of popular music genres, because it enabled recordings of songs and bands to be widely distributed. The introduction of the multitrack recording system had a major influence on rock music, because it could do much more than record a band’s performance.

Using a multitrack system, a band and their music producer could overdub many layers of instrument tracks and vocals, creating new sounds that would not be possible in a live performance. Jazz evolved and became an important genre of music over the course of the 20th century, and during the second half of that century, rock music did the same.

Jazz is an American musical artform that originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States from a confluence of African and European music traditions.

The style’s West African pedigree is evident in its use of blue notes, improvisation, polyrhythms, syncopation, and the swung note. Rock music is a genre of popular music that developed in the s from s rock and roll, rockabilly, blues, and country music.

Along with the guitar or keyboards, saxophone and blues-style harmonica are used as soloing instruments. In its “purest form,” it “has three chords, a strong, insistent back beat, and a catchy melody.

Performance is the physical expression of music, which occurs when a song is sung or when a piano piece, electric guitar melody, symphony, drum beat or other musical part is played by musicians.

In classical music, a musical work is written in music notation by a composer and then it is performed once the composer is satisfied with its structure and instrumentation. However, as it gets performed, the interpretation of a song or piece can evolve and change.

In classical music, instrumental performers, singers or conductors may gradually make changes to the phrasing or tempo of a piece. In popular and traditional music, the performers have a lot more freedom to make changes to the form of a song or piece.

As such, in popular and traditional music styles, even when a band plays a cover song, they can make changes to it such as adding a guitar solo to or inserting an introduction.

A performance can either be planned out and rehearsed practiced —which is the norm in classical music, with jazz big bands and many popular music styles—or improvised over a chord progression a sequence of chords, which is the norm in small jazz and blues groups.

Rehearsals of orchestras, concert bands and choirs are led by a conductor. Rock, blues and jazz bands are usually led by the bandleader. Improvisation is the creation of a musical idea—a melody or other musical line—created on the spot, often based on scales or pre-existing melodic riffs.

Many cultures have strong traditions of solo performance in which one singer or instrumentalist performs, such as in Indian classical music, and in the Western art-music tradition.

Other cultures, such as in Bali, include strong traditions of group performance. All cultures include a mixture of both, and performance may range from improvised solo playing to highly planned and organised performances such as the modern classical concert, religious processions, classical music festivals or music competitions.

Chamber music, which is music for a small ensemble with only a few of each type of instrument, is often seen as more intimate than large symphonic works.

Many types of music, such as traditional blues and folk music were not written down in sheet music ; instead, they were originally preserved in the memory of performers, and the songs were handed down orally, from one musician or singer to another, or aurally, in which a performer learns a song ” by ear “.

When the composer of a song or piece is no longer known, this music is often classified as “traditional” or as a “folk song”. Different musical traditions have different attitudes towards how and where to make changes to the original source material, from quite strict, to those that demand improvisation or modification to the music.

A culture’s history and stories may also be passed on by ear through song. In music, an “ornament” is a decoration to a melody, bassline or other musical part. The detail included explicitly in the music notation varies between genres and historical periods.

In general, art music notation from the 17th through the 19th centuries required performers to have a great deal of contextual knowledge about performing styles. For example, in the 17th and 18th centuries, music notated for solo performers typically indicated a simple, unadorned melody.

However, performers were expected to know how to add stylistically appropriate ornaments to add interest to the music, such as trills and turns. In the 19th century, art music for solo performers may give a general instruction such as to perform the music expressively, without describing in detail how the performer should do this.

The performer was expected to know how to use tempo changes, accentuation, and pauses among other devices to obtain this “expressive” performance style. In the 20th century, art music notation often became more explicit and used a range of markings and annotations to indicate to performers how they should play or sing the piece.

In popular music and jazz, music notation almost always indicates only the basic framework of the melody, harmony, or performance approach; musicians and singers are expected to know the performance conventions and styles associated with specific genres and pieces.

For example, the ” lead sheet ” for a jazz tune may only indicate the melody and the chord changes. The performers in the jazz ensemble are expected to know how to “flesh out” this basic structure by adding ornaments, improvised music, and chordal accompaniment.

Philosophy of music is a subfield of philosophy. The philosophy of music is the study of fundamental questions regarding music. The philosophical study of music has many connections with philosophical questions in metaphysics and aesthetics.

Some basic questions in the philosophy of music are:. In ancient times, such as with the Ancient Greeks, the aesthetics of music explored the mathematical and cosmological dimensions of rhythmic and harmonic organization.

In the 18th century, focus shifted to the experience of hearing music, and thus to questions about its beauty and human enjoyment plaisir and jouissance of music. The origin of this philosophic shift is sometimes attributed to Baumgarten in the 18th century, followed by Kant.

Through their writing, the ancient term ‘aesthetics’, meaning sensory perception, received its present-day connotation. In the s, philosophers have tended to emphasize issues besides beauty and enjoyment.

For example, music’s capacity to express emotion has been a central issue. However, many musicians, music critics, and other non-philosophers have contributed to the aesthetics of music.

In the 19th century, a significant debate arose between Eduard Hanslick, a music critic and musicologist, and composer Richard Wagner regarding whether music can express meaning.

Harry Partch and some other musicologists, such as Kyle Gann, have studied and tried to popularize microtonal music and the usage of alternate musical scales. It is often thought that music has the ability to affect our emotions, intellect, and psychology ; it can assuage our loneliness or incite our passions.

The philosopher Plato suggests in the Republic that music has a direct effect on the soul. Therefore, he proposes that in the ideal regime music would be closely regulated by the state.

There has been a strong tendency in the aesthetics of music to emphasize the paramount importance of compositional structure; however, other issues concerning the aesthetics of music include lyricism, harmony, hypnotism, emotiveness, temporal dynamics, resonance, playfulness, and color see also musical development.

Modern music psychology aims to explain and understand musical behavior and experience. In addition to its focus on fundamental perceptions and cognitive processes, music psychology is a field of research with practical relevance for many areas, including music performance, composition, education, criticism, and therapy, as well as investigations of human aptitude, skill, intelligence, creativity, and social behavior.

Cognitive neuroscience of music is the scientific study of brain-based mechanisms involved in the cognitive processes underlying music. These behaviours include music listening, performing, composing, reading, writing, and ancillary activities.

It also is increasingly concerned with the brain basis for musical aesthetics and musical emotion. The field is distinguished by its reliance on direct observations of the brain, using such techniques as functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI, transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS, magnetoencephalography MEG, electroencephalography EEG, and positron emission tomography PET.

Cognitive musicology is a branch of cognitive science concerned with computationally modeling musical knowledge with the goal of understanding both music and cognition.

This interdisciplinary field investigates topics such as the parallels between language and music in the brain. Biologically inspired models of computation are often included in research, such as neural networks and evolutionary programs.

By using a well-structured computer environment, the systematic structures of these cognitive phenomena can be investigated. Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of sound perception.

More specifically, it is the branch of science studying the psychological and physiological responses associated with sound including speech and music.

It can be further categorized as a branch of psychophysics. Evolutionary musicology concerns the “origins of music, the question of animal song, selection pressures underlying music evolution”, and “music evolution and human evolution”.

Charles Darwin speculated that music may have held an adaptive advantage and functioned as a protolanguage, [61] a view which has spawned several competing theories of music evolution.

An individual’s culture or ethnicity plays a role in their music cognition, including their preferences, emotional reaction, and musical memory. Musical preferences are biased toward culturally familiar musical traditions beginning in infancy, and adults’ classification of the emotion of a musical piece depends on both culturally specific and universal structural features.

Many ethnographic studies demonstrate that music is a participatory, community-based activity. Musical performances take different forms in different cultures and socioeconomic milieus. In Europe and North America, there is often a divide between what types of music are viewed as a ” high culture ” and ” low culture.

Other types of music—including, but not limited to, jazz, blues, soul, and country —are often performed in bars, nightclubs, and theatres, where the audience may be able to drink, dance, and express themselves by cheering.

Until the later 20th century, the division between “high” and “low” musical forms was widely accepted as a valid distinction that separated out better quality, more advanced “art music” from the popular styles of music heard in bars and dance halls.

However, in the s and s, musicologists studying this perceived divide between “high” and “low” musical genres argued that this distinction is not based on the musical value or quality of the different types of music.

When composers introduce styles of music that break with convention, there can be a strong resistance from academic music experts and popular culture. Late-period Beethoven string quartets, Stravinsky ballet scores, serialism, bebop – era jazz, hip hop, punk rock, and electronica have all been considered non-music by some critics when they were first introduced.

The sociological study of music, sometimes called sociomusicology, is often pursued in departments of sociology, media studies, or music, and is closely related to the field of ethnomusicology.

As well, it describes music movements, events and genres related to women, women’s issues and feminism. In the s, while women comprise a significant proportion of popular music and classical music singers, and a significant proportion of songwriters many of them being singer-songwriters, there are few women record producers, rock critics and rock instrumentalists.

Although there have been a huge number of women composers in classical music, from the Medieval period to the present day, women composers are significantly underrepresented in the commonly performed classical music repertoire, music history textbooks and music encyclopedias; for example, in the Concise Oxford History of Music, Clara Schumann is one of the only female composers who is mentioned.

Women comprise a significant proportion of instrumental soloists in classical music and the percentage of women in orchestras is increasing. Women are less common as instrumental players in popular music genres such as rock and heavy metal, although there have been a number of notable female instrumentalists and all-female bands.

Women are particularly underrepresented in extreme metal genres. Though there were plenty of female singers on the radio, women Singing was sometimes an acceptable pastime for a girl, but playing an instrument, writing songs, or producing records simply wasn’t done.

While women were discouraged from composing in the 19th century, and there are few women musicologists, women became involved in music education ” According to Jessica Duchen, a music writer for London’s The Independent, women musicians in classical music are ” The music that composers make can be heard through several media; the most traditional way is to hear it live, in the presence of the musicians or as one of the musicians, in an outdoor or indoor space such as an amphitheatre, concert hall, cabaret room or theatre.

Since the 20th century, live music can also be broadcast over the radio, television or the Internet, or recorded and listened to on a CD player or Mp3 player. Some musical styles focus on producing a sound for a performance, while others focus on producing a recording that mixes together sounds that were never played “live.

Technology has had an influence on music since prehistoric times, when cave people used simple tools to bore holes into bone flutes 41, years ago. Technology continued to influence music throughout the history of music, as it enabled new instruments and music notation reproduction systems to be used, with one of the watershed moments in music notation being the invention of the printing press in the s, which meant music scores no longer had to be hand copied.

In the 19th century, music technology led to the development of a more powerful, louder piano and led to the development of new valves brass instruments. In the early 20th century in the late s, as talking pictures emerged in the early 20th century, with their prerecorded musical tracks, an increasing number of moviehouse orchestra musicians found themselves out of work.

The American Federation of Musicians AFM took out newspaper advertisements protesting the replacement of live musicians with mechanical playing devices. Since legislation introduced to help protect performers, composers, publishers and producers, including the Audio Home Recording Act of in the United States, and the revised Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works in the United Kingdom, recordings and live performances have also become more accessible through computers, devices and Internet in a form that is commonly known as Music-On-Demand.

In many cultures, there is less distinction between performing and listening to music, since virtually everyone is involved in some sort of musical activity, often communal.

In industrialized countries, listening to music through a recorded form, such as sound recording or watching a music video, became more common than experiencing live performance, roughly in the middle of the 20th century.

