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Players usually regain fate points between sessions when a refresh occurs. Beberapa pengembang Android di Google mengisyaratkan bahwa “tim Android sudah mulai jenuh dengan proses ini”, karena mereka hanyalah tim kecil dan dipaksa untuk melakukan pekerjaan yang mendesak demi keberlangsungan Android. Sifat sumber terbuka Android memungkinkan perusahaan keamanan untuk menyesuaikan perangkat dengan penggunaan yang sangat aman. However, one of the real strengths of Intimidation is at the first flash of contact, when people instinctively get out of the way of someone intimidating. Sebagian besar perangkat mampu menerima pembaruan OTA.

Pembelian aplikasi yang tidak sesuai dengan keinginan pengguna dapat dikembalikan dalam waktu 15 menit setelah pengunduhan. Beberapa operator seluler juga menawarkan tagihan langsung untuk pembelian aplikasi di Google Play dengan cara menambahkan harga pembelian aplikasi pada tagihan bulanan pengguna.

Pada bulan September, ada lebih dari Aplikasi Android dikembangkan dalam bahasa pemrograman dengan menggunakan kit SDK. SDK ini terdiri dari seperangkat perkakas pengembangan, termasuk, , emulator handset yang berbasis, dokumentasi, kode sampel, dan tutorial.

Dalam rangka menghadapi, perangkat Android yang dijual di RRT umumnya disesuaikan dengan layanan yang disetujui oleh negara. Karena perangkat Android umumnya bertenaga, Android dirancang untuk mengelola memori guna menjaga konsumsi daya minimal, berbeda dengan sistem operasi desktop yang bisa terhubung pada sumber daya tak terbatas.

Cara ini memiliki manfaat ganda, tidak hanya meningkatkan respon perangkat Android karena aplikasi tidak perlu ditutup dan dibuka kembali dari awal setiap saat, tetapi juga memastikan bahwa aplikasi yang berjalan di latar belakang tidak menghabiskan daya secara sia-sia.

Android mengelola aplikasi yang tersimpan di memori secara otomatis: Proses ini tidak terlihat oleh pengguna, jadi pengguna tidak perlu mengelola memori atau menonaktifkan aplikasi secara manual.

Namun, kebingungan pengguna atas pengelolaan memori pada Android telah menyebabkan munculnya beberapa aplikasi task killer pihak ketiga yang populer di Google Play. Ada juga dukungan untuk dari proyek, dan menggunakan versi x86 khusus Android.

Pada tahun, mengumumkan melibatkan Android dalam prosesor buatannya, yakni seri i. Pada, prosesor juga mulai muncul pada platform utama Android, misalnya pada telepon seluler. Beberapa komponen perangkat keras tidak diperlukan, namun sudah menjadi standar di perangkat tertentu.

Beberapa fitur awalnya dibutuhkan sebagai persyaratan, namun kemudian ditiadakan. Setelah Android menjadi OS telepon pintar, beberapa perangkat keras, seperti, lambat laun berubah menjadi perangkat opsional.

Selain itu, ditetapkan sebagai perangkat wajib bagi ponsel-ponsel Android. Perangkat Android menggabungkan berbagai komponen perangkat keras opsional, termasuk kamera video, , sensor orientasi perangkat keras, kontrol permainan, akselerometer, giroskop, barometer, magnetometer, sensor proksimitas, sensor tekanan, termometer, dan.

Beberapa aplikasi secara eksplisit mengharuskan versi tertentu dari OpenGL ES, sehingga perangkat keras GPU yang cocok diperlukan bagi perangkat Android untuk menjalankan aplikasi tertentu.

Android dikembangkan secara pribadi oleh Google sampai perubahan terbaru dan pembaruan siap untuk dirilis, dan informasi mengenai kode sumber juga mulai diungkapkan kepada publik. Kode sumber ini hanya akan berjalan tanpa modifikasi pada perangkat tertentu, biasanya pada seri.

Ada tersendiri yang disediakan oleh produsen agar Android bisa beroperasi. Logo Android yang berwarna hijau awalnya dirancang untuk Google pada tahun oleh desainer grafis Irina Blok. Tim desain ditugaskan dengan sebuah proyek untuk membuat sebuah ikon universal yang mudah dikenali dengan menyertakan ikon secara spesifik dalam desain akhir.

Setelah sejumlah perkembangan desain yang didasarkan pada tema-tema dan film luar angkasa, tim akhirnya mendapat inspirasi dari simbol manusia yang terdapat di pintu toilet, dan memodifikasi bentuknya menjadi bentuk robot.

Karena Android adalah perangkat lunak, disepakati bahwa logo tersebut juga harus terbuka, dan sejak diluncurkan, logo hijau tersebut telah didesain ulang kembali dalam berbagai variasi yang tak terhitung jumlahnya.

Google menyediakan pembaruan utama bagi versi Android, dengan jangka waktu setiap enam sampai sembilan bulan. Sebagian besar perangkat mampu menerima pembaruan OTA.

