news

Idea 3g smartphone alcatel one touch 198 hindi file app download

Idea 3g smartphone alcatel one touch 198 hindi file app download





Valid till 2017/5/25



you can view another tutorial “how to install hindi font Download any android file manager i want hindi fonts for idea 3 g model – alcatel one touch. Sep 20, · PACKAGE DOWNLOAD LINK: Alcatel N (idea 3g smartphone id) How to Root the Digicel DL Alcatel One Touch A Smartphone – . May 29, · Alcatel One Touch Pixi 4 this Bugs Let me know so I can update this Installation Download: any idea how to fix this?. And some game app.
Android M tomorrow, Android N in “. Archived from the original on March 11, In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Archived from the original on October 12, Archived from the original on May 10, According to Gartner research company, Android-based devices outsold all contenders, every year since Retrieved May 15,
you can view another tutorial “how to install hindi font Download any android file manager i want hindi fonts for idea 3 g model – alcatel one touch. Sep 20, · PACKAGE DOWNLOAD LINK: Alcatel N (idea 3g smartphone id) How to Root the Digicel DL Alcatel One Touch A Smartphone – . May 29, · Alcatel One Touch Pixi 4 this Bugs Let me know so I can update this Installation Download: any idea how to fix this?. And some game app.

idea 3g smartphone alcatel one touch 198 hindi file app download

idea 3g smartphone alcatel one touch 198 hindi file app download

idea 3g smartphone alcatel one touch 198 hindi file app download

idea 3g smartphone alcatel one touch 198 hindi file app download

idea 3g smartphone alcatel one touch 198 hindi file app download

idea 3g smartphone alcatel one touch 198 hindi file app download

idea 3g smartphone alcatel one touch 198 hindi file app download

idea 3g smartphone alcatel one touch 198 hindi file app download

Bit alcatel hindi touch file 3g idea app smartphone download one 198 pro keygen

Retrieved 21 June Now powered by Android Marshmallow. Android devices boot to the homescreen, the primary navigation and information “hub” on Android devices, analogous to the desktop found on personal computers. Archived from the original on December 25, Although analysts were impressed with the respected technology companies that had partnered with Google to form the Open Handset Alliance, it was unclear whether mobile phone manufacturers would be willing to replace their existing operating systems with Android. Retrieved December 31, Meanwhile, it was reverse-engineering imported switches and investing heavily in research and development to manufacture its own technologies.

As part of its international support for technology and telecommunications education and training, Huawei has contributed funding and equipment to a number of universities and training centers in countries such as Kenya, [] India, [] Indonesia, [] [] Bangladesh, [] and Nigeria.

In, Huawei and Samsung followed the Dutch electronics company Philips filed patent applications respectively as the second and third company in the world. With the technological development of Huawei, it has become the top of the European Patent Office ‘s patent-filing league table for the first time as a Chinese enterprise, according to results announced in Brussels.

There were 2, patents Huawei filed, which is more than the second and third placed Siemens and LG. In February Cisco Systems sued Huawei Technologies for allegedly infringing on its patents and illegally copying source code used in its routers and switches.

Huawei’s chief representative in the US subsequently claimed that Huawei had been vindicated in the case, breaking a confidentiality clause of Huawei’s settlement with Cisco. In response Cisco revealed parts of the independent expert’s report produced for the case which proved that Huawei had stolen Cisco code and directly copied it into their products.

In June, a Huawei employee was caught after hours diagramming and photographing circuit boards from a competitor booth at the SuperComm tradeshow. In July, Motorola filed an amended complaint that named Huawei as a co-defendant in its case against Lemko for alleged theft of trade secrets.

In a further move to protect its intellectual property, Huawei filed lawsuits in Germany, France and Hungary in April against ZTE for patent and trademark infringement. In September, Huawei faced a lawsuit from T-Mobile, which alleged that Huawei stole technology from its Bellevue, Washington, headquarters.

T-Mobile claimed in its filed suit that Huawei’s employees snuck into a T-Mobile lab during the period of and stole parts of its smartphone testing robot Tappy. The Huawei employees then copied the operating software and design details, violating confidentiality agreements that both companies signed.

Furthermore, Huawei is now using that intel to build its own testing robot. A Huawei spokesman stated to The New York Times that there is some truth to the complaint, but that the two employees involved have been fired.

T-Mobile has since stopped using Huawei as a supplier, which T-Mobile says could cost it tens of millions of dollars as it moves away from its handsets. Huawei responded to the lawsuit by arguing that Tappy was not a trade secret, and that it was made by Epson, not T-Mobile.

T-mobile dismissed Huawei’s arguments, and contended that Epson had provided only a component of the robot. In the US, officials and politicians within the federal government have raised concerns that Huawei-made telecommunications equipment may be designed to allow unauthorized access by the Chinese government and the Chinese People’s Liberation Army, [] [] [] [] given that Ren Zhengfei, the founder of the company, served as an engineer in the army in the early s.

In a open letter, Huawei stated that the security concerns are “unfounded and unproven” and called on the U. The organization found that only a few investment deals were blocked following unfavorable findings by the CFIUS or had been given a recommendation not to apply, however all large transactions had been politicized by groups including the U.

In October, the Indian Department of Telecommunications reportedly requested national telecom operators to “self-regulate” the use of all equipment from European, U. In October, The Wall Street Journal reported that Huawei had become Iran’s leading provider of telecommunications equipment, including monitoring technologies that could be used for surveillance.

In, it was alleged that Huawei Technologies India had developed telecommunications equipment for the Taliban in Afghanistan, and newspapers reported that the Indian government had launched a probe into the firm’s operations.

In March, Australian media sources reported that the Australian government had excluded Huawei from tendering for contracts with NBN Co, a government-owned corporation that is managing the construction of the National Broadband Network, [] following advice from the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation regarding security concerns.

In July, Felix Lindner and Gregor Kopf gave a conference at Defcon to announce that they uncovered several critical vulnerabilities in Huawei routers models AR18 and AR29 [] which could be used to get remote access to the device.

The researchers said that Huawei “doesn’t have a security contact for reporting vulnerabilities, doesn’t put out security advisories and doesn’t say what bugs have been fixed in its firmware updates”, and as a result, the vulnerabilities have not been publicly disclosed.

Huawei replied that they were investigating the claims. In December, Bloomberg reported that the U. The US House Intelligence Committee had said on November 18 that it would investigate foreign companies, and a spokesman for Huawei said that the company conducts its businesses according to normal business practices and actually welcomed the investigation.

On 9 October, a spokesman for Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper indicated that the Canadian government invoked a national security exception to exclude Huawei from its plans to build a secure government communications network.

Specifically, the Andrew antennas were part of a large order for Huawei telecommunications gear that MTN Irancell had placed through Soda Gostar, but the MTN Irancell says it canceled the deal with Huawei when it learned the items were subject to sanctions and before any equipment was delivered.

On 19 July, Michael Hayden, former head of U. National Security Agency and director of Motorola Solutions, claimed that he has seen hard evidence of backdoors in Huawei’s networking equipment and that the company engaged in espionage and shared intimate knowledge of the foreign telecommunications systems with the Chinese government.

Huawei’s global cybersecurity officer, John Suffolk, described the comments made by Hayden as “tired, unsubstantiated, defamatory remarks” and challenged him and other critics to present any evidence publicly.

National Security Agency has since been operating a covert program against Huawei. This involved breaking into Huawei’s internal networks, including headquarter networks and founder Ren Zhengfei’s communications.

In, German cybersecurity company G Data reported that it had found that malware that can listen to calls, track users, and make online purchases was found pre-installed on smartphones from Chinese companies including Lenovo, Xiaomi, and Huawei.

When G Data contacted the companies to let them know about the malware, Huawei replied that the security breaches must have taken place further down the supply chain, outside the manufacturing process.

In, Canada’s immigration department said it planned to deny permanent resident visas to three Chinese citizens who worked for Huawei over concerns the applicants are involved in espionage, terrorism, and government subversion.

Best Buy, the largest consumer electronics retailer in the United States, is also completely eliminating Huawei products from its stores. Army Strategic Studies Institute report on Argentina published in September describes Huawei as “known to bribe and trap clients.

According to a WikiLeaks cable, in, Michael Joseph, then-CEO of Safaricom Ltd, allegedly struggled to cancel a contract with Huawei due to poor after-sales experience, after which the Kenyan government pressured him to reinstate the contract.

In October, 7, Huawei employees resigned and were then rehired on short-term contracts, thereby apparently avoiding the unlimited contract provisions of the Labour Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China.

The company denied it was exploiting loopholes in the law, while the move was condemned by local government and trade unions. Huawei’s treatment of its workforce in Guangdong Province, Southern China also triggered a media outcry after a year-old software engineer, Hu Xinyu, died in May from bacterial encephalitis, as a result of what is believed [ by whom?

In its Corporate Social Responsibility report, Huawei highlighted the importance of employee health and safety. In, Huawei provided annual health checks to all full-time employees and performed 3, checks to employees exposed to occupational health risks.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. It has been suggested that this article be merged with Huawei Phones. Discuss Proposed since April The lead section of this article may need to be rewritten.

Please discuss this issue on the article’s talk page. Use the lead layout guide to ensure the section follows Wikipedia’s norms and to be inclusive of all essential details. March Learn how and when to remove this template message.

This article’s lead section may be too long for the length of the article. Please help by moving some material from it into the body of the article. Please read the layout guide and lead section guidelines to ensure the section will still be inclusive of all essential details.

Telecommunication portal Companies portal China portal. Solid Growth and Sustained Investment in the Future”. Retrieved 30 March Retrieved 4 February Retrieved 3 August Retrieved 15 March Center for Strategic and International Studies.

Retrieved 3 October Retrieved 14 June Archived from the original on 12 August Retrieved 28 September Retrieved 18 February Huawei unveils Mate 8 with Kirin chipset”.

Retrieved 9 January Archived from the original on 3 August Retrieved 28 July Smartphone shipments up 2. Retrieved 9 May Far Eastern Economic Review: Archived from the original on 9 July Archived from the original on 14 March A match made in paradise?

Archived from the original on 25 September Retrieved 1 October Archived from the original on 24 March Archived from the original on 1 October The Wall Street Journal.

Archived from the original on 24 July Retrieved 2 June Archived from the original on 31 May Archived from the original on 7 July Retrieved 2 July Retrieved 7 April Archived from the original on 21 April Who Really Owns Huawei?

Retrieved 21 June Archived 16 May at the Wayback Machine. Archived 4 February at the Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 28 September Protectionism Hits Revenue Growth”.

Retrieved 4 April Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 7 June Archived from the original on 14 May Big Growth, New Value”. Retrieved 8 June Archived from the original on 2 October Archived from the original on 23 March World Intellectual Property Organization.

Retrieved 20 March Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 30 October Archived from the original on 30 October Retrieved 31 March Archived from the original on 1 February Archived from the original on 21 January Archived from the original on 30 March Archived from the original on 17 May Archived from the original on Retrieved 27 June Archived from the original on 5 October Archived from the original on 20 April Archived from the original on 20 March Corporate Social Responsibility Africa.

Archived from the original on 22 June Archived from the original on 19 July Retrieved 15 July Cisco drops Huawei suit”. The New York Times. Retrieved 9 September Archived from the original on 15 September Archived from the original on 7 October Retrieved 5 October Retrieved 29 August Archived from the original on 16 May Retrieved 5 September Archived from the original PDF on 12 August Retrieved 19 October Retrieved 7 November Retrieved 16 November The extensive variation of hardware in Android devices causes significant delays for software upgrades, with new versions of the operating system and security patches typically taking months before reaching consumers, or sometimes not at all.

The lack of after-sale support from manufacturers and carriers has been widely criticized by consumer groups and the technology media. In, Google began decoupling certain aspects of the operating system particularly its core applications so they could be updated through the Google Play store independently of the OS.

One of those components, Google Play Services, is a closed-source system-level process providing APIs for Google services, installed automatically on nearly all devices running Android 2.

With these changes, Google can add new system functionality through Play Services and update apps without having to distribute an upgrade to the operating system itself.

In May, Bloomberg reported that Google was making efforts to keep Android more up-to-date, including accelerated rates of security updates, rolling out technological workarounds, reducing requirements for phone testing, and ranking phone makers in an attempt to “shame” them into better behavior.