Sometimes, live performances incorporate prerecorded sounds. For example, a disc jockey uses disc records for scratching, and some 20th-century works have a solo for an instrument or voice that is performed along with music that is prerecorded onto a tape.

Audiences can also become performers by participating in karaoke, an activity of Japanese origin centered on a device that plays voice-eliminated versions of well-known songs. Most karaoke machines also have video screens that show lyrics to songs being performed; performers can follow the lyrics as they sing over the instrumental tracks.

The advent of the Internet and widespread high-speed broadband access has transformed the experience of music, partly through the increased ease of access to recordings of music via streaming video and vastly increased choice of music for consumers.

Chris Anderson, in his book The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More, suggests that while the traditional economic model of supply and demand describes scarcity, the Internet retail model is based on abundance.

Digital storage costs are low, so a company can afford to make its whole recording inventory available online, giving customers as much choice as possible. It has thus become economically viable to offer music recordings that very few people are interested in.

Consumers’ growing awareness of their increased choice results in a closer association between listening tastes and social identity, and the creation of thousands of niche markets. Another effect of the Internet arose with online communities and social media websites like YouTube and Facebook, a social networking service.

These sites make it easier for aspiring singers and amateur bands to distribute videos of their songs, connect with other musicians, and gain audience interest. Professional musicians also use YouTube as a free publisher of promotional material.

YouTube users, for example, no longer only download and listen to MP3s, but also actively create their own. According to Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, in their book Wikinomics, there has been a shift from a traditional consumer role to what they call a ” prosumer ” role, a consumer who both creates content and consumes.

Manifestations of this in music include the production of mashes, remixes, and music videos by fans. The music industry refers to the businesses connected with the creation and sale of music.

It consists of songwriters and composers who create new songs and musical pieces, music producers and sound engineers who record songs and pieces, record labels and publishers that distribute recorded music products and sheet music internationally and that often control the rights to those products.

Some music labels are ” independent,” while others are subsidiaries of larger corporate entities or international media groups. In the s, the increasing popularity of listening to music as digital music files on MP3 players, iPods, or computers, and of trading music on file sharing websites or buying it online in the form of digital files had a major impact on the traditional music business.

Many smaller independent CD stores went out of business as music buyers decreased their purchases of CDs, and many labels had lower CD sales. Some companies did well with the change to a digital format, though, such as Apple’s iTunes, an online music store that sells digital files of songs over the Internet.

In spite of some international copyright treaties, determining which music is in the public domain is complicated by the variety of national copyright laws that may be applicable. US copyright law formerly protected printed music published after for 28 years and with renewal for another 28 years, but the Copyright Act of made renewal automatic, and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act changed the calculation of the copyright term to 70 years after the death of the creator.

Recorded sound falls under mechanical licensing, often covered by a confusing patchwork of state laws; most cover versions are licensed through the Harry Fox Agency.

The incorporation of some music or singing training into general education from preschool to post secondary education is common in North America and Europe. Involvement in playing and singing music is thought to teach basic skills such as concentration, counting, listening, and cooperation while also promoting understanding of language, improving the ability to recall information, and creating an environment more conducive to learning in other areas.

Some elementary school children also learn about popular music styles. In religious schools, children sing hymns and other religious music. In secondary schools and less commonly in elementary schools, students may have the opportunity to perform in some types of musical ensembles, such as choirs a group of singers, marching bands, concert bands, jazz bands, or orchestras.

In some school systems, music lessons on how to play instruments may be provided. Some students also take private music lessons after school with a singing teacher or instrument teacher.

Amateur musicians typically learn basic musical rudiments e. At the university level, students in most arts and humanities programs can receive credit for taking a few music courses, which typically take the form of an overview course on the history of music, or a music appreciation course that focuses on listening to music and learning about different musical styles.

In addition, most North American and European universities have some types of musical ensembles that students in arts and humanities are able to participate in, such as choirs, marching bands, concert bands, or orchestras.

The study of Western art music is increasingly common outside of North America and Europe, such as the Indonesian Institute of the Arts in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, or the classical music programs that are available in Asian countries such as South Korea, Japan, and China.

At the same time, Western universities and colleges are widening their curriculum to include music of non-Western cultures, such as the music of Africa or Bali e. Individuals aiming to become professional musicians, singers, composers, songwriters, music teachers and practitioners of other music-related professions such as music history professors, sound engineers, and so on study in specialized post-secondary programs offered by colleges, universities and music conservatories.

Some institutions that train individuals for careers in music offer training in a wide range of professions, as is the case with many of the top U. On the other hand, some small colleges may only offer training in a single profession e.

While most university and conservatory music programs focus on training students in classical music, there are a number of universities and colleges that train musicians for careers as jazz or popular music musicians and composers, with notable U.

Individuals aiming at careers in some types of music, such as heavy metal music, country music or blues are less likely to become professionals by completing degrees or diplomas in colleges or universities.

Since the s, the increasing popularity and availability of Internet forums and YouTube “how-to” videos have enabled many singers and musicians from metal, blues and similar genres to improve their skills.

Many pop, rock and country singers train informally with vocal coaches and singing teachers. Undergraduate university degrees in music, including the Bachelor of Music, the Bachelor of Music Education, and the Bachelor of Arts with a major in music typically take about four years to complete.

These degrees provide students with a grounding in music theory and music history, and many students also study an instrument or learn singing technique as part of their program. Graduates of undergraduate music programs can seek employment or go on to further study in music graduate programs.

Bachelor’s degree graduates are also eligible to apply to some graduate programs and professional schools outside of music e. Graduate music degrees include the Master of Music, the Master of Arts in musicology, music theory or another music field, the Doctor of Philosophy Ph.

The Master of Music degree, which takes one to two years to complete, is typically awarded to students studying the performance of an instrument, education, voice singing or composition.

The Master of Arts degree, which takes one to two years to complete and often requires a thesis, is typically awarded to students studying musicology, music history, music theory or ethnomusicology.

The PhD, which is required for students who want to work as university professors in musicology, music history, or music theory, takes three to five years of study after the master’s degree, during which time the student will complete advanced courses and undertake research for a dissertation.

The DMA is a relatively new degree that was created to provide a credential for professional performers or composers that want to work as university professors in musical performance or composition.

The DMA takes three to five years after a master’s degree, and includes advanced courses, projects, and performances. In Medieval times, the study of music was one of the Quadrivium of the seven Liberal Arts and considered vital to higher learning.

Within the quantitative Quadrivium, music, or more accurately harmonics, was the study of rational proportions. Musicology, the academic study of the subject of music, is studied in universities and music conservatories.

The earliest definitions from the 19th century defined three sub-disciplines of musicology: In era scholarship, one is more likely to encounter a division of the discipline into music theory, music history, and ethnomusicology.

Research in musicology has often been enriched by cross-disciplinary work, for example in the field of psychoacoustics. The study of music of non-Western cultures, and the cultural study of music, is called ethnomusicology.

Students can pursue the undergraduate study of musicology, ethnomusicology, music history, and music theory through several different types of degrees, including bachelor’s degrees, master’s degrees and PhD degrees.

Music theory is the study of music, generally in a highly technical manner outside of other disciplines. More broadly it refers to any study of music, usually related in some form with compositional concerns, and may include mathematics, physics, and anthropology.

What is most commonly taught in beginning music theory classes are guidelines to write in the style of the common practice period, or tonal music. Theory, even of music of the common practice period, may take many other forms.

Musical set theory is the application of mathematical set theory to music, first applied to atonal music. Speculative music theory, contrasted with analytic music theory, is devoted to the analysis and synthesis of music materials, for example tuning systems, generally as preparation for composition.

Zoomusicology is the study of the music of non-human animals, or the musical aspects of sounds produced by non-human animals. As George Herzog asked, “do animals have music?

Jean-Jacques Nattiez, argues that “in the last analysis, it is a human being who decides what is and is not musical, even when the sound is not of human origin. If we acknowledge that sound is not organised and conceptualised that is, made to form music merely by its producer, but by the mind that perceives it, then music is uniquely human.

In the West, much of the history of music that is taught deals with the Western civilization’s art music, which is known as classical music. The history of music in non-Western cultures ” world music ” or the field of “ethnomusicology” , which typically covers music from Africa and Asia is also taught in Western universities.

This includes the documented classical traditions of Asian countries outside the influence of Western Europe, as well as the folk or indigenous music of various other cultures. Popular or folk styles of music in non-Western countries varied widely from culture to culture, and from period to period.

Different cultures emphasised different instruments, techniques, singing styles and uses for music. Music has been used for entertainment, ceremonies, rituals, religious purposes and for practical and artistic communication.

Non-Western music has also been used for propaganda purposes, as was the case with Chinese opera during the Cultural Revolution. There is a host of music classifications for non-Western music, many of which are caught up in the argument over the definition of music.

Among the largest of these is the division between classical music or “art” music, and popular music or commercial music — including non-Western styles of rock, country, and pop music-related styles.

Some genres do not fit neatly into one of these “big two” classifications, such as folk music, world music, or jazz – related music. As world cultures have come into greater global contact, their indigenous musical styles have often merged with other styles, which produces new styles.

For example, the United States bluegrass style contains elements from Anglo – Irish, Scottish, Irish, German and African instrumental and vocal traditions, which were able to fuse in the United States’ multi-ethnic ” melting pot ” society.

Some types of world music contain a mixture of non-Western indigenous styles with Western pop music elements. Genres of music are determined as much by tradition and presentation as by the actual music.

Some works, like George Gershwin ‘s Rhapsody in Blue, are claimed by both jazz and classical music, while Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess and Leonard Bernstein ‘s West Side Story are claimed by both opera and the Broadway musical tradition.

Many current music festivals for non-Western music include bands and singers from a particular musical genre, such as world music. Indian music, for example, is one of the oldest and longest living types of music, and is still widely heard and performed in South Asia, as well as internationally especially since the s.

Indian music has mainly three forms of classical music, Hindustani, Carnatic, and Dhrupad styles. It has also a large repertoire of styles, which involve only percussion music such as the talavadya performances famous in South India.

Music therapy is an interpersonal process in which a trained therapist uses music and all of its facets—physical, emotional, mental, social, aesthetic, and spiritual—to help clients to improve or maintain their health.

In some instances, the client’s needs are addressed directly through music; in others they are addressed through the relationships that develop between the client and therapist. Music therapy is used with individuals of all ages and with a variety of conditions, including: It is also used to improve learning, build self-esteem, reduce stress, support physical exercise, and facilitate a host of other health-related activities.

Music therapists may encourage clients to sing, play instruments, create songs, or do other musical activities. One of the earliest mentions of music therapy was in Al-Farabi ‘s c. In the 17th century, the scholar Robert Burton ‘s The Anatomy of Melancholy argued that music and dance were critical in treating mental illness, especially melancholia.

Crawford [93] and his colleagues also found that music therapy helped schizophrenic patients. Albert Einstein had a lifelong love of music particularly the works of Bach and Mozart, [95] once stating that life without playing music would be inconceivable to him.

In some interviews Einstein even attributed much of his scientific intuition to music, with his son Hans recounting that “whenever he felt that he had come to the end of the road or into a difficult situation in his work, he would take refuge in music, and that would usually resolve all his difficulties.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Music disambiguation. History of music in the biblical period. Melody sung in an approximation of Koine Greek pronunciation and in modern popular vocal style.

Philosophy of music and Aesthetics of music. Cognitive neuroscience of music. Culture in music cognition. Computer music and Music technology. Carlos Gardel and Alfredo on Por una cabeza.