Pembaruan utama terbaru adalah Android 6. Dibandingkan dengan sistem operasi seluler saingan utamanya, yaitu, pembaruan Android biasanya lebih lambat diterima oleh perangkat penggunanya. Untuk perangkat selain merek Nexus, pembaruan biasanya baru bisa diterima dalam waktu berbulan-bulan setelah dirilisnya versi resmi.

Hal ini disebabkan oleh banyaknya variasi Android, sehingga setiap pembaruan harus disesuaikan secara khusus, misalnya: Android pada perangkat keras tertentu yang dilakukan oleh produsen telepon seluler membutuhkan waktu dan proses, para produsen ini umumnya mengutamakan perangkat terbaru mereka untuk menerima pembaruan, dan mengenyampingkan perangkat lama.

Oleh sebab itu, telepon pintar lama seringkali tidak diperbarui jika produsen memutuskan bahwa itu hanya menghabiskan waktu, meskipun sebenarnya perangkat tersebut mampu menerima pembaruan.

Masalah ini diperparah ketika produsen menyesuaikan Android dengan antarmuka dan aplikasi ciptaan mereka, yang mana ini harus diterapkan kembali untuk setiap perilisan terbaru.

Penundaan lainnya juga bisa disebabkan oleh operator nirkabel; setelah menerima pembaruan dari produsen ponsel, operator akan menyesuaikannya dengan kebutuhan mereka, misalnya melakukan pengujian ekstensif terhadap jaringan sebelum mengirim pembaruan kepada pengguna.

Kurangnya dukungan pasca-penjualan dari produsen ponsel dan operator telah menimbulkan kritikan dari para konsumen dan media teknologi. Beberapa pengkritik menyatakan bahwa industri memiliki motif keuangan untuk tidak memperbarui perangkat mereka, seperti tidak adanya pembaruan bagi perangkat lama dan memperbarui perangkat yang baru dengan tujuan meningkatkan penjualan, sikap yang mereka sebut “menghina”.

Pada, Google, yang bekerja sama dengan sejumlah perusahaan industri, membentuk “Android Update Alliance”, dengan janji bahwa mereka akan memberikan pembaruan secara tepat waktu bagi setiap perangkat dalam jangka 18 bulan setelah dirilisnya versi resmi.

Sejak didirikan hingga tahun, organisasi ini tak pernah disebut-sebut lagi. Google kemudian mulai memperbarui aplikasinya, termasuk dan, sebagai aplikasi independen yang terpisah dari Android, dan juga memperkenalkan komponen tingkat-sistem yang menyediakan bagi aplikasi Google, yang terpasang otomatis dan diperbarui secara langsung oleh Google melalui, serta mendukung hampir semua perangkat Android dengan versi di atas 2.

Hingga November, Android menggunakan yang berbasis versi 3. Android menggunakan dengan untuk menjalankan ‘dex-code’ Dalvik Dalvik Executable, biasanya diterjemahkan dari.

Arsitektur kernel Linux pada Android telah diubah oleh Google, berbeda dengan siklus pengembangan kernel Linux biasa. Secara standar, Android tidak memiliki asli ataupun dukungan set lengkap dari perpustakaan standar.

Oleh sebab itu, sulit untuk mem perpustakaan atau aplikasi Linux pada Android. Dukungan untuk aplikasi simpel C dan bisa dilakukan dengan cara menginjeksi Java dan menggunakan, misalnya pada port untuk Android.

Salah satu fitur yang coba disumbangkan oleh Google untuk kernel Linux adalah fitur manajemen daya yang disebut “wakelocks”, namun fitur ini ditolak oleh pengembang kernel utama karena mereka merasa bahwa Google tidak menunjukkan niatnya untuk mengembangkan kodenya sendiri.

Pada bulan April, Google mengumumkan bahwa mereka akan menyewa dua karyawan untuk mengembangkan komunitas kernel Linux, namun, , pengelola kernel Linux versi stabil, menyatakan pada bulan Desember ; ia khawatir bahwa Google tak lagi berusaha untuk mengubah kode utama Linux.

Beberapa pengembang Android di Google mengisyaratkan bahwa “tim Android sudah mulai jenuh dengan proses ini”, karena mereka hanyalah tim kecil dan dipaksa untuk melakukan pekerjaan yang mendesak demi keberlangsungan Android.

Pada Agustus, menyatakan: Pada Desember, Greg Kroah-Hartman mengumumkan dimulainya Android Mainlining Project, yang bertujuan untuk mengembalikan beberapa, patch, dan fitur Android pada kernel Linux, yang dimulai dengan Linux 3.

Setelah upaya sebelumnya gagal, Linux akhirnya menyertakan fitur wakelocks dan autosleep pada kernel 3. Antarmukanya masih sama, namun implementasi Linux yang baru memiliki dua mode suspend penangguhan berbeda: Penyertaan fitur baru ini akan rampung pada Kernel 3.

Namun, akses root dapat diperoleh dengan cara memanfaatkan kelemahan keamanan pada Android, cara ini sering digunakan oleh untuk meningkatkan kinerja perangkat mereka, namun juga bisa dimanfaatkan oleh pihak yang tidak bertanggungjawab untuk menyebarkan dan.