As stated by Bloomberg: Wireless carriers were described in the report as the “most challenging discussions”, due to carriers’ slow approval time due to testing on their networks, despite some carriers, including Verizon and Sprint, having already shortened their respective approval times.

HTC ‘s then-executive Jason Mackenzie called monthly security updates “unrealistic” in, and Google was trying to persuade carriers to exclude security patches from the full testing procedures. In a further effort for persuasion, Google shared a list of top phone makers measured by updated devices with its Android partners, and is considering making the list public.

Mike Chan, co-founder of phone maker Nextbit and former Android developer, said that “The best way to solve this problem is a massive re-architecture of the operating system”, “or Google could invest in training manufacturers and carriers “to be good Android citizens””.

In May, with the announcement of Android 8. Project Treble separates the vendor implementation device-specific, lower-level software written by silicon manufacturers from the Android OS framework via a new “vendor interface”.

With Treble, the new stable vendor interface provides access to the hardware-specific parts of Android, enabling device makers to deliver new Android releases simply by updating the Android OS framework, “without any additional work required from the silicon manufacturers.

In September, Google’s Project Treble team revealed that, as part of their efforts to improve the security lifecycle of Android devices, Google had managed to get the Linux Foundation to agree to extend the support lifecycle of the Linux Long-Term Support LTS kernel branch from the 2 years that it has historically lasted to 6 years for future versions of the LTS kernel, starting with Linux kernel 4.

Android’s kernel is based on one of the Linux kernel ‘s long-term support LTS branches. As of, Android devices mainly use versions 3. Android’s variant of the Linux kernel has further architectural changes that are implemented by Google outside the typical Linux kernel development cycle, such as the inclusion of components like device trees, ashmem, ION, and different out of memory OOM handling.

In August, Linus Torvalds said that “eventually Android and Linux would come back to a common kernel, but it will probably not be for four to five years”. The interfaces are the same but the upstream Linux implementation allows for two different suspend modes: However, root access can be obtained by exploiting security flaws in Android, which is used frequently by the open-source community to enhance the capabilities of their devices, [] but also by malicious parties to install viruses and malware.

Android is a Linux distribution according to the Linux Foundation, [] Google’s open-source chief Chris DiBona, [] and several journalists. With the release of Android Oreo in, Google began to require that devices shipped with new SoCs had Linux kernel version 4.

Existing devices upgraded to Oreo, and new products launched with older SoCs, were exempt from this rule. On top of the Linux kernel, there are the middleware, libraries and APIs written in C, and application software running on an application framework which includes Java – compatible libraries.

Development of the Linux kernel continues independently of other Android’s source code bases. Following the trace-based JIT principle, in addition to interpreting the majority of application code, Dalvik performs the compilation and native execution of select frequently executed code segments “traces” each time an application is launched.

For its Java library, the Android platform uses a subset of the now discontinued Apache Harmony project. Bionic itself has been designed with several major features specific to the Linux kernel.

At the same time, Bionic is licensed under the terms of the BSD licence, which Google finds more suitable for the Android’s overall licensing model. Android does not have a native X Window System by default, nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries.

Since Marshmallow, ” Toybox “, a collection of command line utilities mostly for use by apps, as Android doesn’t provide a command line interface by default, replaced similar “Toolbox” collection.

Android’s source code is released by Google under an open source license, and its open nature has encouraged a large community of developers and enthusiasts to use the open-source code as a foundation for community-driven projects, which deliver updates to older devices, add new features for advanced users or bring Android to devices originally shipped with other operating systems.

Historically, device manufacturers and mobile carriers have typically been unsupportive of third-party firmware development. Manufacturers express concern about improper functioning of devices running unofficial software and the support costs resulting from this.

As a result, technical obstacles including locked bootloaders and restricted access to root permissions are common in many devices. However, as community-developed software has grown more popular, and following a statement by the Librarian of Congress in the United States that permits the ” jailbreaking ” of mobile devices, [] manufacturers and carriers have softened their position regarding third party development, with some, including HTC, [] Motorola, [] Samsung [] [] and Sony, [] providing support and encouraging development.

As a result of this, over time the need to circumvent hardware restrictions to install unofficial firmware has lessened as an increasing number of devices are shipped with unlocked or unlockable bootloaders, similar to Nexus series of phones, although usually requiring that users waive their devices’ warranties to do so.

They are reportedly able to read almost all smartphone information, including SMS, location, emails, and notes. GCHQ has, according to The Guardian, a wiki – style guide of different apps and advertising networks, and the different data that can be siphoned from each.

The documents revealed a further effort by the intelligence agencies to intercept Google Maps searches and queries submitted from Android and other smartphones to collect location information in bulk.

Research from security company Trend Micro lists premium service abuse as the most common type of Android malware, where text messages are sent from infected phones to premium-rate telephone numbers without the consent or even knowledge of the user.

Other malware displays unwanted and intrusive advertisements on the device, or sends personal information to unauthorised third parties. In August, Google announced that devices in the Google Nexus series would begin to receive monthly security patches.

Google also wrote that “Nexus devices will continue to receive major updates for at least two years and security patches for the longer of three years from initial availability or 18 months from last sale of the device via the Google Store.

Google was starting from scratch with zero percent market share, so it was happy to give up control and give everyone a seat at the table in exchange for adoption. As such, security has become a big issue.

Android still uses a software update chain-of-command designed back when the Android ecosystem had zero devices to update, and it just doesn’t work”.

And a bunch of broken promises”. They also wrote that “About half of devices in use at the end of had not received a platform security update in the previous year”, stating that their work would continue to focus on streamlining the security updates program for easier deployment by manufacturers.

Patches to bugs found in the core operating system often do not reach users of older and lower-priced devices. For example, Samsung has worked with General Dynamics through their Open Kernel Labs acquisition to rebuild Jelly Bean on top of their hardened microvisor for the “Knox” project.

Android smartphones have the ability to report the location of Wi-Fi access points, encountered as phone users move around, to build databases containing the physical locations of hundreds of millions of such access points.

These databases form electronic maps to locate smartphones, allowing them to run apps like Foursquare, Google Latitude, Facebook Places, and to deliver location-based ads.

Android applications run in a sandbox, an isolated area of the system that does not have access to the rest of the system’s resources, unless access permissions are explicitly granted by the user when the application is installed, however this may not be possible for pre-installed apps.

It is not possible, for example, to turn off the microphone access of the pre-installed camera app without disabling the camera completely. This is valid also in Android versions 7 and 8.

Since February, Google has used its Google Bouncer malware scanner to watch over and scan apps available in the Google Play store. Before installing an application, the Google Play store displays a list of the requirements an app needs to function.

After reviewing these permissions, the user can choose to accept or refuse them, installing the application only if they accept. An opt-in system is used instead, in which users are prompted to grant or deny individual permissions to an app when they are needed for the first time.

Applications remember the grants, which can be revoked by the user at any time. Pre-installed apps, however, are not always part of this approach. In some cases it may not be possible to deny certain permissions to pre-installed apps, nor be possible to disable them.

The Google Play Services app cannot be uninstalled, nor disabled. Any force stop attempt, result in the app restarting itself. Permissions can still be revoked for those apps, though this might prevent them from working properly, and a warning is displayed to that effect.

Nova wrote that “The Android operating system deals with software packages by sandboxing them; this does not allow applications to list the directory contents of other apps to keep the system safe.

By not allowing the antivirus to list the directories of other apps after installation, applications that show no inherent suspicious behavior when downloaded are cleared as safe.

The study by Fraunhofer AISEC, examining antivirus software from Avast, AVG, Bitdefender, ESET, F-Secure, Kaspersky, Lookout, McAfee formerly Intel Security, Norton, Sophos, and Trend Micro, revealed that “the tested antivirus apps do not provide protection against customized malware or targeted attacks”, and that “the tested antivirus apps were also not able to detect malware which is completely unknown to date but does not make any efforts to hide its malignity”.

In August, Google announced Android Device Manager renamed Find My Device in May, [] [] a service that allows users to remotely track, locate, and wipe their Android device, [] [] with an Android app for the service released in December.

The source code for Android is open-source: Google publishes most of the code including network and telephony stacks under the non-copyleft Apache License version 2. Associated Linux kernel changes are released under the copyleft GNU General Public License version 2, developed by the Open Handset Alliance, with the source code publicly available at all times.

Typically, Google collaborates with a hardware manufacturer to produce a flagship device part of the Nexus series featuring the new version of Android, then makes the source code available after that device has been released.

The reason, according to Andy Rubin in an official Android blog post, was because Honeycomb was rushed for production of the Motorola Xoom, [] and they did not want third parties creating a “really bad user experience” by attempting to put onto smartphones a version of Android intended for tablets.

These applications must be licensed from Google by device makers, and can only be shipped on devices which meet its compatibility guidelines and other requirements.

Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation have been critical of Android and have recommended the usage of alternatives such as Replicant, because drivers and firmware vital for the proper functioning of Android devices are usually proprietary, and because the Google Play Store application can forcibly install or deinstall applications and, as a result, invite non-free software; although the Free Software Foundation has not found Google to use it for malicious reasons.

Google licenses their Google Mobile Services software, along with Android trademarks, only to hardware manufacturers for devices that meet Google’s compatibility standards specified in the Android Compatibility Program document.

Moreover, open-source variants of some applications also exclude functions that are present in their non-free versions, such as Photosphere panoramas in Camera, and a Google Now page on the default home screen exclusive to the proprietary version “Google Now Launcher”, whose code is embedded within that of the main Google application.

Apps that do not utilize Google components would also be at a functional disadvantage, as they can only utilize APIs contained within the OS itself. In March, it was reported that Google had begun to block “uncertified” Android devices from utilizing Google Mobile Services software, and display a warning indicating that “the device manufacturer has preloaded Google apps and services without certification from Google”.

Alibaba Group defended the allegations, arguing that the OS was a distinct platform from Android primarily using HTML5 apps, but incorporated portions of Android’s platform to allow backwards compatibility with third-party Android software.

Indeed, the devices did ship with an application store which offered Android apps; however, the majority of them were pirated. Android received a lukewarm reaction when it was unveiled in Although analysts were impressed with the respected technology companies that had partnered with Google to form the Open Handset Alliance, it was unclear whether mobile phone manufacturers would be willing to replace their existing operating systems with Android.

Nokia was quoted as saying “we don’t see this as a threat,” and a member of Microsoft’s Windows Mobile team stated “I don’t understand the impact that they are going to have. Since then Android has grown to become the most widely used smartphone operating system [] [] and “one of the fastest mobile experiences available.

As a result, it has been described by technology website Ars Technica as “practically the default operating system for launching new hardware” for companies without their own mobile platforms.

Android allows extensive customisation of devices by their owners and apps are freely available from non-Google app stores and third party websites. These have been cited as among the main advantages of Android phones over others.

Despite Android’s popularity, including an activation rate three times that of iOS, there have been reports that Google has not been able to leverage their other products and web services successfully to turn Android into the money maker that analysts had expected.

Android has suffered from “fragmentation”, [] a situation where the variety of Android devices, in terms of both hardware variations and differences in the software running on them, makes the task of developing applications that work consistently across the ecosystem harder than rival platforms such as iOS where hardware and software varies less.

For example, according to data from OpenSignal in July, there were 11, models of Android device, numerous different screen sizes and eight Android OS versions simultaneously in use, while the large majority of iOS users have upgraded to the latest iteration of that OS.

They maintain this forces Android developers to write for the “lowest common denominator” to reach as many users as possible, who have too little incentive to make use of the latest hardware or software features only available on a smaller percentage of devices.

Research company Canalys estimated in the second quarter of, that Android had a 2. By the third quarter of, Gartner estimated that more than half In July, Google said that, Android devices were being activated every day, [] up from, per day in May, [] and more than million devices had been activated [] with 4.

Android market share varies by location. In April Android had 1. Android devices account for more than half of smartphone sales in most markets, including the US, while “only in Japan was Apple on top” September—November numbers.