Outline of music and Index of music articles. Retrieved 27 October Retrieved 11 September Protest Music After Fukushima. Oxford University Press, Patterns for College Writing.

Retrieved 28 May, , from “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on Retrieved 12 July, from http: Core music standards glossary. National curriculum in England: Retrieved 6 January, from https:

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Such is often the case with a fantasia, prelude, rhapsody, etude or study, symphonic poem, Bagatelle, impromptu, etc. This form is built from a sequence of clear-cut units [27] that may be referred to by letters but also often have generic names such as introduction and coda, exposition, development and recapitulation, verse, chorus or refrain, and bridge.

Introductions and codas, when they are no more than that, are frequently excluded from formal analysis. All such units may typically be eight measures long. Medley, potpourri is the extreme opposite, that of “unrelieved variation”: Examples include orchestral overtures, which are sometimes no more than a string of the best tunes of the musical theatre show or opera to come.

This form uses two sections AB In 18th-century Western classical music, “simple binary” form was often used for dances and carried with it the convention that the two sections should be in different musical keys but same rhythm, duration and tone.

The alternation of two tunes gives enough variety to permit a dance to be extended for as long as desired. This form has three parts. In Western classical music a simple ternary form has a third section that is a recapitulation of the first ABA.

Often, the first section is repeated AABA. This approach was popular in the 18th-century operatic aria, [ citation needed ] and was called da capo i. Later, it gave rise to the bar song, with the B section then often referred to as the “middle eight”.

A song has more need than a dance of a self-contained form with a beginning and an end of course. This form has a recurring theme alternating with different usually contrasting sections called “episodes”.

A recurring section, especially the main theme, is sometimes more thoroughly varied, or else one episode may be a “development” of it. A similar arrangement is the ritornello form of the Baroque concerto grosso.

It is normally used in a round. An important variant of this, much used in 17th-century British music and in the Passacaglia and Chaconne, was that of the ground bass — a repeating bass theme or basso ostinato over and around which the rest of the structure unfolds, often, but not always, spinning polyphonic or contrapuntal threads, or improvising divisions and descants.

This is said by Scholes to be the form par excellence of unaccompanied or accompanied solo instrumental music. Developmental forms are built directly from smaller units, such as motifs.

A well-known Classical piece with a motif is Beethoven’s fifth symphony, which starts with three short repeated notes and then a long note. In Classical pieces that are based on motifs, the motif is usually combined, varied and worked out in different ways, perhaps having a symmetrical or arch-like underpinning and a progressive development from beginning to end.

By far the most important developmental form in Western classical music is Sonata form. This form, also known as sonata form, first movement form, compound binary, ternary and a variety of other names, [ example needed ] developed from the binary-formed dance movement described above but is almost always cast in a greater ternary form having the nominal subdivisions of Exposition, Development and Recapitulation.

Usually, but not always, the “A” parts Exposition and Recapitulation, respectively may be subdivided into two or three themes or theme groups which are taken asunder and recombined to form the “B” part the development — thus e.

This developmental form is generally confined to certain sections of the piece, as to the middle section of the first movement of a sonata, though 19th-century composers such as Berlioz, Liszt and Wagner made valiant efforts to derive large-scale works purely or mainly from the motif.

Prehistoric music can only be theorized based on findings from paleolithic archaeology sites. Flutes are often discovered, carved from bones in which lateral holes have been pierced; these are thought to have been blown at one end like the Japanese shakuhachi.

The Divje Babe flute, carved from a cave bear femur, is thought to be at least 40, years old. Instruments such as the seven-holed flute and various types of stringed instruments, such as the Ravanahatha, have been recovered from the Indus Valley Civilization archaeological sites.

The ancient Egyptians credited one of their gods, Thoth, with the invention of music, with Osiris in turn used as part of his effort to civilize the world. The earliest material and representational evidence of Egyptian musical instruments dates to the Predynastic period, but the evidence is more securely attested in the Old Kingdom when harps, flutes and double clarinets were played.

Cymbals [35] frequently accompanied music and dance, much as they still do in Egypt today. Egyptian folk music, including the traditional Sufi dhikr rituals, are the closest contemporary music genre to ancient Egyptian music, having preserved many of its features, rhythms and instruments.

Indian classical music is one of the oldest musical traditions in the world. Various types of stringed instruments and drums have been recovered from Harappa and Mohenjo Daro by excavations carried out by Sir Mortimer Wheeler.

Silappadhikaram by Ilango Adigal provides information about how new scales can be formed by modal shifting of the tonic from an existing scale. Carnatic music, popular in the southern states, is largely devotional; the majority of the songs are addressed to the Hindu deities.

There are also many songs emphasising love and other social issues. Chinese classical music, the traditional art or court music of China, has a history stretching over around three thousand years.

It has its own unique systems of musical notation, as well as musical tuning and pitch, musical instruments and styles or musical genres. Persian music is the music of Persia and Persian language countries: Music and theatre scholars studying the history and anthropology of Semitic and early Judeo-Christian culture have discovered common links in theatrical and musical activity between the classical cultures of the Hebrews and those of later Greeks and Romans.

The common area of performance is found in a “social phenomenon called litany,” a form of prayer consisting of a series of invocations or supplications. The Journal of Religion and Theatre notes that among the earliest forms of litany, “Hebrew litany was accompanied by a rich musical tradition: Music was an important part of social and cultural life in ancient Greece.

Musicians and singers played a prominent role in Greek theater. Music was an important part of education, and boys were taught music starting at age six.

Greek musical literacy created a flowering of music development. Greek music theory included the Greek musical modes, that eventually became the basis for Western religious and classical music. The Seikilos epitaph is the oldest surviving example of a complete musical composition, including musical notation, from anywhere in the world.

The medieval era to, which took place during the Middle Ages, started with the introduction of monophonic single melodic line chanting into Roman Catholic Church services. Musical notation was used since Ancient times in Greek culture, but in the Middle Ages, notation was first introduced by the Catholic church so that the chant melodies could be written down, to facilitate the use of the same melodies for religious music across the entire Catholic empire.

The only European Medieval repertory that has been found in written form from before is the monophonic liturgical plainsong chant of the Roman Catholic Church, the central tradition of which was called Gregorian chant.

Alongside these traditions of sacred and church music there existed a vibrant tradition of secular song non-religious songs. Around, the printing press was invented, which made printed sheet music much less expensive and easier to mass-produce prior to the invention of the printing press, all notated music was hand-copied.

The increased availability of sheet music helped to spread musical styles more quickly and across a larger area. Musicians and singers often worked for the church, courts and towns. Church choirs grew in size, and the church remained an important patron of music.

By the middle of the 15th century, composers wrote richly polyphonic sacred music, in which different melody lines were interwoven simultaneously. As musical activity shifted from the church to the aristocratic courts, kings, queens and princes competed for the finest composers.

Many leading important composers came from the Netherlands, Belgium, and northern France. They are called the Franco-Flemish composers. They held important positions throughout Europe, especially in Italy.

Other countries with vibrant musical activity included Germany, England, and Spain. The Baroque era of music took place from to, as the Baroque artistic style flourished across Europe; and during this time, music expanded in its range and complexity.

Baroque music began when the first operas dramatic solo vocal music accompanied by orchestra were written. During the Baroque era, polyphonic contrapuntal music, in which multiple, simultaneous independent melody lines were used, remained important counterpoint was important in the vocal music of the Medieval era.

German Baroque composers wrote for small ensembles including strings, brass, and woodwinds, as well as for choirs and keyboard instruments such as pipe organ, harpsichord, and clavichord.

During this period several major music forms were defined that lasted into later periods when they were expanded and evolved further, including the fugue, the invention, the sonata, and the concerto.

The music of the Classical period to aimed to imitate what were seen as the key elements of the art and philosophy of Ancient Greece and Rome: Music from the Classical period has a lighter, clearer and considerably simpler texture than the Baroque music which preceded it.

The main style was homophony, [49] where a prominent melody and a subordinate chordal accompaniment part are clearly distinct. Classical instrumental melodies tended to be almost voicelike and singable.

New genres were developed, and the fortepiano, the forerunner to the modern piano, replaced the Baroque era harpsichord and pipe organ as the main keyboard instrument.

Importance was given to instrumental music. It was dominated by further development of musical forms initially defined in the Baroque period: Others main kinds were the trio, string quartet, serenade and divertimento.

The sonata was the most important and developed form. Although Baroque composers also wrote sonatas, the Classical style of sonata is completely distinct. All of the main instrumental forms of the Classical era, from string quartets to symphonies and concertos, were based on the structure of the sonata.

The instruments used chamber music and orchestra became more standardized. In place of the basso continuo group of the Baroque era, which consisted of harpsichord, organ or lute along with a number of bass instruments selected at the discretion of the group leader e.

The Baroque era improvised chord-playing of the continuo keyboardist or lute player was gradually phased out between and One of the most important changes made in the Classical period was the development of public concerts.

The aristocracy still played a significant role in the sponsorship of concerts and compositions, but it was now possible for composers to survive without being permanent employees of queens or princes.

The increasing popularity of classical music led to a growth in the number and types of orchestras. The expansion of orchestral concerts necessitated the building of large public performance spaces.

Beethoven and Schubert are also considered to be composers in the later part of the Classical era, as it began to move towards Romanticism. Romanticism was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature.

Romantic music expanded beyond the rigid styles and forms of the Classical era into more passionate, dramatic expressive pieces and songs. Romantic composers such as Wagner and Brahms attempted to increase emotional expression and power in their music to describe deeper truths or human feelings.

With symphonic tone poems, composers tried to tell stories and evoke images or landscapes using instrumental music. Some composers promoted nationalistic pride with patriotic orchestral music inspired by folk music.

The emotional and expressive qualities of music came to take precedence over tradition. Romantic composers grew in idiosyncrasy, and went further in the syncretism of exploring different art-forms in a musical context, such as literature, history historical figures and legends, or nature itself.

Romantic love or longing was a prevalent theme in many works composed during this period. In some cases the formal structures from the classical period continued to be used e. In many cases, new approaches were explored for existing genres, forms, and functions.

Also, new forms were created that were deemed better suited to the new subject matter. Composers continued to develop opera and ballet music, exploring new styles and themes. In the years after, the music developed by Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert introduced a more dramatic, expressive style.

In Beethoven’s case, short motifs, developed organically, came to replace melody as the most significant compositional unit an example is the distinctive four note figure used in his Fifth Symphony.

They generated complex and often much longer musical works. During the late Romantic period, composers explored dramatic chromatic alterations of tonality, such as extended chords and altered chords, which created new sound “colours”.

The late 19th century saw a dramatic expansion in the size of the orchestra, and the industrial revolution helped to create better instruments, creating a more powerful sound.

Public concerts became an important part of well-to-do urban society. It also saw a new diversity in theatre music, including operetta, and musical comedy and other forms of musical theatre.

In the 19th century, one of the key ways that new compositions became known to the public was by the sales of sheet music, which middle class amateur music lovers would perform at home on their piano or other common instruments, such as violin.

With 20th-century music, the invention of new electric technologies such as radio broadcasting and the mass market availability of gramophone records meant that sound recordings of songs and pieces heard by listeners either on the radio or on their record player became the main way to learn about new songs and pieces.

There was a vast increase in music listening as the radio gained popularity and phonographs were used to replay and distribute music, because whereas in the 19th century, the focus on sheet music restricted access to new music to the middle class and upper-class people who could read music and who owned pianos and instruments, in the 20th century, anyone with a radio or record player could hear operas, symphonies and big bands right in their own living room.