Terkait dengan masalah apakah Android bisa digolongkan ke dalam distribusi Linux masih diperdebatkan secara luas. Sedangkan yang lainnya, seperti teknisi Google Patrick Brady, menentangnya, ia beralasan bahwa Android kurang mendukung sebagian besar perkakas, termasuk.

Android memiliki komunitas pengembang dan penggemar aktif yang menggunakan kode sumber Android untuk mengembangkan dan mendistribusikan versi modifikasi Android buatan mereka.

Mereka berupaya untuk terus memberikan dukungan bagi perangkat-perangkat lama yang tak lagi menerima pembaruan resmi, ataupun memodifikasi perangkat Android agar bisa berjalan dengan menggunakan sistem operasi lain, misalnya.

Komunitas ini seringkali merilis pembaruan bagi perangkat pra-, dan berisi modifikasi yang tidak cocok bagi pengguna non-teknis, misalnya kemampuan untuk atau prosesor perangkat.

Secara historis, produsen perangkat dan operator seluler biasanya tidak mendukung pengembangan firmware oleh pihak ketiga. Produsen khawatir bahwa akan muncul fungsi yang tidak sesuai jika perangkat menggunakan yang tidak resmi, sehingga akan menyebabkan munculnya biaya tambahan.

Selain itu, firmware modifikasi seperti CyanogenMod kadang-kadang menawarkan fitur yang membuat operator harus mengeluarkan biaya premium, misalnya. Akibatnya, kendala teknis seperti terkuncinya bootloader dan terbatasnya akses root umumnya bisa ditemui di kebanyakan perangkat Android.

Namun, perangkat lunak buatan komunitas pengembang semakin populer, dan setelah Kongres Pustakawan Amerika Serikat mengizinkan “” perangkat seluler, produsen ponsel dan operator mulai memperlunak sikap mereka terhadap pengembang pihak ketiga.

Beberapa produsen ponsel, termasuk, , dan, mulai memberikan dukungan dan mendorong pengembangan perangkat lunak pihak ketiga. Sebagai hasilnya, kendala untuk memasang tidak resmi mulai berkurang secara bertahap setelah meningkatnya jumlah perangkat yang memiliki kemampuan untuk membuka bootloader, sama dengan seri ponsel Nexus, meskipun pengguna harus kehilangan perangkat mereka jika melakukannya.

Akan tetapi, meskipun produsen ponsel telah menyetujui pengembangan perangkat lunak pihak ketiga, beberapa operator seluler di masih mewajibkan ponsel penggunanya untuk “dikunci”.

Kemampuan untuk membuka dan meretas sistem pada telepon pintar dan tablet terus menjadi sumber perdebatan antar komunitas pengembang dan industri; komunitas beralasan bahwa pengembangan tidak resmi dilakukan karena industri gagal memberikan pembaruan yang tepat waktu bagi pengguna, atau untuk tetap melanjutkan dukungan versi terbaru bagi perangkat lama mereka.

Aplikasi Android berjalan di, sebuah area terisolasi yang tidak memiliki akses pada sistem, kecuali izin akses yang secara eksplisit diberikan oleh pengguna ketika memasang aplikasi.

Sebelum memasang aplikasi, akan menampilkan semua izin yang diperlukan, misalnya: Setelah meninjau izin tersebut, pengguna dapat memilih untuk menerima atau menolaknya, dan bisa memasang aplikasi hanya jika mereka menerimanya.

Sistem sandbox dan perizinan pada Android bisa mengurangi dampak kerentanan terhadap pada aplikasi, namun ketidaktahuan pengembang dan terbatasnya dokumentasi telah menghasilkan aplikasi yang secara rutin meminta izin yang tidak perlu, sehingga mengurangi efektivitasnya.

Beberapa perusahaan keamanan perangkat lunak seperti, , , dan, telah merilis perangkat lunak antivirus ciptaan mereka untuk perangkat Android. Perangkat lunak ini sebenarnya tidak bekerja secara efektif karena sandbox juga bekerja pada aplikasi tersebut, sehingga membatasi kemampuannya untuk memindai sistem secara lebih mendalam.

Hasil penelitian perusahaan keamanan menunjukkan bahwa penyalahgunaan layanan premium adalah tipe malware paling umum yang menyerang Android; pesan teks akan dikirim dari ponsel yang telah terinfeksi ke nomor telepon premium tanpa persetujuan atau sepengetahuan pengguna.

Perangkat perusak lainnya akan menampilkan iklan yang tidak diinginkan pada perangkat, atau mengirim informasi pribadi pada pihak ketiga yang tak berwenang. Ancaman keamanan pada Android dilaporkan tumbuh secara bertahap, namun teknisi di Google menyatakan bahwa perangkat perusak dan ancaman virus pada Android hanya dibesar-besarkan oleh perusahaan antivirus untuk alasan komersial, dan menuduh industri antivirus memanfaatkan situasi tersebut untuk menjual produknya kepada pengguna.