Three billion Android smartphones are estimated to be sold by the end of including previous years. According to Gartner research company, Android-based devices outsold all contenders, every year since According to StatCounter, which tracks only the use for browsing the web, Android is the most popular mobile operating system since August According to StatCounter, Android is most used on mobile in all African countries, and it stated “mobile usage has already overtaken desktop in several countries including India, South Africa and Saudi Arabia”, [] with virtually all countries in Africa having done so already except for seven countries, including Egypt, such as Ethiopia and Kenya in which mobile including tablets usage is at While Android phones in the Western world commonly include Google’s proprietary add-ons such as Google Play to the otherwise open-source operating system, this is increasingly not the case in emerging markets; “ABI Research claims that 65 million devices shipped globally with open-source Android in the second quarter of [], up from 54 million in the first quarter”; depending on country, percent of phones estimated to be based only on AOSP source code, forgoing the Android trademark: According to a January Gartner report, “Android surpassed a billion shipments of devices in, and will continue to grow at a double-digit pace in, with a 26 percent increase year over year.

Gartner expected the whole mobile phone market to “reach two billion units in “, including Android. According to a Statistica ‘s estimate, Android smartphones had an installed base of 1.

In the second quarter of, Android’s share of the global smartphone shipment market was According to an April StatCounter report, Android overtook Microsoft Windows to become the most popular operating system for total Internet usage.

In September, Google announced that Android had 1. Despite its success on smartphones, initially Android tablet adoption was slow. Due to the lack of Android tablet-specific applications in, early Android tablets had to make do with existing smartphone applications that were ill-suited to larger screen sizes, whereas the dominance of Apple’s iPad was reinforced by the large number of tablet-specific iOS applications.

This approach, such as with the Dell Streak, failed to gain market traction with consumers as well as damaging the early reputation of Android tablets. An exception was the Amazon Kindle Fire, which relied upon lower pricing as well as access to Amazon’s ecosystem of applications and content.

As of the end of, over According to StatCounter’s web use statistics, as of August 15, , Android tablets represent the majority of tablet devices used in South America It can now be as integral to your mobile portfolio as Apple ‘s iOS devices are”.

Charts in this section provide breakdowns of Android versions, based on devices accessing the Google Play Store in a seven-day period ending on February 5, In general, paid Android applications can easily be pirated.

In, Google released a tool for validating authorized purchases for use within apps, but developers complained that this was insufficient and trivial to crack.

Google responded that the tool, especially its initial release, was intended as a sample framework for developers to modify and build upon depending on their needs, not as a finished piracy solution.

The success of Android has made it a target for patent and copyright litigation between technology companies, both Android and Android phone manufacturers having been involved in numerous patent lawsuits.

On August 12, , Oracle sued Google over claimed infringement of copyrights and patents related to the Java programming language. They said that Android’s Java runtime environment is based on Apache Harmony, a clean room implementation of the Java class libraries, and an independently developed virtual machine called Dalvik.

In December, Google announced that the next major release of Android Android Nougat would switch to OpenJDK, which is the official open-source implementation of the Java platform, instead of using the now-discontinued Apache Harmony project as its runtime.

Code reflecting this change was also posted to the AOSP source repository. In addition to lawsuits against Google directly, various proxy wars have been waged against Android indirectly by targeting manufacturers of Android devices, with the effect of discouraging manufacturers from adopting the platform by increasing the costs of bringing an Android device to market.

Google has publicly expressed its frustration for the current patent landscape in the United States, accusing Apple, Oracle and Microsoft of trying to take down Android through patent litigation, rather than innovating and competing with better products and services.

In, FairSearch, a lobbying organization supported by Microsoft, Oracle and others, filed a complaint regarding Android with the European Commission, alleging that its free-of-charge distribution model constituted anti-competitive predatory pricing.

Google has developed several variations of Android for specific use cases, including Android Wear, later renamed Wear OS, for wearable devices such as wrist watches, [] [] Android TV for televisions, [] [] and Android Things for smart devices and Internet of things.

The open and customizable nature of Android allows device makers to use it on other electronics as well, including laptops, netbooks, [] [] and desktop computers, [] cameras, [] headphones, [] home automation systems, game consoles, [] media players, [] satellites, [] routers, [] printers, [] payment terminals, [] automated teller machines, [] and robots.

In, Google demonstrated “Android Home”, a home automation technology which uses Android to control a range of household devices including light switches, power sockets and thermostats. Google, he said, was thinking more ambitiously and the intention was to use their position as a cloud services provider to bring Google products into customers’ homes.

Parrot unveiled an Android-based car stereo system known as Asteroid in, [] followed by a successor, the touchscreen-based Asteroid Smart, in In December, one reviewer commented that Android’s notification system is “vastly more complete and robust than in most environments” and that Android is “absolutely usable” as one’s primary desktop operating system.

The software is available for developers, and was released in The mascot of Android is a green android robot, as related to the software’s name. Although it has no official name, the Android team at Google reportedly call it “Bugdroid”.

It was designed by then-Google graphic designer Irina Blok on November 5, when Android was announced. Contrary to reports that she was tasked with a project to create an icon, [] Blok confirmed in an interview that she independently developed it and made it open source.

The robot design was initially not presented to Google, but it quickly became commonplace in the Android development team, with various different variations of it created by the developers there who liked the figure, as it was free under a Creative Commons license.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other things called “android”, see Android disambiguation. List of features in Android. Android software development and Google Play.

Usage share of operating systems. Ice Cream Sandwich 0. Google, Smartphone wars, and Patent troll. Alphabet portal Free software portal Google portal. Archived from the original on December 14, Retrieved December 15, Archived from the original on March 5, Retrieved March 11, Archived from the original on August 17, Retrieved March 9, Archived from the original on August 22, Retrieved September 5, Internationalization Multi-locale support [..

Coupled with allowing you to select multiple languages preferences, Android Nougat allows you to select from new languages and 25 locales for commonly used languages such as English, Spanish, French, and Arabic.

This enables Apps to better support and understanding your language preferences even if your devices lacks official support for it. Archived from the original on December 17, Archived from the original on January 21, Archived from the original on March 14, Archived from the original on March 4, Archived from the original on February 9, Archived from the original on March 19, Archived from the original on December 15, Archived from the original on January 4, Retrieved January 3, Archived from the original on November 9, Retrieved November 9, Past, Present, and Future”.

Archived from the original on March 13, Retrieved March 12, Archived from the original on February 5, We aimed to make a camera OS”. Archived from the original on May 10, Retrieved May 9, Archived from the original on April 29, How a flailing startup became the world’s biggest computing platform”.

Archived from the original on May 20, The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 6, Archived from the original on March 12, The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on July 29, Retrieved July 24, The Record Bergen County.

Retrieved February 21, And don’t hold your breath, but the same cell phone-obsessed tech watchers say it won’t be long before Google jumps headfirst into the phone biz.

Archived from the original on February 11, Archived from the original on March 25, Archived from the original on June 23, Archived from the original on March 2, Archived from the original on June 22, Archived from the original on March 17, Here’s why Google names the OS after sweets”.

Archived from the original on June 24, Archived from the original on December 26, Archived from the original on November 29, Archived from the original on January 14, Archived from the original on February 23, Archived from the original on November 1, Archived from the original on November 3, Retrieved March 13, Archived from the original on May 11, Archived from the original on January 6, Archived from the original on October 11, Retrieved October 12, Android Open Source Project.

Archived from the original on January 25, Archived from the original on February 16, Archived from the original on February 19, Archived from the original on March 31, Archived from the original on May 1, Archived from the original on January 8, Archived from the original on March 22, Archived from the original on December 8, Archived from the original on May 3, Archived from the original on March 21, Archived from the original on March 29, Archived from the original on May 17, Retrieved May 22, Archived from the original on May 22, Archived from the original on June 13, Archived from the original on February 10, Controlling open source by any means necessary”.

Archived from the original on March 10, Archived from the original on March 28, Retrieved March 28, Archived from the original on January 2, Retrieved January 2, Archived from the original on May 30, Retrieved June 4, Archived from the original on October 17, Retrieved November 16, Archived from the original on June 28, Retrieved May 15, Retrieved February 20, Archived from the original on October 23, Retrieved October 30, Archived from the original PDF on February 22, Retrieved April 15, Stop Using Task Killer Apps”.

Archived from the original on February 17, Professional Android 4 Application Development. Archived from the original on November 5, Retrieved November 2, Archived from the original on January 30, Archived from the original on March 6, MIPS gets sweet with Honeycomb”.

Archived from the original on January 24, Retrieved February 9, Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved June 19, Archived from the original on October 31, Archived from the original PDF on March 4, Archived from the original on October 10, Retrieved November 15, Archived from the original on January 23, Retrieved March 21, Archived from the original on October 28, Retrieved November 1, Archived from the original on September 27, Retrieved September 22, Now powered by Android Marshmallow.

Archived from the original on April 7, Retrieved April 7, How to install Android on your PC”. Archived from the original on November 12, Archived from the original on September 29, Archived from the original on December 22, Retrieved December 22, Archived from the original on July 13, Archived from the original on January 7, Android M tomorrow, Android N in “.

Archived from the original on December 25, Archived from the original on August 10, Retrieved September 3, Google announces release of the next version of Android 8″. Archived from the original on September 3, Archived from the original on March 3, There’s blame enough to go around”.

Archived from the original on April 3, Retrieved April 3, Archived from the original on June 14, Archived from the original on February 13, Google is defragging Android”.

Archived from the original on March 30, Retrieved March 15, Android OEMs to be ranked, shamed by update speed”. Archived from the original on March 16, Google pressuring OEMs and carriers to speed up Android updates, security patches”.

Archived from the original on December 3, Retrieved November 10,

Free alcatel 198 3g smartphone idea file hindi download one touch app agosto

They’re on negotiation to being the main sponsor for the following season in Mexico, replacing Grupo Bimbo on the front part of the shirt, as of right now they’ll provide cellphone equipment to the team members and will be part of the celebration for the centenary for the club.

In, Huawei supported the largest extreme sports event in the world: On 2 September, Huawei was announced as the official sponsor of the Serbian national football team.

As part of its international support for technology and telecommunications education and training, Huawei has contributed funding and equipment to a number of universities and training centers in countries such as Kenya, [] India, [] Indonesia, [] [] Bangladesh, [] and Nigeria.

In, Huawei and Samsung followed the Dutch electronics company Philips filed patent applications respectively as the second and third company in the world. With the technological development of Huawei, it has become the top of the European Patent Office ‘s patent-filing league table for the first time as a Chinese enterprise, according to results announced in Brussels.

There were 2, patents Huawei filed, which is more than the second and third placed Siemens and LG. In February Cisco Systems sued Huawei Technologies for allegedly infringing on its patents and illegally copying source code used in its routers and switches.

Huawei’s chief representative in the US subsequently claimed that Huawei had been vindicated in the case, breaking a confidentiality clause of Huawei’s settlement with Cisco. In response Cisco revealed parts of the independent expert’s report produced for the case which proved that Huawei had stolen Cisco code and directly copied it into their products.

In June, a Huawei employee was caught after hours diagramming and photographing circuit boards from a competitor booth at the SuperComm tradeshow. In July, Motorola filed an amended complaint that named Huawei as a co-defendant in its case against Lemko for alleged theft of trade secrets.

In a further move to protect its intellectual property, Huawei filed lawsuits in Germany, France and Hungary in April against ZTE for patent and trademark infringement. In September, Huawei faced a lawsuit from T-Mobile, which alleged that Huawei stole technology from its Bellevue, Washington, headquarters.

T-Mobile claimed in its filed suit that Huawei’s employees snuck into a T-Mobile lab during the period of and stole parts of its smartphone testing robot Tappy. The Huawei employees then copied the operating software and design details, violating confidentiality agreements that both companies signed.

Furthermore, Huawei is now using that intel to build its own testing robot. A Huawei spokesman stated to The New York Times that there is some truth to the complaint, but that the two employees involved have been fired.

T-Mobile has since stopped using Huawei as a supplier, which T-Mobile says could cost it tens of millions of dollars as it moves away from its handsets. Huawei responded to the lawsuit by arguing that Tappy was not a trade secret, and that it was made by Epson, not T-Mobile.

T-mobile dismissed Huawei’s arguments, and contended that Epson had provided only a component of the robot. In the US, officials and politicians within the federal government have raised concerns that Huawei-made telecommunications equipment may be designed to allow unauthorized access by the Chinese government and the Chinese People’s Liberation Army, [] [] [] [] given that Ren Zhengfei, the founder of the company, served as an engineer in the army in the early s.