This allowed lower-income people, who would never be able to afford an opera or symphony concert ticket to hear this music. It also meant that people could hear music from different parts of the country, or even different parts of the world, even if they could not afford to travel to these locations.

This helped to spread musical styles. The focus of art music in the 20th century was characterized by exploration of new rhythms, styles, and sounds. The horrors of World War I influenced many of the arts, including music, and some composers began exploring darker, harsher sounds.

Traditional music styles such as jazz and folk music were used by composers as a source of ideas for classical music. Igor Stravinsky, Arnold Schoenberg, and John Cage were all influential composers in 20th-century art music.

Sound recording was also a major influence on the development of popular music genres, because it enabled recordings of songs and bands to be widely distributed.

The introduction of the multitrack recording system had a major influence on rock music, because it could do much more than record a band’s performance. Using a multitrack system, a band and their music producer could overdub many layers of instrument tracks and vocals, creating new sounds that would not be possible in a live performance.

Jazz evolved and became an important genre of music over the course of the 20th century, and during the second half of that century, rock music did the same. Jazz is an American musical artform that originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States from a confluence of African and European music traditions.

The style’s West African pedigree is evident in its use of blue notes, improvisation, polyrhythms, syncopation, and the swung note. Rock music is a genre of popular music that developed in the s from s rock and roll, rockabilly, blues, and country music.

Along with the guitar or keyboards, saxophone and blues-style harmonica are used as soloing instruments. In its “purest form,” it “has three chords, a strong, insistent back beat, and a catchy melody.

Performance is the physical expression of music, which occurs when a song is sung or when a piano piece, electric guitar melody, symphony, drum beat or other musical part is played by musicians.

In classical music, a musical work is written in music notation by a composer and then it is performed once the composer is satisfied with its structure and instrumentation. However, as it gets performed, the interpretation of a song or piece can evolve and change.

In classical music, instrumental performers, singers or conductors may gradually make changes to the phrasing or tempo of a piece. In popular and traditional music, the performers have a lot more freedom to make changes to the form of a song or piece.

As such, in popular and traditional music styles, even when a band plays a cover song, they can make changes to it such as adding a guitar solo to or inserting an introduction. A performance can either be planned out and rehearsed practiced —which is the norm in classical music, with jazz big bands and many popular music styles—or improvised over a chord progression a sequence of chords, which is the norm in small jazz and blues groups.

Rehearsals of orchestras, concert bands and choirs are led by a conductor. Rock, blues and jazz bands are usually led by the bandleader. Improvisation is the creation of a musical idea—a melody or other musical line—created on the spot, often based on scales or pre-existing melodic riffs.

Many cultures have strong traditions of solo performance in which one singer or instrumentalist performs, such as in Indian classical music, and in the Western art-music tradition.

Other cultures, such as in Bali, include strong traditions of group performance. All cultures include a mixture of both, and performance may range from improvised solo playing to highly planned and organised performances such as the modern classical concert, religious processions, classical music festivals or music competitions.

Chamber music, which is music for a small ensemble with only a few of each type of instrument, is often seen as more intimate than large symphonic works. Many types of music, such as traditional blues and folk music were not written down in sheet music ; instead, they were originally preserved in the memory of performers, and the songs were handed down orally, from one musician or singer to another, or aurally, in which a performer learns a song ” by ear “.

When the composer of a song or piece is no longer known, this music is often classified as “traditional” or as a “folk song”. Different musical traditions have different attitudes towards how and where to make changes to the original source material, from quite strict, to those that demand improvisation or modification to the music.

A culture’s history and stories may also be passed on by ear through song. In music, an “ornament” is a decoration to a melody, bassline or other musical part. The detail included explicitly in the music notation varies between genres and historical periods.

In general, art music notation from the 17th through the 19th centuries required performers to have a great deal of contextual knowledge about performing styles. For example, in the 17th and 18th centuries, music notated for solo performers typically indicated a simple, unadorned melody.

However, performers were expected to know how to add stylistically appropriate ornaments to add interest to the music, such as trills and turns. In the 19th century, art music for solo performers may give a general instruction such as to perform the music expressively, without describing in detail how the performer should do this.

The performer was expected to know how to use tempo changes, accentuation, and pauses among other devices to obtain this “expressive” performance style. In the 20th century, art music notation often became more explicit and used a range of markings and annotations to indicate to performers how they should play or sing the piece.

In popular music and jazz, music notation almost always indicates only the basic framework of the melody, harmony, or performance approach; musicians and singers are expected to know the performance conventions and styles associated with specific genres and pieces.

For example, the ” lead sheet ” for a jazz tune may only indicate the melody and the chord changes. The performers in the jazz ensemble are expected to know how to “flesh out” this basic structure by adding ornaments, improvised music, and chordal accompaniment.

Philosophy of music is a subfield of philosophy. The philosophy of music is the study of fundamental questions regarding music. The philosophical study of music has many connections with philosophical questions in metaphysics and aesthetics.

Some basic questions in the philosophy of music are:. In ancient times, such as with the Ancient Greeks, the aesthetics of music explored the mathematical and cosmological dimensions of rhythmic and harmonic organization.

In the 18th century, focus shifted to the experience of hearing music, and thus to questions about its beauty and human enjoyment plaisir and jouissance of music. The origin of this philosophic shift is sometimes attributed to Baumgarten in the 18th century, followed by Kant.

Through their writing, the ancient term ‘aesthetics’, meaning sensory perception, received its present-day connotation. In the s, philosophers have tended to emphasize issues besides beauty and enjoyment.

For example, music’s capacity to express emotion has been a central issue. However, many musicians, music critics, and other non-philosophers have contributed to the aesthetics of music.

In the 19th century, a significant debate arose between Eduard Hanslick, a music critic and musicologist, and composer Richard Wagner regarding whether music can express meaning. Harry Partch and some other musicologists, such as Kyle Gann, have studied and tried to popularize microtonal music and the usage of alternate musical scales.

It is often thought that music has the ability to affect our emotions, intellect, and psychology ; it can assuage our loneliness or incite our passions. The philosopher Plato suggests in the Republic that music has a direct effect on the soul.

Therefore, he proposes that in the ideal regime music would be closely regulated by the state. There has been a strong tendency in the aesthetics of music to emphasize the paramount importance of compositional structure; however, other issues concerning the aesthetics of music include lyricism, harmony, hypnotism, emotiveness, temporal dynamics, resonance, playfulness, and color see also musical development.

Modern music psychology aims to explain and understand musical behavior and experience. In addition to its focus on fundamental perceptions and cognitive processes, music psychology is a field of research with practical relevance for many areas, including music performance, composition, education, criticism, and therapy, as well as investigations of human aptitude, skill, intelligence, creativity, and social behavior.

Cognitive neuroscience of music is the scientific study of brain-based mechanisms involved in the cognitive processes underlying music. These behaviours include music listening, performing, composing, reading, writing, and ancillary activities.

It also is increasingly concerned with the brain basis for musical aesthetics and musical emotion. The field is distinguished by its reliance on direct observations of the brain, using such techniques as functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI, transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS, magnetoencephalography MEG, electroencephalography EEG, and positron emission tomography PET.

Cognitive musicology is a branch of cognitive science concerned with computationally modeling musical knowledge with the goal of understanding both music and cognition. This interdisciplinary field investigates topics such as the parallels between language and music in the brain.

Biologically inspired models of computation are often included in research, such as neural networks and evolutionary programs. By using a well-structured computer environment, the systematic structures of these cognitive phenomena can be investigated.

Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of sound perception. More specifically, it is the branch of science studying the psychological and physiological responses associated with sound including speech and music.

It can be further categorized as a branch of psychophysics. Evolutionary musicology concerns the “origins of music, the question of animal song, selection pressures underlying music evolution”, and “music evolution and human evolution”.

Charles Darwin speculated that music may have held an adaptive advantage and functioned as a protolanguage, [61] a view which has spawned several competing theories of music evolution.

An individual’s culture or ethnicity plays a role in their music cognition, including their preferences, emotional reaction, and musical memory. Musical preferences are biased toward culturally familiar musical traditions beginning in infancy, and adults’ classification of the emotion of a musical piece depends on both culturally specific and universal structural features.

Many ethnographic studies demonstrate that music is a participatory, community-based activity. Musical performances take different forms in different cultures and socioeconomic milieus.

In Europe and North America, there is often a divide between what types of music are viewed as a ” high culture ” and ” low culture. Other types of music—including, but not limited to, jazz, blues, soul, and country —are often performed in bars, nightclubs, and theatres, where the audience may be able to drink, dance, and express themselves by cheering.

Until the later 20th century, the division between “high” and “low” musical forms was widely accepted as a valid distinction that separated out better quality, more advanced “art music” from the popular styles of music heard in bars and dance halls.

However, in the s and s, musicologists studying this perceived divide between “high” and “low” musical genres argued that this distinction is not based on the musical value or quality of the different types of music.

When composers introduce styles of music that break with convention, there can be a strong resistance from academic music experts and popular culture. Late-period Beethoven string quartets, Stravinsky ballet scores, serialism, bebop – era jazz, hip hop, punk rock, and electronica have all been considered non-music by some critics when they were first introduced.

The sociological study of music, sometimes called sociomusicology, is often pursued in departments of sociology, media studies, or music, and is closely related to the field of ethnomusicology.

As well, it describes music movements, events and genres related to women, women’s issues and feminism. In the s, while women comprise a significant proportion of popular music and classical music singers, and a significant proportion of songwriters many of them being singer-songwriters, there are few women record producers, rock critics and rock instrumentalists.

Although there have been a huge number of women composers in classical music, from the Medieval period to the present day, women composers are significantly underrepresented in the commonly performed classical music repertoire, music history textbooks and music encyclopedias; for example, in the Concise Oxford History of Music, Clara Schumann is one of the only female composers who is mentioned.

Women comprise a significant proportion of instrumental soloists in classical music and the percentage of women in orchestras is increasing. Women are less common as instrumental players in popular music genres such as rock and heavy metal, although there have been a number of notable female instrumentalists and all-female bands.

Women are particularly underrepresented in extreme metal genres. Though there were plenty of female singers on the radio, women Singing was sometimes an acceptable pastime for a girl, but playing an instrument, writing songs, or producing records simply wasn’t done.

While women were discouraged from composing in the 19th century, and there are few women musicologists, women became involved in music education ” According to Jessica Duchen, a music writer for London’s The Independent, women musicians in classical music are ” The music that composers make can be heard through several media; the most traditional way is to hear it live, in the presence of the musicians or as one of the musicians, in an outdoor or indoor space such as an amphitheatre, concert hall, cabaret room or theatre.

Since the 20th century, live music can also be broadcast over the radio, television or the Internet, or recorded and listened to on a CD player or Mp3 player. Some musical styles focus on producing a sound for a performance, while others focus on producing a recording that mixes together sounds that were never played “live.

Technology has had an influence on music since prehistoric times, when cave people used simple tools to bore holes into bone flutes 41, years ago. Technology continued to influence music throughout the history of music, as it enabled new instruments and music notation reproduction systems to be used, with one of the watershed moments in music notation being the invention of the printing press in the s, which meant music scores no longer had to be hand copied.

In the 19th century, music technology led to the development of a more powerful, louder piano and led to the development of new valves brass instruments. In the early 20th century in the late s, as talking pictures emerged in the early 20th century, with their prerecorded musical tracks, an increasing number of moviehouse orchestra musicians found themselves out of work.