Google baru-baru ini menggunakan pemindai perangkat perusak untuk mengawasi dan memindai aplikasi di Google Play. Tindakan ini bertujuan untuk menandai aplikasi yang mencurigakan dan memperingatkan pengguna atas potensi masalah pada aplikasi sebelum mereka mengunduhnya.

Sistem akan memberikan peringatan yang memberitahukan pengguna ketika aplikasi mencoba mengirim pesan teks premium, dan memblokir pesan tersebut, kecuali jika pengguna mengizinkannya. Telepon pintar Android memiliki kemampuan untuk melaporkan lokasi titik akses, terutama jika pengguna sedang bepergian, untuk menciptakan basis data yang berisi lokasi fisik dari ratusan juta titik akses tersebut.

Basis data ini membentuk peta elektronik yang bisa memosisikan lokasi telepon pintar. Hal ini memungkinkan pengguna untuk menjalankan aplikasi seperti, , , dan untuk mengirimkan iklan berbasis lokasi.

Beberapa perangkat lunak pemantau pihak ketiga juga bisa mendeteksi saat informasi pribadi dikirim dari aplikasi ke server jarak jauh. Sifat sumber terbuka Android memungkinkan perusahaan keamanan untuk menyesuaikan perangkat dengan penggunaan yang sangat aman.

Misalnya, Samsung bekerja sama dengan General Dynamics melalui proyek “Knox”. Mereka bisa membaca hampir keseluruhan informasi pada telepon pintar, termasuk, lokasi, , dan catatan. Google menerbitkan sebagian besar kode termasuk kode jaringan dan telepon di bawah versi 2.

Sisanya, perubahan berada di bawah versi 2. Selebihnya, Android dikembangkan secara pribadi oleh, dengan kode sumber yang diterbitkan untuk umum ketika versi baru diluncurkan.

Biasanya Google bekerja sama dengan produsen perangkat keras untuk mengembangkan sebuah perangkat “andalan” misalnya seri Google Nexus yang disertai dengan versi baru Android, kemudian menerbitkan kode sumbernya setelah perangkat tersebut dirilis.

Pada awal, Google memilih untuk menahan sementara kode sumber Android untuk tablet yang dirilis dengan versi 3. Menurut dalam sebuah posting blog resmi Android, alasannya karena Honeycomb dirilis untuk berjalan pada produk, dan Google tidak ingin pihak ketiga “memperburuk pengalaman pengguna” dengan mencoba mengoperasikan versi Android yang ditujukan untuk tablet pada telepon pintar.

Kode sumber tersebut akhirnya dipublikasikan pada bulan November dengan dirilisnya Android 4. Meskipun bersifat terbuka, produsen perangkat tidak bisa menggunakan Android Google seenaknya, kecuali Google menyatakan bahwa perangkat tersebut sesuai dengan Compatibility Definition Document CDD mereka.

Perangkat juga harus memenuhi lisensi persyaratan aplikasi sumber tertutup Google, termasuk. Mereka berpendapat bahwa dan yang diperlukan untuk mengoperasikan Android bersifat eksklusif, dan Google Play juga menawarkan perangkat lunak.

Android disambut dengan hangat ketika diresmikan pada tahun Meskipun para analis terkesan dengan perusahaan teknologi ternama yang bermitra dengan Google untuk membentuk Open Handset Alliance, masih diragukan apakah para produsen ponsel akan bersedia mengganti sistem operasinya dengan Android.

Gagasan mengenai sumber terbuka dan berbasis Linux telah menarik minat para pakar teknologi, tetapi juga muncul kekhawatiran mengenai persaingan ketat yang akan dihadapi Android dengan pemain mapan di pasar telepon pintar seperti dan.

Nokia menanggapinya dengan menyatakan: Android dengan cepat tumbuh menjadi telepon pintar yang paling banyak digunakan, dan menjadi “salah satu sistem operasi seluler tercepat yang pernah ada.

Alhasil, situs teknologi menyebut Android sebagai “sistem operasi standar untuk meluncurkan perangkat keras baru” bagi perusahaan tanpa harus memiliki platform seluler sendiri.

Sifat Android yang terbuka dan fleksibel juga dinikmati oleh pengguna: Android memungkinkan penggunanya untuk mengkustomisasi perangkatnya secara ekstensif, dan aplikasi juga tersedia bebas di toko aplikasi non-Google dan di situs-situs pihak ketiga.

Faktor ini menjadi salah satu keunggulan yang dimiliki oleh ponsel Android jika dibandingkan dengan ponsel lainnya. Meskipun Android sangat populer, dengan tingkat aktivasi perangkat tiga kali lipat lebih tinggi dari, ada laporan yang menyatakan bahwa Google belum mampu memanfaatkan produk mereka secara maksimal, dan layanan web pada akhirnya mengubah Android menjadi penghasil uang, seperti yang telah diperkirakan oleh para analis sebelumnya.

SVP Google, , yang posisinya sebagai kepala divisi Android digantikan pada bulan Maret, disalahkan karena gagal dalam membangun kemitraan yang sehat dengan para produsen ponsel.