In a open letter, Huawei stated that the security concerns are “unfounded and unproven” and called on the U. The organization found that only a few investment deals were blocked following unfavorable findings by the CFIUS or had been given a recommendation not to apply, however all large transactions had been politicized by groups including the U.

In October, the Indian Department of Telecommunications reportedly requested national telecom operators to “self-regulate” the use of all equipment from European, U. In October, The Wall Street Journal reported that Huawei had become Iran’s leading provider of telecommunications equipment, including monitoring technologies that could be used for surveillance.

In, it was alleged that Huawei Technologies India had developed telecommunications equipment for the Taliban in Afghanistan, and newspapers reported that the Indian government had launched a probe into the firm’s operations.

In March, Australian media sources reported that the Australian government had excluded Huawei from tendering for contracts with NBN Co, a government-owned corporation that is managing the construction of the National Broadband Network, [] following advice from the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation regarding security concerns.

In July, Felix Lindner and Gregor Kopf gave a conference at Defcon to announce that they uncovered several critical vulnerabilities in Huawei routers models AR18 and AR29 [] which could be used to get remote access to the device.

The researchers said that Huawei “doesn’t have a security contact for reporting vulnerabilities, doesn’t put out security advisories and doesn’t say what bugs have been fixed in its firmware updates”, and as a result, the vulnerabilities have not been publicly disclosed.

Huawei replied that they were investigating the claims. In December, Bloomberg reported that the U. The US House Intelligence Committee had said on November 18 that it would investigate foreign companies, and a spokesman for Huawei said that the company conducts its businesses according to normal business practices and actually welcomed the investigation.

On 9 October, a spokesman for Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper indicated that the Canadian government invoked a national security exception to exclude Huawei from its plans to build a secure government communications network.

Specifically, the Andrew antennas were part of a large order for Huawei telecommunications gear that MTN Irancell had placed through Soda Gostar, but the MTN Irancell says it canceled the deal with Huawei when it learned the items were subject to sanctions and before any equipment was delivered.

On 19 July, Michael Hayden, former head of U. National Security Agency and director of Motorola Solutions, claimed that he has seen hard evidence of backdoors in Huawei’s networking equipment and that the company engaged in espionage and shared intimate knowledge of the foreign telecommunications systems with the Chinese government.

Huawei’s global cybersecurity officer, John Suffolk, described the comments made by Hayden as “tired, unsubstantiated, defamatory remarks” and challenged him and other critics to present any evidence publicly.

National Security Agency has since been operating a covert program against Huawei. This involved breaking into Huawei’s internal networks, including headquarter networks and founder Ren Zhengfei’s communications.

In, German cybersecurity company G Data reported that it had found that malware that can listen to calls, track users, and make online purchases was found pre-installed on smartphones from Chinese companies including Lenovo, Xiaomi, and Huawei.

When G Data contacted the companies to let them know about the malware, Huawei replied that the security breaches must have taken place further down the supply chain, outside the manufacturing process.

In, Canada’s immigration department said it planned to deny permanent resident visas to three Chinese citizens who worked for Huawei over concerns the applicants are involved in espionage, terrorism, and government subversion.

Best Buy, the largest consumer electronics retailer in the United States, is also completely eliminating Huawei products from its stores. Army Strategic Studies Institute report on Argentina published in September describes Huawei as “known to bribe and trap clients.

According to a WikiLeaks cable, in, Michael Joseph, then-CEO of Safaricom Ltd, allegedly struggled to cancel a contract with Huawei due to poor after-sales experience, after which the Kenyan government pressured him to reinstate the contract.

In October, 7, Huawei employees resigned and were then rehired on short-term contracts, thereby apparently avoiding the unlimited contract provisions of the Labour Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China.

The company denied it was exploiting loopholes in the law, while the move was condemned by local government and trade unions. Huawei’s treatment of its workforce in Guangdong Province, Southern China also triggered a media outcry after a year-old software engineer, Hu Xinyu, died in May from bacterial encephalitis, as a result of what is believed [ by whom?

In its Corporate Social Responsibility report, Huawei highlighted the importance of employee health and safety. In, Huawei provided annual health checks to all full-time employees and performed 3, checks to employees exposed to occupational health risks.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. It has been suggested that this article be merged with Huawei Phones. Discuss Proposed since April The lead section of this article may need to be rewritten.

Please discuss this issue on the article’s talk page. Use the lead layout guide to ensure the section follows Wikipedia’s norms and to be inclusive of all essential details. March Learn how and when to remove this template message.

This article’s lead section may be too long for the length of the article. Please help by moving some material from it into the body of the article. Please read the layout guide and lead section guidelines to ensure the section will still be inclusive of all essential details.

Telecommunication portal Companies portal China portal. Solid Growth and Sustained Investment in the Future”. Retrieved 30 March Retrieved 4 February Retrieved 3 August Retrieved 15 March Center for Strategic and International Studies.

Retrieved 3 October Retrieved 14 June Archived from the original on 12 August Retrieved 28 September Retrieved 18 February Huawei unveils Mate 8 with Kirin chipset”.

Retrieved 9 January Archived from the original on 3 August Retrieved 28 July Smartphone shipments up 2. Retrieved 9 May Far Eastern Economic Review: Archived from the original on 9 July Archived from the original on 14 March A match made in paradise?

Archived from the original on 25 September Retrieved 1 October Archived from the original on 24 March Archived from the original on 1 October The Wall Street Journal.

Archived from the original on 24 July Retrieved 2 June Archived from the original on 31 May Archived from the original on 7 July Retrieved 2 July Retrieved 7 April Archived from the original on 21 April Who Really Owns Huawei?

Retrieved 21 June Archived 16 May at the Wayback Machine. Archived 4 February at the Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 28 September Protectionism Hits Revenue Growth”.

Retrieved 4 April Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 7 June Archived from the original on 14 May Big Growth, New Value”. Retrieved 8 June Archived from the original on 2 October Archived from the original on 23 March World Intellectual Property Organization.

Retrieved 20 March Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 30 October Archived from the original on 30 October Retrieved 31 March Archived from the original on 1 February Archived from the original on 21 January Archived from the original on 30 March Archived from the original on 17 May Archived from the original on Retrieved 27 June Archived from the original on 5 October Archived from the original on 20 April Archived from the original on 20 March Corporate Social Responsibility Africa.

Archived from the original on 22 June Archived from the original on 19 July Retrieved 15 July Cisco drops Huawei suit”. The New York Times. Retrieved 9 September Archived from the original on 15 September Archived from the original on 7 October Retrieved 5 October Retrieved 29 August Archived from the original on 16 May Retrieved 5 September Archived from the original PDF on 12 August Android’s variant of the Linux kernel has further architectural changes that are implemented by Google outside the typical Linux kernel development cycle, such as the inclusion of components like device trees, ashmem, ION, and different out of memory OOM handling.

In August, Linus Torvalds said that “eventually Android and Linux would come back to a common kernel, but it will probably not be for four to five years”. The interfaces are the same but the upstream Linux implementation allows for two different suspend modes: However, root access can be obtained by exploiting security flaws in Android, which is used frequently by the open-source community to enhance the capabilities of their devices, [] but also by malicious parties to install viruses and malware.

Android is a Linux distribution according to the Linux Foundation, [] Google’s open-source chief Chris DiBona, [] and several journalists. With the release of Android Oreo in, Google began to require that devices shipped with new SoCs had Linux kernel version 4.

Existing devices upgraded to Oreo, and new products launched with older SoCs, were exempt from this rule. On top of the Linux kernel, there are the middleware, libraries and APIs written in C, and application software running on an application framework which includes Java – compatible libraries.

Development of the Linux kernel continues independently of other Android’s source code bases. Following the trace-based JIT principle, in addition to interpreting the majority of application code, Dalvik performs the compilation and native execution of select frequently executed code segments “traces” each time an application is launched.

For its Java library, the Android platform uses a subset of the now discontinued Apache Harmony project. Bionic itself has been designed with several major features specific to the Linux kernel.

At the same time, Bionic is licensed under the terms of the BSD licence, which Google finds more suitable for the Android’s overall licensing model. Android does not have a native X Window System by default, nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries.

Since Marshmallow, ” Toybox “, a collection of command line utilities mostly for use by apps, as Android doesn’t provide a command line interface by default, replaced similar “Toolbox” collection.

Android’s source code is released by Google under an open source license, and its open nature has encouraged a large community of developers and enthusiasts to use the open-source code as a foundation for community-driven projects, which deliver updates to older devices, add new features for advanced users or bring Android to devices originally shipped with other operating systems.

Historically, device manufacturers and mobile carriers have typically been unsupportive of third-party firmware development. Manufacturers express concern about improper functioning of devices running unofficial software and the support costs resulting from this.

As a result, technical obstacles including locked bootloaders and restricted access to root permissions are common in many devices. However, as community-developed software has grown more popular, and following a statement by the Librarian of Congress in the United States that permits the ” jailbreaking ” of mobile devices, [] manufacturers and carriers have softened their position regarding third party development, with some, including HTC, [] Motorola, [] Samsung [] [] and Sony, [] providing support and encouraging development.

As a result of this, over time the need to circumvent hardware restrictions to install unofficial firmware has lessened as an increasing number of devices are shipped with unlocked or unlockable bootloaders, similar to Nexus series of phones, although usually requiring that users waive their devices’ warranties to do so.

They are reportedly able to read almost all smartphone information, including SMS, location, emails, and notes. GCHQ has, according to The Guardian, a wiki – style guide of different apps and advertising networks, and the different data that can be siphoned from each.

The documents revealed a further effort by the intelligence agencies to intercept Google Maps searches and queries submitted from Android and other smartphones to collect location information in bulk.

Research from security company Trend Micro lists premium service abuse as the most common type of Android malware, where text messages are sent from infected phones to premium-rate telephone numbers without the consent or even knowledge of the user.

Other malware displays unwanted and intrusive advertisements on the device, or sends personal information to unauthorised third parties. In August, Google announced that devices in the Google Nexus series would begin to receive monthly security patches.

Google also wrote that “Nexus devices will continue to receive major updates for at least two years and security patches for the longer of three years from initial availability or 18 months from last sale of the device via the Google Store.

Google was starting from scratch with zero percent market share, so it was happy to give up control and give everyone a seat at the table in exchange for adoption. As such, security has become a big issue.

Android still uses a software update chain-of-command designed back when the Android ecosystem had zero devices to update, and it just doesn’t work”. And a bunch of broken promises”.

They also wrote that “About half of devices in use at the end of had not received a platform security update in the previous year”, stating that their work would continue to focus on streamlining the security updates program for easier deployment by manufacturers.

Patches to bugs found in the core operating system often do not reach users of older and lower-priced devices. For example, Samsung has worked with General Dynamics through their Open Kernel Labs acquisition to rebuild Jelly Bean on top of their hardened microvisor for the “Knox” project.

Android smartphones have the ability to report the location of Wi-Fi access points, encountered as phone users move around, to build databases containing the physical locations of hundreds of millions of such access points.

These databases form electronic maps to locate smartphones, allowing them to run apps like Foursquare, Google Latitude, Facebook Places, and to deliver location-based ads. Android applications run in a sandbox, an isolated area of the system that does not have access to the rest of the system’s resources, unless access permissions are explicitly granted by the user when the application is installed, however this may not be possible for pre-installed apps.

It is not possible, for example, to turn off the microphone access of the pre-installed camera app without disabling the camera completely. This is valid also in Android versions 7 and 8.

Since February, Google has used its Google Bouncer malware scanner to watch over and scan apps available in the Google Play store. Before installing an application, the Google Play store displays a list of the requirements an app needs to function.

After reviewing these permissions, the user can choose to accept or refuse them, installing the application only if they accept. An opt-in system is used instead, in which users are prompted to grant or deny individual permissions to an app when they are needed for the first time.

Applications remember the grants, which can be revoked by the user at any time. Pre-installed apps, however, are not always part of this approach. In some cases it may not be possible to deny certain permissions to pre-installed apps, nor be possible to disable them.

The Google Play Services app cannot be uninstalled, nor disabled. Any force stop attempt, result in the app restarting itself. Permissions can still be revoked for those apps, though this might prevent them from working properly, and a warning is displayed to that effect.

Nova wrote that “The Android operating system deals with software packages by sandboxing them; this does not allow applications to list the directory contents of other apps to keep the system safe.