The American Federation of Musicians AFM took out newspaper advertisements protesting the replacement of live musicians with mechanical playing devices. Since legislation introduced to help protect performers, composers, publishers and producers, including the Audio Home Recording Act of in the United States, and the revised Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works in the United Kingdom, recordings and live performances have also become more accessible through computers, devices and Internet in a form that is commonly known as Music-On-Demand.

In many cultures, there is less distinction between performing and listening to music, since virtually everyone is involved in some sort of musical activity, often communal.

In industrialized countries, listening to music through a recorded form, such as sound recording or watching a music video, became more common than experiencing live performance, roughly in the middle of the 20th century.

Sometimes, live performances incorporate prerecorded sounds. For example, a disc jockey uses disc records for scratching, and some 20th-century works have a solo for an instrument or voice that is performed along with music that is prerecorded onto a tape.

Audiences can also become performers by participating in karaoke, an activity of Japanese origin centered on a device that plays voice-eliminated versions of well-known songs.

Most karaoke machines also have video screens that show lyrics to songs being performed; performers can follow the lyrics as they sing over the instrumental tracks. The advent of the Internet and widespread high-speed broadband access has transformed the experience of music, partly through the increased ease of access to recordings of music via streaming video and vastly increased choice of music for consumers.

Chris Anderson, in his book The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More, suggests that while the traditional economic model of supply and demand describes scarcity, the Internet retail model is based on abundance.

Digital storage costs are low, so a company can afford to make its whole recording inventory available online, giving customers as much choice as possible. It has thus become economically viable to offer music recordings that very few people are interested in.

Consumers’ growing awareness of their increased choice results in a closer association between listening tastes and social identity, and the creation of thousands of niche markets.

Another effect of the Internet arose with online communities and social media websites like YouTube and Facebook, a social networking service. These sites make it easier for aspiring singers and amateur bands to distribute videos of their songs, connect with other musicians, and gain audience interest.

Professional musicians also use YouTube as a free publisher of promotional material. YouTube users, for example, no longer only download and listen to MP3s, but also actively create their own.

According to Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, in their book Wikinomics, there has been a shift from a traditional consumer role to what they call a ” prosumer ” role, a consumer who both creates content and consumes.

Manifestations of this in music include the production of mashes, remixes, and music videos by fans. The music industry refers to the businesses connected with the creation and sale of music.

It consists of songwriters and composers who create new songs and musical pieces, music producers and sound engineers who record songs and pieces, record labels and publishers that distribute recorded music products and sheet music internationally and that often control the rights to those products.

Some music labels are ” independent,” while others are subsidiaries of larger corporate entities or international media groups. In the s, the increasing popularity of listening to music as digital music files on MP3 players, iPods, or computers, and of trading music on file sharing websites or buying it online in the form of digital files had a major impact on the traditional music business.

Many smaller independent CD stores went out of business as music buyers decreased their purchases of CDs, and many labels had lower CD sales. Some companies did well with the change to a digital format, though, such as Apple’s iTunes, an online music store that sells digital files of songs over the Internet.

In spite of some international copyright treaties, determining which music is in the public domain is complicated by the variety of national copyright laws that may be applicable. US copyright law formerly protected printed music published after for 28 years and with renewal for another 28 years, but the Copyright Act of made renewal automatic, and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act changed the calculation of the copyright term to 70 years after the death of the creator.

Recorded sound falls under mechanical licensing, often covered by a confusing patchwork of state laws; most cover versions are licensed through the Harry Fox Agency. The incorporation of some music or singing training into general education from preschool to post secondary education is common in North America and Europe.

Involvement in playing and singing music is thought to teach basic skills such as concentration, counting, listening, and cooperation while also promoting understanding of language, improving the ability to recall information, and creating an environment more conducive to learning in other areas.

Some elementary school children also learn about popular music styles. In religious schools, children sing hymns and other religious music. In secondary schools and less commonly in elementary schools, students may have the opportunity to perform in some types of musical ensembles, such as choirs a group of singers, marching bands, concert bands, jazz bands, or orchestras.

In some school systems, music lessons on how to play instruments may be provided. Some students also take private music lessons after school with a singing teacher or instrument teacher.

Amateur musicians typically learn basic musical rudiments e. At the university level, students in most arts and humanities programs can receive credit for taking a few music courses, which typically take the form of an overview course on the history of music, or a music appreciation course that focuses on listening to music and learning about different musical styles.

In addition, most North American and European universities have some types of musical ensembles that students in arts and humanities are able to participate in, such as choirs, marching bands, concert bands, or orchestras.

The study of Western art music is increasingly common outside of North America and Europe, such as the Indonesian Institute of the Arts in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, or the classical music programs that are available in Asian countries such as South Korea, Japan, and China.

At the same time, Western universities and colleges are widening their curriculum to include music of non-Western cultures, such as the music of Africa or Bali e. Individuals aiming to become professional musicians, singers, composers, songwriters, music teachers and practitioners of other music-related professions such as music history professors, sound engineers, and so on study in specialized post-secondary programs offered by colleges, universities and music conservatories.

Some institutions that train individuals for careers in music offer training in a wide range of professions, as is the case with many of the top U. On the other hand, some small colleges may only offer training in a single profession e.

While most university and conservatory music programs focus on training students in classical music, there are a number of universities and colleges that train musicians for careers as jazz or popular music musicians and composers, with notable U.

Individuals aiming at careers in some types of music, such as heavy metal music, country music or blues are less likely to become professionals by completing degrees or diplomas in colleges or universities.

Since the s, the increasing popularity and availability of Internet forums and YouTube “how-to” videos have enabled many singers and musicians from metal, blues and similar genres to improve their skills.

Many pop, rock and country singers train informally with vocal coaches and singing teachers. Undergraduate university degrees in music, including the Bachelor of Music, the Bachelor of Music Education, and the Bachelor of Arts with a major in music typically take about four years to complete.

These degrees provide students with a grounding in music theory and music history, and many students also study an instrument or learn singing technique as part of their program. Graduates of undergraduate music programs can seek employment or go on to further study in music graduate programs.

Bachelor’s degree graduates are also eligible to apply to some graduate programs and professional schools outside of music e. Graduate music degrees include the Master of Music, the Master of Arts in musicology, music theory or another music field, the Doctor of Philosophy Ph.

The Master of Music degree, which takes one to two years to complete, is typically awarded to students studying the performance of an instrument, education, voice singing or composition.

The Master of Arts degree, which takes one to two years to complete and often requires a thesis, is typically awarded to students studying musicology, music history, music theory or ethnomusicology.

The PhD, which is required for students who want to work as university professors in musicology, music history, or music theory, takes three to five years of study after the master’s degree, during which time the student will complete advanced courses and undertake research for a dissertation.

The DMA is a relatively new degree that was created to provide a credential for professional performers or composers that want to work as university professors in musical performance or composition.

The DMA takes three to five years after a master’s degree, and includes advanced courses, projects, and performances. In Medieval times, the study of music was one of the Quadrivium of the seven Liberal Arts and considered vital to higher learning.

Within the quantitative Quadrivium, music, or more accurately harmonics, was the study of rational proportions. Musicology, the academic study of the subject of music, is studied in universities and music conservatories.

The earliest definitions from the 19th century defined three sub-disciplines of musicology: In era scholarship, one is more likely to encounter a division of the discipline into music theory, music history, and ethnomusicology.

Research in musicology has often been enriched by cross-disciplinary work, for example in the field of psychoacoustics.

Since NeoTex is used for both the sharps and naturals, the feel of the keys is consistent across the entire keyboard. NeoTex resists cracking and fading over years of use — and is static-resistant to help prevent the build-up of unwanted dust.

The result is a beautiful, long-lasting key surface with exceptional playability. Translated as ‘the highest level of voicing’, Shiko Seion hammers are made and voiced entirely by our Master Piano Artisans, their felt made with the finest Australian and New Zealand long wool fibres.

Hand pressed, reinforced and formed without artificial hardeners, tone regulation is achieved by needling or shaping – not by injection or ‘doping’ or using heat. This method ensures long hammer life and infinite voicing possibilities.

Overall, they deliver unmatched dynamics, tonal quality and expression for the artist. From Kawai’s own forest sources comes Ezo Spruce. Grown in the snow shrouded mountains of Hokkaido, the extreme climate and lofty altitude produce a wood that is prized for its close, even grain.

Top grade, specially selected, it is sawn and shaped into a soundboard of exceptional energy and tonal projection. Once the Ezo is harvested, it is planed and quarter sawn, then stockpiled outdoors for as long as fifteen years.

This lengthy and arduous natural process is known as Kigarashi. In the Japanese language of wood, Kigarashi means, ‘finding a balance through time and nature. The answer is stability. The natural aging of Ezo spruce produces a soundboard that is tremendously stable and far less susceptible to warpage and cracking.

According to wood technologists, force drying can change the molecular structure of wood and affect stability as well as tonal projection. Every Shigeru Kawai soundboard carries a special seal on the front bass side that identifies it as a Kigarashi premium aged soundboard, known for its exceptional tone and stability.

Our V – Pro plates are the most consistent in the world, providing tolerances unmatched by any other manufacturer. However, after a plate is cast, it is still ‘alive’ and could be subject to minute shifts and stresses.

To eliminate any possibility of instability, Shigeru Kawai plates are left outdoors, literally buried in sand for one year, which assures a stable and stress free plate.

All Shigeru Kawai concert grand piano models. Alternating vertical laminations of mahogany and hard maple provide reduced mass and greater flexibility in the bridge assembly, thus allowing the MPA to match the bridge impedance specifically to each individual piano.

This intricate construction technique provides the most rapid and efficient transfer of energy from the strings to the soundboard and maximises soundboard movement for optimum amplification and increased sustain.

Carefully hand notched by the MPA, the select hardwood cap of Kaede Japanese Maple maintains the structural integrity of the vertical laminations and offers an exceptional contact surface for the strings.

Kaede is also more crack resistant than other woods, allowing precise hand levelling of the bridge pins without the fear of developing micro cracks in the cap. The hand levelled bridge pins create a deeper burrow for a more secure foundation.

Temaki literally means ‘hand rolled’. In the unhurried Temaki process, the MPA patiently winds each bass string by hand for absolute precision and tension.

Through years of experience, he or she is able to accurately space the coils of the solid copper wire over the steel core in a manner unique to the skilled human hand.

This method creates a string with a richness, harmonic complexity and depth of tone found only in the Shigeru Kawai piano. The inner rim is the foundation for the soundboard.

The inner rim is made of extremely dense Matoa. After it is shaped, the rim is seasoned in a special chamber where it remains untouched for twice the length of time than is generally allotted by most manufacturers.

This longer aging creates an inner rim that is tremendously stable and provides a solid foundation for the soundboard assembly. The benefit to the player is a more stable soundboard crown and more consistent tone.

Our dual pivot design offers the player unparalleled control and responsiveness in proportional pedalling. The Dual-Pivot design offers the player unparalleled control and responsiveness in proportional pedalling.

Grand Feel is the world’s most advanced digital piano action, with 88 long wooden keys and a pivot length equal to that of a grand piano, ensuring evenness of touch from the front of the key to the back.

The spine of Grand Feel, our custom ABS action rail provides immense strength and stability, and from the highest grade felts and balance pins to the gels lubricating each keystroke, every material used in Grand Feel is selected or made exclusively to achieve the most authentic touch and motion in any digital piano action.

Textured Ivory and Ebony Touch key surfaces gently absorb moisture from the fingertips and add fine control for more delicate passages, and our triple-sensor key detection system is unmatched in its accuracy and responsiveness.