Pemimpin utama produk-produk Android di pasar global adalah ; salah satu produknya, , berperan penting dalam pengenalan merek Android sejak tahun Sedangkan produsen ponsel Android lainnya seperti LG, HTC, dan milik Google, telah berjuang keras untuk memasarkan produknya sejak tahun Ironisnya, di saat Google tidak mendapatkan apapun dari hasil penjualan produk Android secara langsung, dan malah berhasil memenangkan gugatan atas pembayaran royalti dari produsen perangkat Android.

Android juga dikatakan sangat “terfragmentasi”, yaitu suatu kondisi saat berbagai perangkat Android, baik dari segi variasi perangkat keras dan perbedaan perangkat lunak yang berjalan, ditugaskan untuk mengembangkan aplikasi agar bisa berjalan secara konsisten, lebih rumit jika dibandingkan dengan iOS, yang aplikasinya kurang bervariasi.

Sebagai contoh, menurut data pada Juli, terdapat Meskipun sukses di telepon pintar, pengadopsian Android untuk awalnya berjalan lambat. Salah satu penyebab utamanya adalah adanya situasi yang dikenal dengan “”, yaitu kondisi ketika konsumen ragu-ragu untuk membeli tablet Android karena kurangnya aplikasi tablet yang berkualitas tinggi, sementara di sisi lain, para pengembang juga ragu-ragu untuk menghabiskan waktu dan sumber daya mereka untuk mengembangkan aplikasi tablet sampai tersedianya pasar yang signifikan bagi produk tersebut.

Konten dan “ekosistem” aplikasi terbukti lebih penting jika dibandingkan dengan perangkat keras setelah dimulainya penjualan tablet. Karena kurangnya aplikasi untuk tablet pada, tablet Android awalnya terpaksa harus memasang aplikasi yang diperuntukkan bagi telepon pintar, sehingga ukuran layarnya tidak cocok dengan layar tablet yang besar.

Selain itu, lambannya pertumbuhan tablet Android juga disebabkan oleh dominasi Apple yang memiliki banyak aplikasi yang kompatibel dengan tablet. Pertumbuhan aplikasi tablet Android perlahan-lahan mulai meningkat, namun, di saat yang bersamaan, sejumlah besar tablet yang menggunakan sistem operasi lain seperti dan juga dirilis ke pasaran untuk memanfaatkan keberhasilan iPad.

InfoWorld menjuluki bisnis ini dengan sebutan “bisnis Frankenphone”; suatu peluang investasi rendah jangka pendek yang memaksakan penggunaan OS telepon pintar Android yang dioptimalkan sebelum Android 3.

Pendekatan ini gagal meraih traksi pasar dengan konsumen serta memperburuk reputasi tablet Android. Terlebih lagi, beberapa tablet Android seperti dibanderol dengan harga yang sama, atau lebih mahal dari iPad, yang semakin memperburuk penjualan.

Pengecualian ada pada, yang dijual dengan harga lebih murah dan kemampuan untuk mengakses konten dan “ekosistem” aplikasi Amazon. Hal ini mulai berubah pada tahun dengan dirilisnya, dan adanya dorongan dari Google kepada para pengembang untuk menciptakan aplikasi tablet yang lebih baik.

Pangsa pasar tablet Android akhirnya berhasil menyalip iPad pada pertengahan Pada bulan Juli, Google mengungkapkan bahwa terdapat Pada bulan September, juta perangkat Android telah diaktifkan, dengan 1,3 juta aktivasi per hari.

Pada Mei, di, Sundar Pichai mengumumkan bahwa total perangkat Android yang telah diaktifkan berjumlah juta. Pangsa pasar Android bervariasi menurut lokasi. Dari,1 juta telepon pintar yang terjual pada bulan Agustus, September, dan Oktober, sekitar juta di antaranya adalah perangkat Android.

Tabel di bawah ini menampilkan data mengenai persentase jumlah perangkat Android yang mengakses Google Play baru-baru ini, dan menjalankan Android versi tertentu hingga tanggal.

Ada beberapa kekhawatiran mengenai mudahnya aplikasi berbayar Android untuk. Pada bulan Mei, , pengembang, menyatakan bahwa rasio pemain bajakan vs pemain asli adalah 9: Pada, Google merilis sebuah alat yang berfungsi memvalidasi pembelian resmi untuk digunakan dalam aplikasi, tetapi pengembang mengeluh bahwa hal itu tidak cukup efisien.

Google menjawab bahwa alat tersebut dimaksudkan sebagai kerangka sampel bagi para pengembang untuk memodifikasi dan mengembangkannya sesuai dengan kebutuhan mereka, bukan sebagai solusi untuk mengakhiri pembajakan.

Pada tahun, Google merilis sebuah fitur dalam Android 4. Baik Android maupun produsen ponsel Android telah terlibat dalam berbagai kasus hukum. Pada tanggal 12 Agustus, menggugat Google atas tuduhan pelanggaran hak cipta dan paten yang berhubungan dengan bahasa pemrograman.