By not allowing the antivirus to list the directories of other apps after installation, applications that show no inherent suspicious behavior when downloaded are cleared as safe.

The study by Fraunhofer AISEC, examining antivirus software from Avast, AVG, Bitdefender, ESET, F-Secure, Kaspersky, Lookout, McAfee formerly Intel Security, Norton, Sophos, and Trend Micro, revealed that “the tested antivirus apps do not provide protection against customized malware or targeted attacks”, and that “the tested antivirus apps were also not able to detect malware which is completely unknown to date but does not make any efforts to hide its malignity”.

In August, Google announced Android Device Manager renamed Find My Device in May, [] [] a service that allows users to remotely track, locate, and wipe their Android device, [] [] with an Android app for the service released in December.

The source code for Android is open-source: Google publishes most of the code including network and telephony stacks under the non-copyleft Apache License version 2. Associated Linux kernel changes are released under the copyleft GNU General Public License version 2, developed by the Open Handset Alliance, with the source code publicly available at all times.

Typically, Google collaborates with a hardware manufacturer to produce a flagship device part of the Nexus series featuring the new version of Android, then makes the source code available after that device has been released.

The reason, according to Andy Rubin in an official Android blog post, was because Honeycomb was rushed for production of the Motorola Xoom, [] and they did not want third parties creating a “really bad user experience” by attempting to put onto smartphones a version of Android intended for tablets.

These applications must be licensed from Google by device makers, and can only be shipped on devices which meet its compatibility guidelines and other requirements. Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation have been critical of Android and have recommended the usage of alternatives such as Replicant, because drivers and firmware vital for the proper functioning of Android devices are usually proprietary, and because the Google Play Store application can forcibly install or deinstall applications and, as a result, invite non-free software; although the Free Software Foundation has not found Google to use it for malicious reasons.

Google licenses their Google Mobile Services software, along with Android trademarks, only to hardware manufacturers for devices that meet Google’s compatibility standards specified in the Android Compatibility Program document.

Moreover, open-source variants of some applications also exclude functions that are present in their non-free versions, such as Photosphere panoramas in Camera, and a Google Now page on the default home screen exclusive to the proprietary version “Google Now Launcher”, whose code is embedded within that of the main Google application.

Apps that do not utilize Google components would also be at a functional disadvantage, as they can only utilize APIs contained within the OS itself. In March, it was reported that Google had begun to block “uncertified” Android devices from utilizing Google Mobile Services software, and display a warning indicating that “the device manufacturer has preloaded Google apps and services without certification from Google”.

Alibaba Group defended the allegations, arguing that the OS was a distinct platform from Android primarily using HTML5 apps, but incorporated portions of Android’s platform to allow backwards compatibility with third-party Android software.

Indeed, the devices did ship with an application store which offered Android apps; however, the majority of them were pirated. Android received a lukewarm reaction when it was unveiled in Although analysts were impressed with the respected technology companies that had partnered with Google to form the Open Handset Alliance, it was unclear whether mobile phone manufacturers would be willing to replace their existing operating systems with Android.

Nokia was quoted as saying “we don’t see this as a threat,” and a member of Microsoft’s Windows Mobile team stated “I don’t understand the impact that they are going to have.

Since then Android has grown to become the most widely used smartphone operating system [] [] and “one of the fastest mobile experiences available. As a result, it has been described by technology website Ars Technica as “practically the default operating system for launching new hardware” for companies without their own mobile platforms.

Android allows extensive customisation of devices by their owners and apps are freely available from non-Google app stores and third party websites. These have been cited as among the main advantages of Android phones over others.

Despite Android’s popularity, including an activation rate three times that of iOS, there have been reports that Google has not been able to leverage their other products and web services successfully to turn Android into the money maker that analysts had expected.

Android has suffered from “fragmentation”, [] a situation where the variety of Android devices, in terms of both hardware variations and differences in the software running on them, makes the task of developing applications that work consistently across the ecosystem harder than rival platforms such as iOS where hardware and software varies less.

For example, according to data from OpenSignal in July, there were 11, models of Android device, numerous different screen sizes and eight Android OS versions simultaneously in use, while the large majority of iOS users have upgraded to the latest iteration of that OS.

They maintain this forces Android developers to write for the “lowest common denominator” to reach as many users as possible, who have too little incentive to make use of the latest hardware or software features only available on a smaller percentage of devices.

Research company Canalys estimated in the second quarter of, that Android had a 2. By the third quarter of, Gartner estimated that more than half In July, Google said that, Android devices were being activated every day, [] up from, per day in May, [] and more than million devices had been activated [] with 4.

Android market share varies by location. In April Android had 1. Android devices account for more than half of smartphone sales in most markets, including the US, while “only in Japan was Apple on top” September—November numbers.

Three billion Android smartphones are estimated to be sold by the end of including previous years. According to Gartner research company, Android-based devices outsold all contenders, every year since According to StatCounter, which tracks only the use for browsing the web, Android is the most popular mobile operating system since August According to StatCounter, Android is most used on mobile in all African countries, and it stated “mobile usage has already overtaken desktop in several countries including India, South Africa and Saudi Arabia”, [] with virtually all countries in Africa having done so already except for seven countries, including Egypt, such as Ethiopia and Kenya in which mobile including tablets usage is at While Android phones in the Western world commonly include Google’s proprietary add-ons such as Google Play to the otherwise open-source operating system, this is increasingly not the case in emerging markets; “ABI Research claims that 65 million devices shipped globally with open-source Android in the second quarter of [], up from 54 million in the first quarter”; depending on country, percent of phones estimated to be based only on AOSP source code, forgoing the Android trademark: According to a January Gartner report, “Android surpassed a billion shipments of devices in, and will continue to grow at a double-digit pace in, with a 26 percent increase year over year.

Gartner expected the whole mobile phone market to “reach two billion units in “, including Android. According to a Statistica ‘s estimate, Android smartphones had an installed base of 1.

In the second quarter of, Android’s share of the global smartphone shipment market was According to an April StatCounter report, Android overtook Microsoft Windows to become the most popular operating system for total Internet usage.

In September, Google announced that Android had 1. Despite its success on smartphones, initially Android tablet adoption was slow. Due to the lack of Android tablet-specific applications in, early Android tablets had to make do with existing smartphone applications that were ill-suited to larger screen sizes, whereas the dominance of Apple’s iPad was reinforced by the large number of tablet-specific iOS applications.

This approach, such as with the Dell Streak, failed to gain market traction with consumers as well as damaging the early reputation of Android tablets. An exception was the Amazon Kindle Fire, which relied upon lower pricing as well as access to Amazon’s ecosystem of applications and content.

As of the end of, over According to StatCounter’s web use statistics, as of August 15, , Android tablets represent the majority of tablet devices used in South America It can now be as integral to your mobile portfolio as Apple ‘s iOS devices are”.

Charts in this section provide breakdowns of Android versions, based on devices accessing the Google Play Store in a seven-day period ending on February 5, In general, paid Android applications can easily be pirated.

In, Google released a tool for validating authorized purchases for use within apps, but developers complained that this was insufficient and trivial to crack. Google responded that the tool, especially its initial release, was intended as a sample framework for developers to modify and build upon depending on their needs, not as a finished piracy solution.

The success of Android has made it a target for patent and copyright litigation between technology companies, both Android and Android phone manufacturers having been involved in numerous patent lawsuits.

On August 12, , Oracle sued Google over claimed infringement of copyrights and patents related to the Java programming language. They said that Android’s Java runtime environment is based on Apache Harmony, a clean room implementation of the Java class libraries, and an independently developed virtual machine called Dalvik.

In December, Google announced that the next major release of Android Android Nougat would switch to OpenJDK, which is the official open-source implementation of the Java platform, instead of using the now-discontinued Apache Harmony project as its runtime.

Code reflecting this change was also posted to the AOSP source repository. In addition to lawsuits against Google directly, various proxy wars have been waged against Android indirectly by targeting manufacturers of Android devices, with the effect of discouraging manufacturers from adopting the platform by increasing the costs of bringing an Android device to market.

Google has publicly expressed its frustration for the current patent landscape in the United States, accusing Apple, Oracle and Microsoft of trying to take down Android through patent litigation, rather than innovating and competing with better products and services.

In, FairSearch, a lobbying organization supported by Microsoft, Oracle and others, filed a complaint regarding Android with the European Commission, alleging that its free-of-charge distribution model constituted anti-competitive predatory pricing.

Google has developed several variations of Android for specific use cases, including Android Wear, later renamed Wear OS, for wearable devices such as wrist watches, [] [] Android TV for televisions, [] [] and Android Things for smart devices and Internet of things.

The open and customizable nature of Android allows device makers to use it on other electronics as well, including laptops, netbooks, [] [] and desktop computers, [] cameras, [] headphones, [] home automation systems, game consoles, [] media players, [] satellites, [] routers, [] printers, [] payment terminals, [] automated teller machines, [] and robots.

In, Google demonstrated “Android Home”, a home automation technology which uses Android to control a range of household devices including light switches, power sockets and thermostats.

Google, he said, was thinking more ambitiously and the intention was to use their position as a cloud services provider to bring Google products into customers’ homes. Parrot unveiled an Android-based car stereo system known as Asteroid in, [] followed by a successor, the touchscreen-based Asteroid Smart, in In December, one reviewer commented that Android’s notification system is “vastly more complete and robust than in most environments” and that Android is “absolutely usable” as one’s primary desktop operating system.

The software is available for developers, and was released in The mascot of Android is a green android robot, as related to the software’s name. Although it has no official name, the Android team at Google reportedly call it “Bugdroid”.

It was designed by then-Google graphic designer Irina Blok on November 5, when Android was announced. Contrary to reports that she was tasked with a project to create an icon, [] Blok confirmed in an interview that she independently developed it and made it open source.

The robot design was initially not presented to Google, but it quickly became commonplace in the Android development team, with various different variations of it created by the developers there who liked the figure, as it was free under a Creative Commons license.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other things called “android”, see Android disambiguation. List of features in Android. Android software development and Google Play.

Usage share of operating systems. Ice Cream Sandwich 0. Google, Smartphone wars, and Patent troll. Alphabet portal Free software portal Google portal. Archived from the original on December 14, Retrieved December 15, Archived from the original on March 5, Retrieved March 11, Archived from the original on August 17, Retrieved March 9, Archived from the original on August 22, Retrieved September 5, Internationalization Multi-locale support [..

Coupled with allowing you to select multiple languages preferences, Android Nougat allows you to select from new languages and 25 locales for commonly used languages such as English, Spanish, French, and Arabic.

This enables Apps to better support and understanding your language preferences even if your devices lacks official support for it. Archived from the original on December 17, Archived from the original on January 21, Archived from the original on March 14, Archived from the original on March 4, Archived from the original on February 9, Archived from the original on March 19, Archived from the original on December 15, Archived from the original on January 4, Retrieved January 3, Archived from the original on November 9, Retrieved November 9, Past, Present, and Future”.

Archived from the original on March 13, Retrieved March 12, Archived from the original on February 5, We aimed to make a camera OS”. Archived from the original on May 10, Retrieved May 9, Archived from the original on April 29, How a flailing startup became the world’s biggest computing platform”.

Archived from the original on May 20, The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 6, Archived from the original on March 12, The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on July 29, Retrieved July 24, The Record Bergen County.

Retrieved February 21, And don’t hold your breath, but the same cell phone-obsessed tech watchers say it won’t be long before Google jumps headfirst into the phone biz. Archived from the original on February 11, Archived from the original on March 25, Archived from the original on June 23, Archived from the original on March 2, Archived from the original on June 22, Archived from the original on March 17, Here’s why Google names the OS after sweets”.

Archived from the original on June 24, Archived from the original on December 26, Archived from the original on November 29, Archived from the original on January 14, Archived from the original on February 23, Archived from the original on November 1, Archived from the original on November 3, Retrieved March 13, Archived from the original on May 11, Archived from the original on January 6, Archived from the original on October 11, Retrieved October 12, Android Open Source Project.

Archived from the original on January 25, Archived from the original on February 16, Archived from the original on February 19, Archived from the original on March 31, Archived from the original on May 1, Archived from the original on January 8, Archived from the original on March 22, Archived from the original on December 8, Archived from the original on May 3, Archived from the original on March 21, Archived from the original on March 29, Archived from the original on May 17, Retrieved May 22, Archived from the original on May 22, Archived from the original on June 13, Archived from the original on February 10, Controlling open source by any means necessary”.