Graded counterweights help to lighten their touch during pianissimo passages, with let-off simulation also reproducing the “notch” sensation felt when playing the keys of a grand piano very softly.

Combining more than 85 years of experience in piano manufacture with the latest in textile and mechanic design, Grand Feel is the most authentic digital piano action ever made. Grand Feel II available in: The class-leading Responsive Hammer keyboard action recreates the supreme touch of an acoustic grand piano, with its realistic movement and rigid, springless design providing a smooth and natural piano playing experience.

The triple-sensor key detection system enhances responsiveness and accuracy, and allows for blazing fast repetition, while structural reinforcements throughout the action assembly help to neutralise noise and lateral key movement during staccato and fortissimo passages.

Responsive Hammer III available in: SK-EX Rendering is a brand new piano sound engine that blends multi-channel, key sampling with the latest resonance modelling technology. Multi-channel sampling captures the sound from different points of the Shigeru Kawai concert grand piano, allowing a broader range of tonal characteristics to be reproduced, and providing a more lively, authentic response to changes in dynamics.

These pianos are prepared by our Master Piano Artisans and each key is recorded many times, under a range of conditions, by expert recording engineers, building up an enormous database of raw sound data.

Harmonic Imaging is the technology that weaves this data into the final expression when you play the keys, and it’s the reason that our digital pianos sound so incredibly lifelike and present.

Sophisticated algorithms analyse and interpret the timing, pressure, key-off velocity and other aspects of your keystrokes as you play, feeding the Harmonic Imaging engine the information it needs to produce a sound that is rich and nuanced, with enormous and customisable dynamic range, and as close to the performance instruments from which it was born as any digital piano available today.

Harmonic Imaging available in: Progressive Harmonic Imaging available in: Harmonic Imaging XL available in: The total sound of a piano is extremely complex, with strings resonating in sympathy with harmonically related strings, sounds produced by the action, the interplay of pedals with the positioning of dampers and much more, and there is much in this complexity that traditional sampling techniques are unable to capture.

By augmenting raw sample data with highly sophisticated modelling, performed by powerful on-board computer processors, Kawai digital pianos are able to articulate even the subtlest of these ancillary sounds and produce an astonishingly rich, detailed acoustic portrait in our digital piano sounds.

Onkyo processing, as well as premium Onkyo speakers and soundboard transducers are available in: Inspired by the same soundboards that give our acoustic pianos such rich, versatile resonances, Kawai’s Soundboard Speaker System is a genuine Spruce soundboard mounted directly into the rear of your digital piano.

Often, the first section is repeated AABA. This approach was popular in the 18th-century operatic aria, [ citation needed ] and was called da capo i. Later, it gave rise to the bar song, with the B section then often referred to as the “middle eight”.

A song has more need than a dance of a self-contained form with a beginning and an end of course. This form has a recurring theme alternating with different usually contrasting sections called “episodes”.

A recurring section, especially the main theme, is sometimes more thoroughly varied, or else one episode may be a “development” of it. A similar arrangement is the ritornello form of the Baroque concerto grosso.

It is normally used in a round. An important variant of this, much used in 17th-century British music and in the Passacaglia and Chaconne, was that of the ground bass — a repeating bass theme or basso ostinato over and around which the rest of the structure unfolds, often, but not always, spinning polyphonic or contrapuntal threads, or improvising divisions and descants.

This is said by Scholes to be the form par excellence of unaccompanied or accompanied solo instrumental music. Developmental forms are built directly from smaller units, such as motifs.

A well-known Classical piece with a motif is Beethoven’s fifth symphony, which starts with three short repeated notes and then a long note. In Classical pieces that are based on motifs, the motif is usually combined, varied and worked out in different ways, perhaps having a symmetrical or arch-like underpinning and a progressive development from beginning to end.

By far the most important developmental form in Western classical music is Sonata form. This form, also known as sonata form, first movement form, compound binary, ternary and a variety of other names, [ example needed ] developed from the binary-formed dance movement described above but is almost always cast in a greater ternary form having the nominal subdivisions of Exposition, Development and Recapitulation.

Usually, but not always, the “A” parts Exposition and Recapitulation, respectively may be subdivided into two or three themes or theme groups which are taken asunder and recombined to form the “B” part the development — thus e.

This developmental form is generally confined to certain sections of the piece, as to the middle section of the first movement of a sonata, though 19th-century composers such as Berlioz, Liszt and Wagner made valiant efforts to derive large-scale works purely or mainly from the motif.

Prehistoric music can only be theorized based on findings from paleolithic archaeology sites. Flutes are often discovered, carved from bones in which lateral holes have been pierced; these are thought to have been blown at one end like the Japanese shakuhachi.

The Divje Babe flute, carved from a cave bear femur, is thought to be at least 40, years old. Instruments such as the seven-holed flute and various types of stringed instruments, such as the Ravanahatha, have been recovered from the Indus Valley Civilization archaeological sites.

The ancient Egyptians credited one of their gods, Thoth, with the invention of music, with Osiris in turn used as part of his effort to civilize the world. The earliest material and representational evidence of Egyptian musical instruments dates to the Predynastic period, but the evidence is more securely attested in the Old Kingdom when harps, flutes and double clarinets were played.

Cymbals [35] frequently accompanied music and dance, much as they still do in Egypt today. Egyptian folk music, including the traditional Sufi dhikr rituals, are the closest contemporary music genre to ancient Egyptian music, having preserved many of its features, rhythms and instruments.

Indian classical music is one of the oldest musical traditions in the world. Various types of stringed instruments and drums have been recovered from Harappa and Mohenjo Daro by excavations carried out by Sir Mortimer Wheeler.

Silappadhikaram by Ilango Adigal provides information about how new scales can be formed by modal shifting of the tonic from an existing scale. Carnatic music, popular in the southern states, is largely devotional; the majority of the songs are addressed to the Hindu deities.

There are also many songs emphasising love and other social issues. Chinese classical music, the traditional art or court music of China, has a history stretching over around three thousand years.

It has its own unique systems of musical notation, as well as musical tuning and pitch, musical instruments and styles or musical genres. Persian music is the music of Persia and Persian language countries: Music and theatre scholars studying the history and anthropology of Semitic and early Judeo-Christian culture have discovered common links in theatrical and musical activity between the classical cultures of the Hebrews and those of later Greeks and Romans.

The common area of performance is found in a “social phenomenon called litany,” a form of prayer consisting of a series of invocations or supplications. The Journal of Religion and Theatre notes that among the earliest forms of litany, “Hebrew litany was accompanied by a rich musical tradition: Music was an important part of social and cultural life in ancient Greece.

Musicians and singers played a prominent role in Greek theater. Music was an important part of education, and boys were taught music starting at age six. Greek musical literacy created a flowering of music development.

Greek music theory included the Greek musical modes, that eventually became the basis for Western religious and classical music. The Seikilos epitaph is the oldest surviving example of a complete musical composition, including musical notation, from anywhere in the world.

The medieval era to, which took place during the Middle Ages, started with the introduction of monophonic single melodic line chanting into Roman Catholic Church services. Musical notation was used since Ancient times in Greek culture, but in the Middle Ages, notation was first introduced by the Catholic church so that the chant melodies could be written down, to facilitate the use of the same melodies for religious music across the entire Catholic empire.

The only European Medieval repertory that has been found in written form from before is the monophonic liturgical plainsong chant of the Roman Catholic Church, the central tradition of which was called Gregorian chant.

Alongside these traditions of sacred and church music there existed a vibrant tradition of secular song non-religious songs. Around, the printing press was invented, which made printed sheet music much less expensive and easier to mass-produce prior to the invention of the printing press, all notated music was hand-copied.

The increased availability of sheet music helped to spread musical styles more quickly and across a larger area. Musicians and singers often worked for the church, courts and towns. Church choirs grew in size, and the church remained an important patron of music.

By the middle of the 15th century, composers wrote richly polyphonic sacred music, in which different melody lines were interwoven simultaneously. As musical activity shifted from the church to the aristocratic courts, kings, queens and princes competed for the finest composers.

Many leading important composers came from the Netherlands, Belgium, and northern France. They are called the Franco-Flemish composers. They held important positions throughout Europe, especially in Italy.

Other countries with vibrant musical activity included Germany, England, and Spain. The Baroque era of music took place from to, as the Baroque artistic style flourished across Europe; and during this time, music expanded in its range and complexity.

Baroque music began when the first operas dramatic solo vocal music accompanied by orchestra were written. During the Baroque era, polyphonic contrapuntal music, in which multiple, simultaneous independent melody lines were used, remained important counterpoint was important in the vocal music of the Medieval era.

German Baroque composers wrote for small ensembles including strings, brass, and woodwinds, as well as for choirs and keyboard instruments such as pipe organ, harpsichord, and clavichord. During this period several major music forms were defined that lasted into later periods when they were expanded and evolved further, including the fugue, the invention, the sonata, and the concerto.

The music of the Classical period to aimed to imitate what were seen as the key elements of the art and philosophy of Ancient Greece and Rome: Music from the Classical period has a lighter, clearer and considerably simpler texture than the Baroque music which preceded it.

The main style was homophony, [49] where a prominent melody and a subordinate chordal accompaniment part are clearly distinct. Classical instrumental melodies tended to be almost voicelike and singable.

New genres were developed, and the fortepiano, the forerunner to the modern piano, replaced the Baroque era harpsichord and pipe organ as the main keyboard instrument.

Importance was given to instrumental music. It was dominated by further development of musical forms initially defined in the Baroque period: Others main kinds were the trio, string quartet, serenade and divertimento.

The sonata was the most important and developed form. Although Baroque composers also wrote sonatas, the Classical style of sonata is completely distinct.

All of the main instrumental forms of the Classical era, from string quartets to symphonies and concertos, were based on the structure of the sonata. The instruments used chamber music and orchestra became more standardized.

In place of the basso continuo group of the Baroque era, which consisted of harpsichord, organ or lute along with a number of bass instruments selected at the discretion of the group leader e.

The Baroque era improvised chord-playing of the continuo keyboardist or lute player was gradually phased out between and One of the most important changes made in the Classical period was the development of public concerts.

The aristocracy still played a significant role in the sponsorship of concerts and compositions, but it was now possible for composers to survive without being permanent employees of queens or princes.

The increasing popularity of classical music led to a growth in the number and types of orchestras. The expansion of orchestral concerts necessitated the building of large public performance spaces.

Beethoven and Schubert are also considered to be composers in the later part of the Classical era, as it began to move towards Romanticism. Romanticism was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature.

Romantic music expanded beyond the rigid styles and forms of the Classical era into more passionate, dramatic expressive pieces and songs. Romantic composers such as Wagner and Brahms attempted to increase emotional expression and power in their music to describe deeper truths or human feelings.

With symphonic tone poems, composers tried to tell stories and evoke images or landscapes using instrumental music. Some composers promoted nationalistic pride with patriotic orchestral music inspired by folk music.

The emotional and expressive qualities of music came to take precedence over tradition. Romantic composers grew in idiosyncrasy, and went further in the syncretism of exploring different art-forms in a musical context, such as literature, history historical figures and legends, or nature itself.

Romantic love or longing was a prevalent theme in many works composed during this period. In some cases the formal structures from the classical period continued to be used e. In many cases, new approaches were explored for existing genres, forms, and functions.

Also, new forms were created that were deemed better suited to the new subject matter. Composers continued to develop opera and ballet music, exploring new styles and themes. In the years after, the music developed by Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert introduced a more dramatic, expressive style.