Oracle awalnya menuntut ganti rugi sebesar,1 miliar, namun tuntutan ini ditolak oleh pengadilan federal Amerika Serikat, yang meminta Oracle untuk merevisi gugatannya. Sebagai tanggapan, Google mengajukan beberapa pembelaan, mengklaim bahwa Android tidak melanggar paten atau Oracle, bahwa paten Oracle tidak valid, dan beberapa pembelaan lainnya.

Pihak Oracle menyatakan bahwa Android berbasis pada, implementasi perpustakaan kelas Java, dan secara independen mengembangkan mesin virtual yang disebut. Pada bulan Mei, juri dalam kasus ini menemukan bahwa Google tidak melanggar paten Oracle, dan hakim memutuskan bahwa struktur API Java yang digunakan oleh Google tidak memiliki hak cipta.

Selain tuntutan secara langsung terhadap Google, berbagai “” juga dilancarkan terhadap Android secara tidak langsung dengan menargetkan produsen perangkat Android, dengan tujuan untuk memperkecil peluang produsen tersebut mengadopsi platform Android dan meningkatkan biaya peluncuran produk Android ke pasaran.

Kasus pelanggaran paten antara Samsung dan Microsoft berakhir dengan kesepakatan bahwa Samsung akan mengalokasikan lebih banyak sumber daya untuk mengembangkan dan memasarkan ponsel dengan sistem operasi besutan Microsoft.

Google secara terbuka menyatakan kefrustrasiannya dalam menghadapi gugatan pelanggaran paten di Amerika Serikat, menuduh bahwa Apple, Oracle, dan Microsoft sedang berupaya untuk melemahkan kedigjayaan Android melalui litigasi paten, alih-alih berinovasi dan bersaing dengan cara menciptakan produk dan layanan yang lebih baik.

Pada, Google membeli seharga,5 miliar. Upaya ini dipandang sebagai langkah pertahanan Google untuk melindungi Android, karena Motorola Mobility memegang lebih dari Pada Desember, Google juga membeli lebih dari seribu paten dari.

Pada, Fairsearch, sebuah organisasi yang didukung oleh Microsoft, Oracle, dan lainnya, mengajukan keluhan terhadap Android pada, menyatakan bahwa distribusi perangkat Android yang bebas biaya merupakan bentuk persaingan harga anti-kompetitif.

Sifat Android yang terbuka dan bisa dikustomisasi menyebabkan sistem operasi ini juga digunakan pada perangkat elektronik lainnya, termasuk laptop dan, , , dan dan. Selain itu, sistem operasi Android juga mengembangkan aplikasinya pada kacamata pintar, jam tangan, , CD mobil dan pemutar, cermin, , , dan.

Mengontrol lampu dikatakan dapat dikendalikan dari ponsel atau tablet Android. Pimpinan Android Andy Rubin menegaskan bahwa “menyalakan dan mematikan lampu bukanlah hal yang baru, Google berpikir lebih ambisius dan tujuannya adalah untuk menggunakan posisinya sebagai penyedia jasa guna membawa produk-produk Google ke rumah pelanggan.

Pada bulan Agustus, Parrot meluncurkan sistem stereo mobil dengan platform Android, yang dikenal dengan Asteroid dan dilengkapi dengan perintah suara. Pada September, Clarion merilis sistem stereo mobil dengan platform Android yang lebih maju, yang dikenal dengan AX1 dan Mirage, menggunakan Android 2.

Berbagai perangkat lainnya, meskipun tidak menggunakan Android, juga dirancang dengan antarmuka yang berfungsi sebagai pendamping atau pelengkap bagi perangkat Android, misalnya atau. The integrated Road Research Facility IRRF is a unique research initiative committed to the evolution of sustainable roadway construction.

This behavior requires special construction considerations; the IRRF endeavors to identify these requirements and their implications. By employing innovative methods and advanced technologies, the IRRF ventures to progress engineering construction and design practices with alternate and sustainable road solutions.

We pride ourselves in being a full-service propane company, and we are even more proud to be serving the southeast Texas communities that we live in. Unlike most other propane companies in our area, Green’s Blue Flame does not charge extra fees for our services; when we quote you a price, that is the price you will pay.

Our experienced staff is dedicated to providing exceptional propane service for your home or business! Android Layar depan Android 7. Layar notifikasi pada ponsel Android yang diakses dengan menggeser dari bagian atas layar.

Dukungan resmi bit untuk semua platforms diperkenalkan dalam Android 5. The academic knows that lost, hidden, and forgotten knowledge exists all over the world. Ancient ruins, obscure libraries, mysterious artifacts — all these can offer answers to questions that have not even been asked yet.

What are you doing: You are answering questions, finding what was lost, and trying to expand the breadth of human knowledge. Though much of the map of the world is filled in, much of it remains blank or is simply wrong.

The explorer thrives on discovering who and what is in those unknown places. The khaki-clad, pith-helmeted image of the explorer is perhaps the most compelling, but the same spirit can beat in the hearts of ship captains, spelunkers, or even ambassadors.

The gadget guy is the recipient of the wonders of science. He is the keeper of a unique piece of technology, usually at the behest of its creator. The creator may or may not still be alive and serving as a patron for him and in some cases, the creator and the gadget guy are the same person!