Archived from the original on March 10, Archived from the original on March 28, Retrieved March 28, Archived from the original on January 2, Retrieved January 2, Archived from the original on May 30, Retrieved June 4, Archived from the original on October 17, Retrieved November 16, Archived from the original on June 28, Retrieved May 15, Retrieved February 20, Archived from the original on October 23, Retrieved October 30, Archived from the original PDF on February 22, Retrieved April 15, Stop Using Task Killer Apps”.

Archived from the original on February 17, Professional Android 4 Application Development. Archived from the original on November 5, Retrieved November 2, Archived from the original on January 30, Archived from the original on March 6, MIPS gets sweet with Honeycomb”.

Archived from the original on January 24, Retrieved February 9, Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved June 19, Archived from the original on October 31, Archived from the original PDF on March 4, Archived from the original on October 10, Retrieved November 15, Archived from the original on January 23, Retrieved March 21, Archived from the original on October 28, Retrieved November 1, Archived from the original on September 27, Retrieved September 22, Now powered by Android Marshmallow.

Archived from the original on April 7, Retrieved April 7, How to install Android on your PC”. Archived from the original on November 12, Archived from the original on September 29, Archived from the original on December 22, Retrieved December 22, Archived from the original on July 13, Archived from the original on January 7, Android M tomorrow, Android N in “.

Archived from the original on December 25, Archived from the original on August 10, Retrieved September 3, Google announces release of the next version of Android 8″.

Archived from the original on September 3, Archived from the original on March 3, There’s blame enough to go around”. Archived from the original on April 3, Retrieved April 3, Archived from the original on June 14, Archived from the original on February 13, Google is defragging Android”.

Archived from the original on March 30, Retrieved March 15, Android OEMs to be ranked, shamed by update speed”. Archived from the original on March 16, Google pressuring OEMs and carriers to speed up Android updates, security patches”.

Archived from the original on December 3, Retrieved November 10, Linux kernel LTS releases are now good for 6 years”. Archived from the original on November 11, Archived from the original on June 27, Retrieved June 26, Archived from the original on May 27, Retrieved June 20, Archived from the original on January 9, Archived from the original on June 29, Archived from the original on October 15, Linux kernel monkey log.

Google will hire two Android coders to work with kernel. Archived from the original on June 17, A developer’s introduction to Google Android”. Archived from the original on July 4, Archived from the original on February 14, Archived from the original on February 18, Retrieved February 15,

Huawei’s Devices division provides white-label products to content-service providers, including USB modems, wireless modems and wireless routers for mobile wifi, [95] [96] embedded modules, fixed wireless terminals, wireless gateways, set-top boxes, mobile handsets and video products.

In, Huawei Devices shipped million devices around the world. List of Huawei Phones. In July, Huawei established their handset department and by, Huawei shipped their first phone, the C In January, Huawei announced that they’ll be dropping the Ascend name in future phones.

This means that the Ascend Mate series was latter simply known as Mate series and the Ascend P series was latter simply known as P series. Huawei also partnered with Google to build the Nexus 6P in In March, Huawei announced its new flagship smartphone, the P20 Pro, which will be the world’s first smartphone with three rear cameras.

Overall, the total number of international patent filings under WIPO’s PCT for represents the highest number of applications received under the PCT in a single year and China improved its ranking by one place, to become the sixth largest user of the PCT, with 6, filings.

Huawei aims to help China to achieve the Chinese Dream with their technologies creating a Digital China in the following years. Therefore, Huawei promotes digital transformation in Egypt, North Africa.

Egypt will be the be a good host of digital platform which can be extended to other newly built cities nationwide, benefiting the government, the society and businesses in North African region for Huawei.

In, Huawei created the first specialized marketing team outside China of digital marketers to boost its awareness in Europe. Paying more attentions to the partnerships with the likes of Dazed Media for Project Possible and public relations campaigns rather than paid media was one of the most important part for Huawei in digital marketing.

During the successful digital marketing campaign with Lionel Messi and Scarlett Johansson, the number of PR campaigns has increased percent in Western Europe in, compared to the same period in the previous years.

Huawei Technologies was one of six telecom industry companies included in the World’s Most Respected Companies list compiled by Forbes magazine in May In Fast Company ranked Huawei the fifth most innovative company in the world.

Huawei has been described as “perhaps China’s most globally successful company”. As part of the deal, Huawei became the major shirt sponsors for the team. The sponsorship arrangement was extended in for an extra three years.

Huawei sponsors Bundesliga club Borussia Dortmund. On 17 January, Arsenal F. Huawei debuted to the field of Cricket in April by becoming the principal sponsor of Royal Challengers Bangalore, a domestic cricket team that plays in the Indian Premier League.

On 12 September, Galatasaray S. On 4 January Huawei was announced as the main sponsor of the current champion of the Colombian First Division Tournament, Independiente Santa Fe, for the next two years – They’re on negotiation to being the main sponsor for the following season in Mexico, replacing Grupo Bimbo on the front part of the shirt, as of right now they’ll provide cellphone equipment to the team members and will be part of the celebration for the centenary for the club.

In, Huawei supported the largest extreme sports event in the world: On 2 September, Huawei was announced as the official sponsor of the Serbian national football team.

As part of its international support for technology and telecommunications education and training, Huawei has contributed funding and equipment to a number of universities and training centers in countries such as Kenya, [] India, [] Indonesia, [] [] Bangladesh, [] and Nigeria.

In, Huawei and Samsung followed the Dutch electronics company Philips filed patent applications respectively as the second and third company in the world. With the technological development of Huawei, it has become the top of the European Patent Office ‘s patent-filing league table for the first time as a Chinese enterprise, according to results announced in Brussels.

There were 2, patents Huawei filed, which is more than the second and third placed Siemens and LG. In February Cisco Systems sued Huawei Technologies for allegedly infringing on its patents and illegally copying source code used in its routers and switches.

Huawei’s chief representative in the US subsequently claimed that Huawei had been vindicated in the case, breaking a confidentiality clause of Huawei’s settlement with Cisco.

In response Cisco revealed parts of the independent expert’s report produced for the case which proved that Huawei had stolen Cisco code and directly copied it into their products.

In June, a Huawei employee was caught after hours diagramming and photographing circuit boards from a competitor booth at the SuperComm tradeshow. In July, Motorola filed an amended complaint that named Huawei as a co-defendant in its case against Lemko for alleged theft of trade secrets.

In a further move to protect its intellectual property, Huawei filed lawsuits in Germany, France and Hungary in April against ZTE for patent and trademark infringement.

In September, Huawei faced a lawsuit from T-Mobile, which alleged that Huawei stole technology from its Bellevue, Washington, headquarters. T-Mobile claimed in its filed suit that Huawei’s employees snuck into a T-Mobile lab during the period of and stole parts of its smartphone testing robot Tappy.

The Huawei employees then copied the operating software and design details, violating confidentiality agreements that both companies signed. Furthermore, Huawei is now using that intel to build its own testing robot.

A Huawei spokesman stated to The New York Times that there is some truth to the complaint, but that the two employees involved have been fired. T-Mobile has since stopped using Huawei as a supplier, which T-Mobile says could cost it tens of millions of dollars as it moves away from its handsets.

Huawei responded to the lawsuit by arguing that Tappy was not a trade secret, and that it was made by Epson, not T-Mobile. T-mobile dismissed Huawei’s arguments, and contended that Epson had provided only a component of the robot.

In the US, officials and politicians within the federal government have raised concerns that Huawei-made telecommunications equipment may be designed to allow unauthorized access by the Chinese government and the Chinese People’s Liberation Army, [] [] [] [] given that Ren Zhengfei, the founder of the company, served as an engineer in the army in the early s.

In a open letter, Huawei stated that the security concerns are “unfounded and unproven” and called on the U. The organization found that only a few investment deals were blocked following unfavorable findings by the CFIUS or had been given a recommendation not to apply, however all large transactions had been politicized by groups including the U.

In October, the Indian Department of Telecommunications reportedly requested national telecom operators to “self-regulate” the use of all equipment from European, U. In October, The Wall Street Journal reported that Huawei had become Iran’s leading provider of telecommunications equipment, including monitoring technologies that could be used for surveillance.

In, it was alleged that Huawei Technologies India had developed telecommunications equipment for the Taliban in Afghanistan, and newspapers reported that the Indian government had launched a probe into the firm’s operations.

In March, Australian media sources reported that the Australian government had excluded Huawei from tendering for contracts with NBN Co, a government-owned corporation that is managing the construction of the National Broadband Network, [] following advice from the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation regarding security concerns.

In July, Felix Lindner and Gregor Kopf gave a conference at Defcon to announce that they uncovered several critical vulnerabilities in Huawei routers models AR18 and AR29 [] which could be used to get remote access to the device.

The researchers said that Huawei “doesn’t have a security contact for reporting vulnerabilities, doesn’t put out security advisories and doesn’t say what bugs have been fixed in its firmware updates”, and as a result, the vulnerabilities have not been publicly disclosed.

Huawei replied that they were investigating the claims. In December, Bloomberg reported that the U. The US House Intelligence Committee had said on November 18 that it would investigate foreign companies, and a spokesman for Huawei said that the company conducts its businesses according to normal business practices and actually welcomed the investigation.

On 9 October, a spokesman for Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper indicated that the Canadian government invoked a national security exception to exclude Huawei from its plans to build a secure government communications network.

Specifically, the Andrew antennas were part of a large order for Huawei telecommunications gear that MTN Irancell had placed through Soda Gostar, but the MTN Irancell says it canceled the deal with Huawei when it learned the items were subject to sanctions and before any equipment was delivered.

On 19 July, Michael Hayden, former head of U. National Security Agency and director of Motorola Solutions, claimed that he has seen hard evidence of backdoors in Huawei’s networking equipment and that the company engaged in espionage and shared intimate knowledge of the foreign telecommunications systems with the Chinese government.

Huawei’s global cybersecurity officer, John Suffolk, described the comments made by Hayden as “tired, unsubstantiated, defamatory remarks” and challenged him and other critics to present any evidence publicly.

National Security Agency has since been operating a covert program against Huawei. This involved breaking into Huawei’s internal networks, including headquarter networks and founder Ren Zhengfei’s communications.

In, German cybersecurity company G Data reported that it had found that malware that can listen to calls, track users, and make online purchases was found pre-installed on smartphones from Chinese companies including Lenovo, Xiaomi, and Huawei.

When G Data contacted the companies to let them know about the malware, Huawei replied that the security breaches must have taken place further down the supply chain, outside the manufacturing process.

In, Canada’s immigration department said it planned to deny permanent resident visas to three Chinese citizens who worked for Huawei over concerns the applicants are involved in espionage, terrorism, and government subversion.

Best Buy, the largest consumer electronics retailer in the United States, is also completely eliminating Huawei products from its stores. Army Strategic Studies Institute report on Argentina published in September describes Huawei as “known to bribe and trap clients.

According to a WikiLeaks cable, in, Michael Joseph, then-CEO of Safaricom Ltd, allegedly struggled to cancel a contract with Huawei due to poor after-sales experience, after which the Kenyan government pressured him to reinstate the contract.

In October, 7, Huawei employees resigned and were then rehired on short-term contracts, thereby apparently avoiding the unlimited contract provisions of the Labour Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China.

The company denied it was exploiting loopholes in the law, while the move was condemned by local government and trade unions. Huawei’s treatment of its workforce in Guangdong Province, Southern China also triggered a media outcry after a year-old software engineer, Hu Xinyu, died in May from bacterial encephalitis, as a result of what is believed [ by whom?

In its Corporate Social Responsibility report, Huawei highlighted the importance of employee health and safety. In, Huawei provided annual health checks to all full-time employees and performed 3, checks to employees exposed to occupational health risks.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. It has been suggested that this article be merged with Huawei Phones. Discuss Proposed since April The lead section of this article may need to be rewritten.

Please discuss this issue on the article’s talk page. Use the lead layout guide to ensure the section follows Wikipedia’s norms and to be inclusive of all essential details. March Learn how and when to remove this template message.

This article’s lead section may be too long for the length of the article. Please help by moving some material from it into the body of the article. Please read the layout guide and lead section guidelines to ensure the section will still be inclusive of all essential details.