In Beethoven’s case, short motifs, developed organically, came to replace melody as the most significant compositional unit an example is the distinctive four note figure used in his Fifth Symphony.

They generated complex and often much longer musical works. During the late Romantic period, composers explored dramatic chromatic alterations of tonality, such as extended chords and altered chords, which created new sound “colours”.

The late 19th century saw a dramatic expansion in the size of the orchestra, and the industrial revolution helped to create better instruments, creating a more powerful sound.

Public concerts became an important part of well-to-do urban society. It also saw a new diversity in theatre music, including operetta, and musical comedy and other forms of musical theatre. In the 19th century, one of the key ways that new compositions became known to the public was by the sales of sheet music, which middle class amateur music lovers would perform at home on their piano or other common instruments, such as violin.

With 20th-century music, the invention of new electric technologies such as radio broadcasting and the mass market availability of gramophone records meant that sound recordings of songs and pieces heard by listeners either on the radio or on their record player became the main way to learn about new songs and pieces.

There was a vast increase in music listening as the radio gained popularity and phonographs were used to replay and distribute music, because whereas in the 19th century, the focus on sheet music restricted access to new music to the middle class and upper-class people who could read music and who owned pianos and instruments, in the 20th century, anyone with a radio or record player could hear operas, symphonies and big bands right in their own living room.

This allowed lower-income people, who would never be able to afford an opera or symphony concert ticket to hear this music. It also meant that people could hear music from different parts of the country, or even different parts of the world, even if they could not afford to travel to these locations.

This helped to spread musical styles. The focus of art music in the 20th century was characterized by exploration of new rhythms, styles, and sounds. The horrors of World War I influenced many of the arts, including music, and some composers began exploring darker, harsher sounds.

Traditional music styles such as jazz and folk music were used by composers as a source of ideas for classical music. Igor Stravinsky, Arnold Schoenberg, and John Cage were all influential composers in 20th-century art music.

Sound recording was also a major influence on the development of popular music genres, because it enabled recordings of songs and bands to be widely distributed. The introduction of the multitrack recording system had a major influence on rock music, because it could do much more than record a band’s performance.

Using a multitrack system, a band and their music producer could overdub many layers of instrument tracks and vocals, creating new sounds that would not be possible in a live performance.

Jazz evolved and became an important genre of music over the course of the 20th century, and during the second half of that century, rock music did the same. Jazz is an American musical artform that originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States from a confluence of African and European music traditions.

The style’s West African pedigree is evident in its use of blue notes, improvisation, polyrhythms, syncopation, and the swung note. Rock music is a genre of popular music that developed in the s from s rock and roll, rockabilly, blues, and country music.

Along with the guitar or keyboards, saxophone and blues-style harmonica are used as soloing instruments. In its “purest form,” it “has three chords, a strong, insistent back beat, and a catchy melody.

Performance is the physical expression of music, which occurs when a song is sung or when a piano piece, electric guitar melody, symphony, drum beat or other musical part is played by musicians.

In classical music, a musical work is written in music notation by a composer and then it is performed once the composer is satisfied with its structure and instrumentation.

However, as it gets performed, the interpretation of a song or piece can evolve and change. In classical music, instrumental performers, singers or conductors may gradually make changes to the phrasing or tempo of a piece.

In popular and traditional music, the performers have a lot more freedom to make changes to the form of a song or piece. As such, in popular and traditional music styles, even when a band plays a cover song, they can make changes to it such as adding a guitar solo to or inserting an introduction.

A performance can either be planned out and rehearsed practiced —which is the norm in classical music, with jazz big bands and many popular music styles—or improvised over a chord progression a sequence of chords, which is the norm in small jazz and blues groups.

Rehearsals of orchestras, concert bands and choirs are led by a conductor. Rock, blues and jazz bands are usually led by the bandleader. Improvisation is the creation of a musical idea—a melody or other musical line—created on the spot, often based on scales or pre-existing melodic riffs.

Many cultures have strong traditions of solo performance in which one singer or instrumentalist performs, such as in Indian classical music, and in the Western art-music tradition.

Other cultures, such as in Bali, include strong traditions of group performance. All cultures include a mixture of both, and performance may range from improvised solo playing to highly planned and organised performances such as the modern classical concert, religious processions, classical music festivals or music competitions.

Chamber music, which is music for a small ensemble with only a few of each type of instrument, is often seen as more intimate than large symphonic works. Many types of music, such as traditional blues and folk music were not written down in sheet music ; instead, they were originally preserved in the memory of performers, and the songs were handed down orally, from one musician or singer to another, or aurally, in which a performer learns a song ” by ear “.

When the composer of a song or piece is no longer known, this music is often classified as “traditional” or as a “folk song”. Different musical traditions have different attitudes towards how and where to make changes to the original source material, from quite strict, to those that demand improvisation or modification to the music.

A culture’s history and stories may also be passed on by ear through song. In music, an “ornament” is a decoration to a melody, bassline or other musical part. The detail included explicitly in the music notation varies between genres and historical periods.

In general, art music notation from the 17th through the 19th centuries required performers to have a great deal of contextual knowledge about performing styles. For example, in the 17th and 18th centuries, music notated for solo performers typically indicated a simple, unadorned melody.

However, performers were expected to know how to add stylistically appropriate ornaments to add interest to the music, such as trills and turns. In the 19th century, art music for solo performers may give a general instruction such as to perform the music expressively, without describing in detail how the performer should do this.

The performer was expected to know how to use tempo changes, accentuation, and pauses among other devices to obtain this “expressive” performance style. In the 20th century, art music notation often became more explicit and used a range of markings and annotations to indicate to performers how they should play or sing the piece.

In popular music and jazz, music notation almost always indicates only the basic framework of the melody, harmony, or performance approach; musicians and singers are expected to know the performance conventions and styles associated with specific genres and pieces.

For example, the ” lead sheet ” for a jazz tune may only indicate the melody and the chord changes. The performers in the jazz ensemble are expected to know how to “flesh out” this basic structure by adding ornaments, improvised music, and chordal accompaniment.

Philosophy of music is a subfield of philosophy. The philosophy of music is the study of fundamental questions regarding music. The philosophical study of music has many connections with philosophical questions in metaphysics and aesthetics.

Some basic questions in the philosophy of music are:. In ancient times, such as with the Ancient Greeks, the aesthetics of music explored the mathematical and cosmological dimensions of rhythmic and harmonic organization.

In the 18th century, focus shifted to the experience of hearing music, and thus to questions about its beauty and human enjoyment plaisir and jouissance of music. The origin of this philosophic shift is sometimes attributed to Baumgarten in the 18th century, followed by Kant.

Through their writing, the ancient term ‘aesthetics’, meaning sensory perception, received its present-day connotation. In the s, philosophers have tended to emphasize issues besides beauty and enjoyment.

For example, music’s capacity to express emotion has been a central issue. However, many musicians, music critics, and other non-philosophers have contributed to the aesthetics of music.

In the 19th century, a significant debate arose between Eduard Hanslick, a music critic and musicologist, and composer Richard Wagner regarding whether music can express meaning.

Harry Partch and some other musicologists, such as Kyle Gann, have studied and tried to popularize microtonal music and the usage of alternate musical scales. It is often thought that music has the ability to affect our emotions, intellect, and psychology ; it can assuage our loneliness or incite our passions.

The philosopher Plato suggests in the Republic that music has a direct effect on the soul. Therefore, he proposes that in the ideal regime music would be closely regulated by the state.

There has been a strong tendency in the aesthetics of music to emphasize the paramount importance of compositional structure; however, other issues concerning the aesthetics of music include lyricism, harmony, hypnotism, emotiveness, temporal dynamics, resonance, playfulness, and color see also musical development.

Modern music psychology aims to explain and understand musical behavior and experience. In addition to its focus on fundamental perceptions and cognitive processes, music psychology is a field of research with practical relevance for many areas, including music performance, composition, education, criticism, and therapy, as well as investigations of human aptitude, skill, intelligence, creativity, and social behavior.

Cognitive neuroscience of music is the scientific study of brain-based mechanisms involved in the cognitive processes underlying music. These behaviours include music listening, performing, composing, reading, writing, and ancillary activities.

It also is increasingly concerned with the brain basis for musical aesthetics and musical emotion. The field is distinguished by its reliance on direct observations of the brain, using such techniques as functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI, transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS, magnetoencephalography MEG, electroencephalography EEG, and positron emission tomography PET.

Cognitive musicology is a branch of cognitive science concerned with computationally modeling musical knowledge with the goal of understanding both music and cognition.

This interdisciplinary field investigates topics such as the parallels between language and music in the brain. Biologically inspired models of computation are often included in research, such as neural networks and evolutionary programs.

By using a well-structured computer environment, the systematic structures of these cognitive phenomena can be investigated. Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of sound perception.

More specifically, it is the branch of science studying the psychological and physiological responses associated with sound including speech and music. It can be further categorized as a branch of psychophysics.

Evolutionary musicology concerns the “origins of music, the question of animal song, selection pressures underlying music evolution”, and “music evolution and human evolution”.

Charles Darwin speculated that music may have held an adaptive advantage and functioned as a protolanguage, [61] a view which has spawned several competing theories of music evolution.

An individual’s culture or ethnicity plays a role in their music cognition, including their preferences, emotional reaction, and musical memory. Musical preferences are biased toward culturally familiar musical traditions beginning in infancy, and adults’ classification of the emotion of a musical piece depends on both culturally specific and universal structural features.

Many ethnographic studies demonstrate that music is a participatory, community-based activity. Musical performances take different forms in different cultures and socioeconomic milieus. In Europe and North America, there is often a divide between what types of music are viewed as a ” high culture ” and ” low culture.

Other types of music—including, but not limited to, jazz, blues, soul, and country —are often performed in bars, nightclubs, and theatres, where the audience may be able to drink, dance, and express themselves by cheering.

Until the later 20th century, the division between “high” and “low” musical forms was widely accepted as a valid distinction that separated out better quality, more advanced “art music” from the popular styles of music heard in bars and dance halls.

However, in the s and s, musicologists studying this perceived divide between “high” and “low” musical genres argued that this distinction is not based on the musical value or quality of the different types of music.

When composers introduce styles of music that break with convention, there can be a strong resistance from academic music experts and popular culture. Late-period Beethoven string quartets, Stravinsky ballet scores, serialism, bebop – era jazz, hip hop, punk rock, and electronica have all been considered non-music by some critics when they were first introduced.

The sociological study of music, sometimes called sociomusicology, is often pursued in departments of sociology, media studies, or music, and is closely related to the field of ethnomusicology.

As well, it describes music movements, events and genres related to women, women’s issues and feminism. In the s, while women comprise a significant proportion of popular music and classical music singers, and a significant proportion of songwriters many of them being singer-songwriters, there are few women record producers, rock critics and rock instrumentalists.

Although there have been a huge number of women composers in classical music, from the Medieval period to the present day, women composers are significantly underrepresented in the commonly performed classical music repertoire, music history textbooks and music encyclopedias; for example, in the Concise Oxford History of Music, Clara Schumann is one of the only female composers who is mentioned.

Women comprise a significant proportion of instrumental soloists in classical music and the percentage of women in orchestras is increasing. Women are less common as instrumental players in popular music genres such as rock and heavy metal, although there have been a number of notable female instrumentalists and all-female bands.

Women are particularly underrepresented in extreme metal genres. Though there were plenty of female singers on the radio, women Singing was sometimes an acceptable pastime for a girl, but playing an instrument, writing songs, or producing records simply wasn’t done.