The device in question is usually quite potent, and serves as a signature for the character — something interesting and immediately recognizable, like a jet pack, a super car, or an exotic weapon.

With great technology comes great responsibility. Your gadget has made you more capable of taking action whatever action you pursue, so you have embraced it. Crime is usually a brutish thing, fueled by necessity, but for some it is the only true challenge available.

Usually possessed of copious talents, enough that they have already found success elsewhere, gentleman criminals pursue a life of crime because of its excitement. Such characters enjoy the good life and civilization, so the adventures of exploration hold no appeal to them, especially when compared to the thrill of the chase, outwitting investigators, and similar brushes with danger.

Often, these criminals turn into sociopathic masterminds as they turn more and more to crime. But others maintain a certain basic, albeit twisted, honesty that informs their crimes. A burglar may have a strong code to harm no one, or may rob from the rich to give to the poor.

An assassin may only accept contracts on those he feels society is better off without. Most such ethical criminals can be convinced to leave their past behind them and use their talents to more challenging, world-bettering ends, but true retirement is not often in their nature.

When you find it, you seize upon it with gusto. Usually awkward in the face of civilization, these heroes act with a simpler understanding of things like justice, but with time, they can become bridges between two worlds.

There is no magic, only things science does not yet understand — and there are a lot of those. Whatever this knowledge is, it separates him from his fellow man, often so much that the hero adopts a persona to allow separation between his heroic personality and his normal life.

He may not know, himself. Whatever the agency says it is. Thankfully, that is usually exactly what the Operator would be interested in doing in the first place. When conflict eventually arises between the operator and the agency, it usually goes very badly indeed for one of them or the other.

One of the things that makes the world so much smaller is the news. A few decades back, if something happened a few states away, or anywhere else in the world, it would take time to trickle into the awareness of the average person.

You are finding out everything you can so you can share it with the world. The subject of condescension and curiosity, he is also the keeper of knowledge that has been lost, or not yet discovered, by the white man in his tall cities.

You are representing your people, looking for knowledge to take back to them, or perhaps trying to carve out a new life in exile. Thankfully, most science heroes are slightly less obvious examples of the superman incarnate.

A science hero may be very much like a gadget hero, someone who has benefited from extreme science in some way — perhaps making them a little stronger, tougher or faster than they would have been.

Such characters tend to be well rounded though rarely to the somewhat silly level of a Doc Savage himself but their specific interests are frequently tied to their origin. You do a bit of everything, taking all comers.

In pulp, everyone is a scientist. Science is the door to the future, and every educated man has an interest in it. Despite that, it is easy to spot the committed scientist, master of one or more fields, dedicating his time and effort to the pursuit of science.

Whereas other heroes seek adventure and appreciate science, the scientist seeks science and appreciates adventure. While the scientist may have richly appointed labs or shops, there is still too much to be found, too many theories to be tested, too much to do, to simply stay cooped up.

Scientists can have one or more fields of interest, which will generally be reflected by their equipment. A chemist or botanist may have a steady supply of bizarre and unique concoctions, while an engineer might have exotic gadgets or weapons.

The world is getting smaller as we watch, and aviation lies at the heart of it. Every year, the utility of planes is growing, and their range and power increases in kind. The pilot shares much of his spirit with the explorer, and in many ways is the next step in the chain of discovery.

The explorer may find an exotic locale, but it is the pilot who ties it in to the rest of the world. The Great War made pilots into dashing, romantic figures, and the commercial realities of the post-war era are making them more and more important.

Your passion is in seeing all there is to see, going to strange and exotic locales and bringing the outside world along for the ride, and taking a piece with you when you leave. Character generation takes place over five phases.

The first phase sets up their general background, concept, and early youth. The second covers the events of The Great War the common term of the time for World War I, bringing them to adulthood.

As laid out, character creation is a group activity, done at the same time, with at least three players remember, the more players for a character creation session, the better!

The character creation process includes a number of built-in ways to establish ties and history between the characters and the setting. During character creation, players are encouraged to talk out loud about their characters, make suggestions to each other, discuss how to make their characters intersect, talk about relationships and interactions between the characters, and otherwise establish some of the campaign background.

Your character could be modeled after a particular pulp hero, or could be based around some specific thing that you want to be able to do, like fly with a jetpack, blow things up, or break boards with your head.

Pulp heroes can usually be described briefly, so try to think of a concept that you can express simply. If you can express it with an exclamation point at the end, all the better!

Pulp names can be like any kind of name, but there is usually a particular cadence to them. The most common model is a short first name and a last name which is also a word usually a noun or adjective, but sometimes a proper noun will be a good fit.

Such names are more appropriate if your character also has an alias a la Lamont Cranston and The Shadow or is intentionally cultivating an aristocratic air. While youth may be a time of adventure and excitement, it is also the time when we are most shaped by our family and environs.

When describing events in this phase, consider answers to the following questions:. While the characters may technically have been too young to serve, they may have done so anyway; as exceptional individuals, it would not have been hard for them to fake their age.