Telecommunication portal Companies portal China portal. Solid Growth and Sustained Investment in the Future”. Retrieved 30 March Retrieved 4 February Retrieved 3 August Retrieved 15 March Center for Strategic and International Studies.

Retrieved 3 October Retrieved 14 June Archived from the original on 12 August Retrieved 28 September Retrieved 18 February Huawei unveils Mate 8 with Kirin chipset”.

Retrieved 9 January Archived from the original on 3 August Retrieved 28 July Smartphone shipments up 2. Retrieved 9 May Far Eastern Economic Review: Archived from the original on 9 July Archived from the original on 14 March A match made in paradise?

Archived from the original on 25 September Retrieved 1 October Archived from the original on 24 March Archived from the original on 1 October The Wall Street Journal.

Archived from the original on 24 July Retrieved 2 June Archived from the original on 31 May Archived from the original on 7 July Retrieved 2 July Retrieved 7 April Archived from the original on 21 April Who Really Owns Huawei?

Retrieved 21 June Archived 16 May at the Wayback Machine. Archived 4 February at the Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 28 September Protectionism Hits Revenue Growth”.

Retrieved 4 April Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 7 June Archived from the original on 14 May Big Growth, New Value”. Retrieved 8 June Archived from the original on 2 October Archived from the original on 23 March World Intellectual Property Organization.

Retrieved 20 March Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 30 October As stated by Bloomberg: Wireless carriers were described in the report as the “most challenging discussions”, due to carriers’ slow approval time due to testing on their networks, despite some carriers, including Verizon and Sprint, having already shortened their respective approval times.

HTC ‘s then-executive Jason Mackenzie called monthly security updates “unrealistic” in, and Google was trying to persuade carriers to exclude security patches from the full testing procedures.

In a further effort for persuasion, Google shared a list of top phone makers measured by updated devices with its Android partners, and is considering making the list public.

Mike Chan, co-founder of phone maker Nextbit and former Android developer, said that “The best way to solve this problem is a massive re-architecture of the operating system”, “or Google could invest in training manufacturers and carriers “to be good Android citizens””.

In May, with the announcement of Android 8. Project Treble separates the vendor implementation device-specific, lower-level software written by silicon manufacturers from the Android OS framework via a new “vendor interface”.

With Treble, the new stable vendor interface provides access to the hardware-specific parts of Android, enabling device makers to deliver new Android releases simply by updating the Android OS framework, “without any additional work required from the silicon manufacturers.

In September, Google’s Project Treble team revealed that, as part of their efforts to improve the security lifecycle of Android devices, Google had managed to get the Linux Foundation to agree to extend the support lifecycle of the Linux Long-Term Support LTS kernel branch from the 2 years that it has historically lasted to 6 years for future versions of the LTS kernel, starting with Linux kernel 4.

Android’s kernel is based on one of the Linux kernel ‘s long-term support LTS branches. As of, Android devices mainly use versions 3. Android’s variant of the Linux kernel has further architectural changes that are implemented by Google outside the typical Linux kernel development cycle, such as the inclusion of components like device trees, ashmem, ION, and different out of memory OOM handling.

In August, Linus Torvalds said that “eventually Android and Linux would come back to a common kernel, but it will probably not be for four to five years”.

The interfaces are the same but the upstream Linux implementation allows for two different suspend modes: However, root access can be obtained by exploiting security flaws in Android, which is used frequently by the open-source community to enhance the capabilities of their devices, [] but also by malicious parties to install viruses and malware.

Android is a Linux distribution according to the Linux Foundation, [] Google’s open-source chief Chris DiBona, [] and several journalists. With the release of Android Oreo in, Google began to require that devices shipped with new SoCs had Linux kernel version 4.

Existing devices upgraded to Oreo, and new products launched with older SoCs, were exempt from this rule. On top of the Linux kernel, there are the middleware, libraries and APIs written in C, and application software running on an application framework which includes Java – compatible libraries.

Development of the Linux kernel continues independently of other Android’s source code bases. Following the trace-based JIT principle, in addition to interpreting the majority of application code, Dalvik performs the compilation and native execution of select frequently executed code segments “traces” each time an application is launched.

For its Java library, the Android platform uses a subset of the now discontinued Apache Harmony project. Bionic itself has been designed with several major features specific to the Linux kernel.

At the same time, Bionic is licensed under the terms of the BSD licence, which Google finds more suitable for the Android’s overall licensing model. Android does not have a native X Window System by default, nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries.

Since Marshmallow, ” Toybox “, a collection of command line utilities mostly for use by apps, as Android doesn’t provide a command line interface by default, replaced similar “Toolbox” collection.

Android’s source code is released by Google under an open source license, and its open nature has encouraged a large community of developers and enthusiasts to use the open-source code as a foundation for community-driven projects, which deliver updates to older devices, add new features for advanced users or bring Android to devices originally shipped with other operating systems.

Historically, device manufacturers and mobile carriers have typically been unsupportive of third-party firmware development. Manufacturers express concern about improper functioning of devices running unofficial software and the support costs resulting from this.

As a result, technical obstacles including locked bootloaders and restricted access to root permissions are common in many devices. However, as community-developed software has grown more popular, and following a statement by the Librarian of Congress in the United States that permits the ” jailbreaking ” of mobile devices, [] manufacturers and carriers have softened their position regarding third party development, with some, including HTC, [] Motorola, [] Samsung [] [] and Sony, [] providing support and encouraging development.

As a result of this, over time the need to circumvent hardware restrictions to install unofficial firmware has lessened as an increasing number of devices are shipped with unlocked or unlockable bootloaders, similar to Nexus series of phones, although usually requiring that users waive their devices’ warranties to do so.

They are reportedly able to read almost all smartphone information, including SMS, location, emails, and notes. GCHQ has, according to The Guardian, a wiki – style guide of different apps and advertising networks, and the different data that can be siphoned from each.

The documents revealed a further effort by the intelligence agencies to intercept Google Maps searches and queries submitted from Android and other smartphones to collect location information in bulk.

Research from security company Trend Micro lists premium service abuse as the most common type of Android malware, where text messages are sent from infected phones to premium-rate telephone numbers without the consent or even knowledge of the user.

Other malware displays unwanted and intrusive advertisements on the device, or sends personal information to unauthorised third parties. In August, Google announced that devices in the Google Nexus series would begin to receive monthly security patches.

Google also wrote that “Nexus devices will continue to receive major updates for at least two years and security patches for the longer of three years from initial availability or 18 months from last sale of the device via the Google Store.

Google was starting from scratch with zero percent market share, so it was happy to give up control and give everyone a seat at the table in exchange for adoption.

As such, security has become a big issue. Android still uses a software update chain-of-command designed back when the Android ecosystem had zero devices to update, and it just doesn’t work”.

And a bunch of broken promises”. They also wrote that “About half of devices in use at the end of had not received a platform security update in the previous year”, stating that their work would continue to focus on streamlining the security updates program for easier deployment by manufacturers.

Patches to bugs found in the core operating system often do not reach users of older and lower-priced devices. For example, Samsung has worked with General Dynamics through their Open Kernel Labs acquisition to rebuild Jelly Bean on top of their hardened microvisor for the “Knox” project.

Android smartphones have the ability to report the location of Wi-Fi access points, encountered as phone users move around, to build databases containing the physical locations of hundreds of millions of such access points.

These databases form electronic maps to locate smartphones, allowing them to run apps like Foursquare, Google Latitude, Facebook Places, and to deliver location-based ads. Android applications run in a sandbox, an isolated area of the system that does not have access to the rest of the system’s resources, unless access permissions are explicitly granted by the user when the application is installed, however this may not be possible for pre-installed apps.

It is not possible, for example, to turn off the microphone access of the pre-installed camera app without disabling the camera completely. This is valid also in Android versions 7 and 8.

Since February, Google has used its Google Bouncer malware scanner to watch over and scan apps available in the Google Play store. Before installing an application, the Google Play store displays a list of the requirements an app needs to function.

After reviewing these permissions, the user can choose to accept or refuse them, installing the application only if they accept. An opt-in system is used instead, in which users are prompted to grant or deny individual permissions to an app when they are needed for the first time.

Applications remember the grants, which can be revoked by the user at any time. Pre-installed apps, however, are not always part of this approach. In some cases it may not be possible to deny certain permissions to pre-installed apps, nor be possible to disable them.

The Google Play Services app cannot be uninstalled, nor disabled. Any force stop attempt, result in the app restarting itself. Permissions can still be revoked for those apps, though this might prevent them from working properly, and a warning is displayed to that effect.

Nova wrote that “The Android operating system deals with software packages by sandboxing them; this does not allow applications to list the directory contents of other apps to keep the system safe.

By not allowing the antivirus to list the directories of other apps after installation, applications that show no inherent suspicious behavior when downloaded are cleared as safe.

The study by Fraunhofer AISEC, examining antivirus software from Avast, AVG, Bitdefender, ESET, F-Secure, Kaspersky, Lookout, McAfee formerly Intel Security, Norton, Sophos, and Trend Micro, revealed that “the tested antivirus apps do not provide protection against customized malware or targeted attacks”, and that “the tested antivirus apps were also not able to detect malware which is completely unknown to date but does not make any efforts to hide its malignity”.

In August, Google announced Android Device Manager renamed Find My Device in May, [] [] a service that allows users to remotely track, locate, and wipe their Android device, [] [] with an Android app for the service released in December.

The source code for Android is open-source: Google publishes most of the code including network and telephony stacks under the non-copyleft Apache License version 2. Associated Linux kernel changes are released under the copyleft GNU General Public License version 2, developed by the Open Handset Alliance, with the source code publicly available at all times.

Typically, Google collaborates with a hardware manufacturer to produce a flagship device part of the Nexus series featuring the new version of Android, then makes the source code available after that device has been released.

The reason, according to Andy Rubin in an official Android blog post, was because Honeycomb was rushed for production of the Motorola Xoom, [] and they did not want third parties creating a “really bad user experience” by attempting to put onto smartphones a version of Android intended for tablets.

These applications must be licensed from Google by device makers, and can only be shipped on devices which meet its compatibility guidelines and other requirements. Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation have been critical of Android and have recommended the usage of alternatives such as Replicant, because drivers and firmware vital for the proper functioning of Android devices are usually proprietary, and because the Google Play Store application can forcibly install or deinstall applications and, as a result, invite non-free software; although the Free Software Foundation has not found Google to use it for malicious reasons.

Google licenses their Google Mobile Services software, along with Android trademarks, only to hardware manufacturers for devices that meet Google’s compatibility standards specified in the Android Compatibility Program document.

Moreover, open-source variants of some applications also exclude functions that are present in their non-free versions, such as Photosphere panoramas in Camera, and a Google Now page on the default home screen exclusive to the proprietary version “Google Now Launcher”, whose code is embedded within that of the main Google application.

Apps that do not utilize Google components would also be at a functional disadvantage, as they can only utilize APIs contained within the OS itself. In March, it was reported that Google had begun to block “uncertified” Android devices from utilizing Google Mobile Services software, and display a warning indicating that “the device manufacturer has preloaded Google apps and services without certification from Google”.

Alibaba Group defended the allegations, arguing that the OS was a distinct platform from Android primarily using HTML5 apps, but incorporated portions of Android’s platform to allow backwards compatibility with third-party Android software.

Indeed, the devices did ship with an application store which offered Android apps; however, the majority of them were pirated. Android received a lukewarm reaction when it was unveiled in Although analysts were impressed with the respected technology companies that had partnered with Google to form the Open Handset Alliance, it was unclear whether mobile phone manufacturers would be willing to replace their existing operating systems with Android.

Nokia was quoted as saying “we don’t see this as a threat,” and a member of Microsoft’s Windows Mobile team stated “I don’t understand the impact that they are going to have.

Since then Android has grown to become the most widely used smartphone operating system [] [] and “one of the fastest mobile experiences available. As a result, it has been described by technology website Ars Technica as “practically the default operating system for launching new hardware” for companies without their own mobile platforms.

Android allows extensive customisation of devices by their owners and apps are freely available from non-Google app stores and third party websites. These have been cited as among the main advantages of Android phones over others.

Despite Android’s popularity, including an activation rate three times that of iOS, there have been reports that Google has not been able to leverage their other products and web services successfully to turn Android into the money maker that analysts had expected.