While women were discouraged from composing in the 19th century, and there are few women musicologists, women became involved in music education ” According to Jessica Duchen, a music writer for London’s The Independent, women musicians in classical music are ” The music that composers make can be heard through several media; the most traditional way is to hear it live, in the presence of the musicians or as one of the musicians, in an outdoor or indoor space such as an amphitheatre, concert hall, cabaret room or theatre.

Since the 20th century, live music can also be broadcast over the radio, television or the Internet, or recorded and listened to on a CD player or Mp3 player.

Some musical styles focus on producing a sound for a performance, while others focus on producing a recording that mixes together sounds that were never played “live.

Technology has had an influence on music since prehistoric times, when cave people used simple tools to bore holes into bone flutes 41, years ago. Technology continued to influence music throughout the history of music, as it enabled new instruments and music notation reproduction systems to be used, with one of the watershed moments in music notation being the invention of the printing press in the s, which meant music scores no longer had to be hand copied.

In the 19th century, music technology led to the development of a more powerful, louder piano and led to the development of new valves brass instruments. In the early 20th century in the late s, as talking pictures emerged in the early 20th century, with their prerecorded musical tracks, an increasing number of moviehouse orchestra musicians found themselves out of work.

The American Federation of Musicians AFM took out newspaper advertisements protesting the replacement of live musicians with mechanical playing devices.

Since legislation introduced to help protect performers, composers, publishers and producers, including the Audio Home Recording Act of in the United States, and the revised Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works in the United Kingdom, recordings and live performances have also become more accessible through computers, devices and Internet in a form that is commonly known as Music-On-Demand.

In many cultures, there is less distinction between performing and listening to music, since virtually everyone is involved in some sort of musical activity, often communal. In industrialized countries, listening to music through a recorded form, such as sound recording or watching a music video, became more common than experiencing live performance, roughly in the middle of the 20th century.

Sometimes, live performances incorporate prerecorded sounds. For example, a disc jockey uses disc records for scratching, and some 20th-century works have a solo for an instrument or voice that is performed along with music that is prerecorded onto a tape.

Audiences can also become performers by participating in karaoke, an activity of Japanese origin centered on a device that plays voice-eliminated versions of well-known songs. Most karaoke machines also have video screens that show lyrics to songs being performed; performers can follow the lyrics as they sing over the instrumental tracks.

The advent of the Internet and widespread high-speed broadband access has transformed the experience of music, partly through the increased ease of access to recordings of music via streaming video and vastly increased choice of music for consumers.

Chris Anderson, in his book The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More, suggests that while the traditional economic model of supply and demand describes scarcity, the Internet retail model is based on abundance.

Digital storage costs are low, so a company can afford to make its whole recording inventory available online, giving customers as much choice as possible. It has thus become economically viable to offer music recordings that very few people are interested in.

Consumers’ growing awareness of their increased choice results in a closer association between listening tastes and social identity, and the creation of thousands of niche markets. Another effect of the Internet arose with online communities and social media websites like YouTube and Facebook, a social networking service.

These sites make it easier for aspiring singers and amateur bands to distribute videos of their songs, connect with other musicians, and gain audience interest. Professional musicians also use YouTube as a free publisher of promotional material.

YouTube users, for example, no longer only download and listen to MP3s, but also actively create their own. According to Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, in their book Wikinomics, there has been a shift from a traditional consumer role to what they call a ” prosumer ” role, a consumer who both creates content and consumes.

Manifestations of this in music include the production of mashes, remixes, and music videos by fans. The music industry refers to the businesses connected with the creation and sale of music.

It consists of songwriters and composers who create new songs and musical pieces, music producers and sound engineers who record songs and pieces, record labels and publishers that distribute recorded music products and sheet music internationally and that often control the rights to those products.

Some music labels are ” independent,” while others are subsidiaries of larger corporate entities or international media groups. In the s, the increasing popularity of listening to music as digital music files on MP3 players, iPods, or computers, and of trading music on file sharing websites or buying it online in the form of digital files had a major impact on the traditional music business.

Many smaller independent CD stores went out of business as music buyers decreased their purchases of CDs, and many labels had lower CD sales. Some companies did well with the change to a digital format, though, such as Apple’s iTunes, an online music store that sells digital files of songs over the Internet.

In spite of some international copyright treaties, determining which music is in the public domain is complicated by the variety of national copyright laws that may be applicable.

US copyright law formerly protected printed music published after for 28 years and with renewal for another 28 years, but the Copyright Act of made renewal automatic, and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act changed the calculation of the copyright term to 70 years after the death of the creator.

Recorded sound falls under mechanical licensing, often covered by a confusing patchwork of state laws; most cover versions are licensed through the Harry Fox Agency. The incorporation of some music or singing training into general education from preschool to post secondary education is common in North America and Europe.

Involvement in playing and singing music is thought to teach basic skills such as concentration, counting, listening, and cooperation while also promoting understanding of language, improving the ability to recall information, and creating an environment more conducive to learning in other areas.

Some elementary school children also learn about popular music styles. In religious schools, children sing hymns and other religious music. In secondary schools and less commonly in elementary schools, students may have the opportunity to perform in some types of musical ensembles, such as choirs a group of singers, marching bands, concert bands, jazz bands, or orchestras.

In some school systems, music lessons on how to play instruments may be provided. Some students also take private music lessons after school with a singing teacher or instrument teacher.

Amateur musicians typically learn basic musical rudiments e. At the university level, students in most arts and humanities programs can receive credit for taking a few music courses, which typically take the form of an overview course on the history of music, or a music appreciation course that focuses on listening to music and learning about different musical styles.

In addition, most North American and European universities have some types of musical ensembles that students in arts and humanities are able to participate in, such as choirs, marching bands, concert bands, or orchestras.

The study of Western art music is increasingly common outside of North America and Europe, such as the Indonesian Institute of the Arts in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, or the classical music programs that are available in Asian countries such as South Korea, Japan, and China.

At the same time, Western universities and colleges are widening their curriculum to include music of non-Western cultures, such as the music of Africa or Bali e.

Individuals aiming to become professional musicians, singers, composers, songwriters, music teachers and practitioners of other music-related professions such as music history professors, sound engineers, and so on study in specialized post-secondary programs offered by colleges, universities and music conservatories.

Some institutions that train individuals for careers in music offer training in a wide range of professions, as is the case with many of the top U. On the other hand, some small colleges may only offer training in a single profession e.

While most university and conservatory music programs focus on training students in classical music, there are a number of universities and colleges that train musicians for careers as jazz or popular music musicians and composers, with notable U.

Individuals aiming at careers in some types of music, such as heavy metal music, country music or blues are less likely to become professionals by completing degrees or diplomas in colleges or universities.

Since the s, the increasing popularity and availability of Internet forums and YouTube “how-to” videos have enabled many singers and musicians from metal, blues and similar genres to improve their skills.

Many pop, rock and country singers train informally with vocal coaches and singing teachers. Undergraduate university degrees in music, including the Bachelor of Music, the Bachelor of Music Education, and the Bachelor of Arts with a major in music typically take about four years to complete.

These degrees provide students with a grounding in music theory and music history, and many students also study an instrument or learn singing technique as part of their program.

Graduates of undergraduate music programs can seek employment or go on to further study in music graduate programs. Bachelor’s degree graduates are also eligible to apply to some graduate programs and professional schools outside of music e.

Graduate music degrees include the Master of Music, the Master of Arts in musicology, music theory or another music field, the Doctor of Philosophy Ph. The Master of Music degree, which takes one to two years to complete, is typically awarded to students studying the performance of an instrument, education, voice singing or composition.

The Master of Arts degree, which takes one to two years to complete and often requires a thesis, is typically awarded to students studying musicology, music history, music theory or ethnomusicology.

The PhD, which is required for students who want to work as university professors in musicology, music history, or music theory, takes three to five years of study after the master’s degree, during which time the student will complete advanced courses and undertake research for a dissertation.

The DMA is a relatively new degree that was created to provide a credential for professional performers or composers that want to work as university professors in musical performance or composition.

The DMA takes three to five years after a master’s degree, and includes advanced courses, projects, and performances. In Medieval times, the study of music was one of the Quadrivium of the seven Liberal Arts and considered vital to higher learning.

Within the quantitative Quadrivium, music, or more accurately harmonics, was the study of rational proportions. Musicology, the academic study of the subject of music, is studied in universities and music conservatories.

The earliest definitions from the 19th century defined three sub-disciplines of musicology: In era scholarship, one is more likely to encounter a division of the discipline into music theory, music history, and ethnomusicology.

Research in musicology has often been enriched by cross-disciplinary work, for example in the field of psychoacoustics. The study of music of non-Western cultures, and the cultural study of music, is called ethnomusicology.

Students can pursue the undergraduate study of musicology, ethnomusicology, music history, and music theory through several different types of degrees, including bachelor’s degrees, master’s degrees and PhD degrees.

Music theory is the study of music, generally in a highly technical manner outside of other disciplines. More broadly it refers to any study of music, usually related in some form with compositional concerns, and may include mathematics, physics, and anthropology.

What is most commonly taught in beginning music theory classes are guidelines to write in the style of the common practice period, or tonal music. Theory, even of music of the common practice period, may take many other forms.

Musical set theory is the application of mathematical set theory to music, first applied to atonal music. Speculative music theory, contrasted with analytic music theory, is devoted to the analysis and synthesis of music materials, for example tuning systems, generally as preparation for composition.

Zoomusicology is the study of the music of non-human animals, or the musical aspects of sounds produced by non-human animals. As George Herzog asked, “do animals have music?

Jean-Jacques Nattiez, argues that “in the last analysis, it is a human being who decides what is and is not musical, even when the sound is not of human origin. If we acknowledge that sound is not organised and conceptualised that is, made to form music merely by its producer, but by the mind that perceives it, then music is uniquely human.

In the West, much of the history of music that is taught deals with the Western civilization’s art music, which is known as classical music.

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The Development of Western Music: Traditional music styles such as jazz and folk music were used by composers as a source of ideas for classical music. In ancient times, such as with the Ancient Greeks, the aesthetics of music explored the mathematical and cosmological dimensions of rhythmic and harmonic organization. Retrieved 6 January, from https: It seems at this stage that there is still research to be done in this area. Some have applied acoustics, human physiology, and psychology to the explanation of how and why music is perceived. In popular music and traditional music, the act of composing, which is typically called songwriting, may involve the creation of a basic outline of the song, called the lead sheet, which sets out the melody, lyrics and chord progression.

Grand Feel available in: At the university level, students in most arts and humanities programs can receive credit for taking a few music courses, which typically take the form of an overview course on the history of music, or a music appreciation course that focuses on listening to music and learning about different musical styles. At the same time, Western universities and colleges are widening their curriculum to include music of non-Western cultures, such as the music of Africa or Bali e.

This helped to spread musical styles. People may make music as a hobby, like a teen playing cello in a youth orchestra, or work as a professional musician or singer. One of the most important changes made in the Classical period was the development of public concerts. Carnatic music, popular in the southern states, is largely devotional; the majority of the songs are addressed to the Hindu deities.

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Crack grand pianissimo virtual piano quotes

Rock, blues and jazz bands are usually led by the bandleader. Webarchive template wayback links Pages containing links to subscription-only content CS1 maint: Epitaph of Seikilos Melody sung in an approximation of Koine Greek pronunciation and in modern popular vocal style. The common area of performance is found in a “social phenomenon called litany,” a form of prayer consisting of a series of invocations or supplications. See…

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