Android has suffered from “fragmentation”, [] a situation where the variety of Android devices, in terms of both hardware variations and differences in the software running on them, makes the task of developing applications that work consistently across the ecosystem harder than rival platforms such as iOS where hardware and software varies less.

For example, according to data from OpenSignal in July, there were 11, models of Android device, numerous different screen sizes and eight Android OS versions simultaneously in use, while the large majority of iOS users have upgraded to the latest iteration of that OS.

They maintain this forces Android developers to write for the “lowest common denominator” to reach as many users as possible, who have too little incentive to make use of the latest hardware or software features only available on a smaller percentage of devices.

Research company Canalys estimated in the second quarter of, that Android had a 2. By the third quarter of, Gartner estimated that more than half In July, Google said that, Android devices were being activated every day, [] up from, per day in May, [] and more than million devices had been activated [] with 4.

Android market share varies by location. In April Android had 1. Android devices account for more than half of smartphone sales in most markets, including the US, while “only in Japan was Apple on top” September—November numbers.

Three billion Android smartphones are estimated to be sold by the end of including previous years. According to Gartner research company, Android-based devices outsold all contenders, every year since According to StatCounter, which tracks only the use for browsing the web, Android is the most popular mobile operating system since August According to StatCounter, Android is most used on mobile in all African countries, and it stated “mobile usage has already overtaken desktop in several countries including India, South Africa and Saudi Arabia”, [] with virtually all countries in Africa having done so already except for seven countries, including Egypt, such as Ethiopia and Kenya in which mobile including tablets usage is at While Android phones in the Western world commonly include Google’s proprietary add-ons such as Google Play to the otherwise open-source operating system, this is increasingly not the case in emerging markets; “ABI Research claims that 65 million devices shipped globally with open-source Android in the second quarter of [], up from 54 million in the first quarter”; depending on country, percent of phones estimated to be based only on AOSP source code, forgoing the Android trademark: According to a January Gartner report, “Android surpassed a billion shipments of devices in, and will continue to grow at a double-digit pace in, with a 26 percent increase year over year.

Gartner expected the whole mobile phone market to “reach two billion units in “, including Android. According to a Statistica ‘s estimate, Android smartphones had an installed base of 1.

In the second quarter of, Android’s share of the global smartphone shipment market was According to an April StatCounter report, Android overtook Microsoft Windows to become the most popular operating system for total Internet usage.

In September, Google announced that Android had 1. Despite its success on smartphones, initially Android tablet adoption was slow. Due to the lack of Android tablet-specific applications in, early Android tablets had to make do with existing smartphone applications that were ill-suited to larger screen sizes, whereas the dominance of Apple’s iPad was reinforced by the large number of tablet-specific iOS applications.

This approach, such as with the Dell Streak, failed to gain market traction with consumers as well as damaging the early reputation of Android tablets. An exception was the Amazon Kindle Fire, which relied upon lower pricing as well as access to Amazon’s ecosystem of applications and content.

As of the end of, over According to StatCounter’s web use statistics, as of August 15, , Android tablets represent the majority of tablet devices used in South America It can now be as integral to your mobile portfolio as Apple ‘s iOS devices are”.

Charts in this section provide breakdowns of Android versions, based on devices accessing the Google Play Store in a seven-day period ending on February 5, In general, paid Android applications can easily be pirated.

In, Google released a tool for validating authorized purchases for use within apps, but developers complained that this was insufficient and trivial to crack. Google responded that the tool, especially its initial release, was intended as a sample framework for developers to modify and build upon depending on their needs, not as a finished piracy solution.

The success of Android has made it a target for patent and copyright litigation between technology companies, both Android and Android phone manufacturers having been involved in numerous patent lawsuits.

On August 12, , Oracle sued Google over claimed infringement of copyrights and patents related to the Java programming language. They said that Android’s Java runtime environment is based on Apache Harmony, a clean room implementation of the Java class libraries, and an independently developed virtual machine called Dalvik.

In December, Google announced that the next major release of Android Android Nougat would switch to OpenJDK, which is the official open-source implementation of the Java platform, instead of using the now-discontinued Apache Harmony project as its runtime.

Code reflecting this change was also posted to the AOSP source repository. In addition to lawsuits against Google directly, various proxy wars have been waged against Android indirectly by targeting manufacturers of Android devices, with the effect of discouraging manufacturers from adopting the platform by increasing the costs of bringing an Android device to market.

Google has publicly expressed its frustration for the current patent landscape in the United States, accusing Apple, Oracle and Microsoft of trying to take down Android through patent litigation, rather than innovating and competing with better products and services.

In, FairSearch, a lobbying organization supported by Microsoft, Oracle and others, filed a complaint regarding Android with the European Commission, alleging that its free-of-charge distribution model constituted anti-competitive predatory pricing.

Google has developed several variations of Android for specific use cases, including Android Wear, later renamed Wear OS, for wearable devices such as wrist watches, [] [] Android TV for televisions, [] [] and Android Things for smart devices and Internet of things.

The open and customizable nature of Android allows device makers to use it on other electronics as well, including laptops, netbooks, [] [] and desktop computers, [] cameras, [] headphones, [] home automation systems, game consoles, [] media players, [] satellites, [] routers, [] printers, [] payment terminals, [] automated teller machines, [] and robots.

In, Google demonstrated “Android Home”, a home automation technology which uses Android to control a range of household devices including light switches, power sockets and thermostats.

Google, he said, was thinking more ambitiously and the intention was to use their position as a cloud services provider to bring Google products into customers’ homes. Parrot unveiled an Android-based car stereo system known as Asteroid in, [] followed by a successor, the touchscreen-based Asteroid Smart, in In December, one reviewer commented that Android’s notification system is “vastly more complete and robust than in most environments” and that Android is “absolutely usable” as one’s primary desktop operating system.

The software is available for developers, and was released in The mascot of Android is a green android robot, as related to the software’s name. Although it has no official name, the Android team at Google reportedly call it “Bugdroid”.

It was designed by then-Google graphic designer Irina Blok on November 5, when Android was announced. Contrary to reports that she was tasked with a project to create an icon, [] Blok confirmed in an interview that she independently developed it and made it open source.

The robot design was initially not presented to Google, but it quickly became commonplace in the Android development team, with various different variations of it created by the developers there who liked the figure, as it was free under a Creative Commons license.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other things called “android”, see Android disambiguation. List of features in Android. Android software development and Google Play.

Usage share of operating systems. Ice Cream Sandwich 0. Google, Smartphone wars, and Patent troll. Alphabet portal Free software portal Google portal. Archived from the original on December 14, Retrieved December 15, Archived from the original on March 5, Retrieved March 11, Archived from the original on August 17, Retrieved March 9, Archived from the original on August 22, Retrieved September 5, Internationalization Multi-locale support [..

Coupled with allowing you to select multiple languages preferences, Android Nougat allows you to select from new languages and 25 locales for commonly used languages such as English, Spanish, French, and Arabic.

This enables Apps to better support and understanding your language preferences even if your devices lacks official support for it. Archived from the original on December 17, Archived from the original on January 21, Archived from the original on March 14, Archived from the original on March 4, Archived from the original on February 9, Archived from the original on March 19, Archived from the original on December 15, Archived from the original on January 4, Retrieved January 3, Archived from the original on November 9, Retrieved November 9, Past, Present, and Future”.

Archived from the original on March 13, Retrieved March 12, Archived from the original on February 5, We aimed to make a camera OS”. Archived from the original on May 10, Retrieved May 9, Archived from the original on April 29, How a flailing startup became the world’s biggest computing platform”.

Archived from the original on May 20, The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 6, Archived from the original on March 12, The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on July 29, Retrieved July 24, The Record Bergen County.

Retrieved February 21, And don’t hold your breath, but the same cell phone-obsessed tech watchers say it won’t be long before Google jumps headfirst into the phone biz.

Archived from the original on February 11, Archived from the original on March 25, Archived from the original on June 23, Archived from the original on March 2, Archived from the original on June 22, Archived from the original on March 17, Here’s why Google names the OS after sweets”.

Archived from the original on June 24, Archived from the original on December 26, Archived from the original on November 29, Archived from the original on January 14, Archived from the original on February 23, Archived from the original on November 1, Archived from the original on November 3, Retrieved March 13, Archived from the original on May 11, Archived from the original on January 6, Archived from the original on October 11, Retrieved October 12, Android Open Source Project.

Archived from the original on January 25, Archived from the original on February 16, Archived from the original on February 19, Archived from the original on March 31, Archived from the original on May 1, Archived from the original on January 8, Archived from the original on March 22, Archived from the original on December 8, Archived from the original on May 3, Archived from the original on March 21, Archived from the original on March 29, Archived from the original on May 17, Retrieved May 22, Archived from the original on May 22, Archived from the original on June 13, Archived from the original on February 10, Controlling open source by any means necessary”.

Archived from the original on March 10, Archived from the original on March 28, Retrieved March 28, Archived from the original on January 2, Retrieved January 2, Archived from the original on May 30, Retrieved June 4, Archived from the original on October 17, Retrieved November 16, Archived from the original on June 28, Retrieved May 15, Retrieved February 20, Archived from the original on October 23, Retrieved October 30, Archived from the original PDF on February 22, Retrieved April 15, Stop Using Task Killer Apps”.

Archived from the original on February 17, Professional Android 4 Application Development. Archived from the original on November 5, Retrieved November 2, Archived from the original on January 30, Archived from the original on March 6, MIPS gets sweet with Honeycomb”.

Archived from the original on January 24, Retrieved February 9, Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved June 19, Archived from the original on October 31, Archived from the original PDF on March 4, Archived from the original on October 10, Retrieved November 15, Archived from the original on January 23, Retrieved March 21, Archived from the original on October 28, Retrieved November 1, Archived from the original on September 27, Retrieved September 22, Now powered by Android Marshmallow.

Archived from the original on April 7, Retrieved April 7, How to install Android on your PC”. Archived from the original on November 12, Archived from the original on September 29, Archived from the original on December 22, Retrieved December 22, Archived from the original on July 13, Archived from the original on January 7, Android M tomorrow, Android N in “.

Archived from the original on December 25, Archived from the original on August 10, Retrieved September 3, Google announces release of the next version of Android 8″. Archived from the original on September 3, Archived from the original on March 3, There’s blame enough to go around”.

Archived from the original on April 3, Retrieved April 3, Archived from the original on June 14, Archived from the original on February 13, Google is defragging Android”.

Archived from the original on March 30, Retrieved March 15, Android OEMs to be ranked, shamed by update speed”. Archived from the original on March 16, Google pressuring OEMs and carriers to speed up Android updates, security patches”.

Archived from the original on December 3, Retrieved November 10, Linux kernel LTS releases are now good for 6 years”. Archived from the original on November 11, Archived from the original on June 27, Retrieved June 26, Archived from the original on May 27, Retrieved June 20,

Free alcatel app 198 file 3g download hindi idea one touch smartphone questions

Huawei also partnered with Google to build the Nexus 6P in Android Open Source Project. Archived from the original on April 2, Archived from the original on March 29, Google announces major incremental upgrades to Android on a yearly basis. The company also announced that SaskTel would carry its new Ascend Y smartphone. Archived from the original on October 2,

In the second quarter of, Android’s share of the global smartphone shipment market was Apps that do not utilize Google components would also be at a functional disadvantage, as they can only utilize APIs contained within the OS itself. Retrieved December 31,

These databases form electronic maps to locate smartphones, allowing them to run apps like Foursquare, Google Latitude, Facebook Places, and to deliver location-based ads. Archived from the original on March 8, It was by far the most powerful switch available in China at the time. Although it has no official name, the Android team at Google reportedly call it “Bugdroid”.

See…

844 845 846 847 848

 

Free download download alcatel touch file hindi idea app smartphone one 3g 198 adobe flash player

Archived from the original on September 3, In the US, officials and politicians within the federal government have raised concerns that Huawei-made telecommunications equipment may be designed to allow unauthorized access by the Chinese government and the Chinese People’s Liberation Army, [] [] [] [] given that Ren Zhengfei, the founder of the company, served as an engineer in the army in the early s. Archived from the original on April 22, See…

(c) 2017 http://sawron. com. Theme: / and Http://sawron. com/.

Related posts

Leave a Comment