Alternatively, they may have spent their time in other parts of the world, dealing with the end of colonialism, or exploring the mysterious East. This is the time when the characters start coming into their own, and begin realizing their true potential.

Each player needs to come up with a title for the novel starring his character, in a fashion reminiscent of the pulps. The general pattern is:. The Redemption Game would be ideal. Then, each player needs to think up a story to go with his title.

At the beginning of this phase, the GM writes down all the book titles on separate sheets of paper or a set of index cards, shuffles the stack, and hands them out. The title of the book a player is now holding is a book that his character had a supporting role in.

Phase five is identical to phase four, with the sole caveat that no character can costar in the same book twice. Players who join after the initial character creation session should ask for volunteers to be in their book volunteers do not get additional aspects, however.

They should also pick two books that sound interesting to costar in. Each player gets to choose skills as shown here. Any skill the character does not explicitly take defaults to Mediocre.

Each player selects five stunts for his character. At the end of the character creation exercise, each player should now have a complete character with:.

SotC characters are exceptional, and they could very easily find success in less exciting fields than those that are likely to come the way of the characters, so it is on your head to figure out why your character is going to keep getting involved in these things.

By having a character leave the adventuring life and become wealthy, powerful and successful elsewhere, they beat the system that otherwise forces them to constantly grind against an escalating scale of opposition for negligible rewards.

The thing to remember with SotC is that your character has already won. The true goal, whatever it is for the character, is something that calls for action. Once you have that pinned down, you almost definitely want to reflect it in your choice of aspects.

Aspects can be both useful and dangerous, but they should never be boring. Whenever you choose an aspect, stop a minute to think about what kinds of situations you can imagine using it for, and what kind of trouble it might get you into.

The very best aspects suggest answers to both those questions, and an aspect that can answer neither is likely to be very dull indeed. This is especially handy if the GM suggests the aspect — she probably has a pretty clear idea of what it means when she suggests it, but that idea may not be immediately obvious.

See, there are three very large problems with aspects like this: Boring is a pretty obvious problem. The latter aspect can be used for just as many good things as the former, but it also allows for a much wider range of possibilities.

And that leads to the last point. If nothing else, you have just established that the Secret Brotherhood of the Flame exists in the setting, and the GM will probably turn to you for the details.

For more extensive advice on choosing aspects, see the Aspects chapter, starting at page XX. Sometimes you simply do not have time to do a full character generation and you just want to get started.

In those situations, simply begin with a blank character sheet, and ask each player to choose the following:. This way, the player ends up filling out the skill tree over the course of play.

Similarly, the player may write in aspects and stunts at the point where they would use them. Every time you write down an aspect, take a fate point. The players give a quick blurb of a salient point from their novel and how this reminds them of it, however tenuously.

As soon as this is done, the player gains a fate point. If the player then immediately spends the FP to make a declaration about the scene, the GM may give it extra weight for falling in line with the flashback.

Athletics, Guns, Burglary, Mysteries: Characters have a set of attributes called aspects. By contrast, skills could be said to paint a similar picture of what the character can do.

Scenes also have aspects. Aspects in this context serve as a compact way to describe the relevant details of an environment, and can be used by the characters present in the scene. In terms of game rules, aspects are the main avenue by which a player gains or spends fate points, a kind of currency that can be spent for bonuses or earned when aspects cause problems for the player.

Some possible aspects for characters include:. GMs should want players to use their aspects; players should pick the ones they want to use, and GMs should encourage them to choose aspects that will be both interesting and useful.

Once a player decides on an idea for an aspect, he needs to figure out what aspect name best describes what he intends; there are usually many possible names for a desired aspect, which can make this choice somewhat difficult.

However, most of the time, an aspect is going to be a phrase, a person or a prop. Phrase aspects come into play based on how well the situation matches them; a colorful phrase adds a lot of flavor and innately suggests several different ways to use it.

This potentially makes phrase aspects some of the most flexible aspects in the game. A person can be anyone important to the character. A friend, an enemy, a family member, a sidekick, a mentor — as long as someone matters to the character, he makes an appropriate aspect.

For example, if a character has his mentor as an aspect, that aspect might be useful for things his mentor would have instructed him on. This sort of interest means time in the limelight.

And interesting comes most strongly from aspects that are neither purely good nor purely bad. As a rule of thumb, when picking an aspect, think of three situations where you can see the aspect coming into play.

This is powerful juju, and the best part is, you are in total control of it with the words you choose for your aspect. So when you pick an aspect, ask yourself: Story aspects suggest one or more sources for stories involving the character, by bringing in an external element from the world at large.

People and prop aspects are almost exclusively story aspects. You can most easily identify a story aspect by asking yourself if the aspect, independent of the character, is something other characters might interact with, affect, and change.

Strange cults, lost artifacts, enemies, hidden lairs, foreign lands, spouses, and more, all fit into this category. Situation aspects suggest the kind of situations a character might be in much more than they suggest the origin of those situations.

Phrase aspects fall strongly into this camp, and they operate as a statement to the GM of the style of stories the player wants his character to be in. You can very easily fall into the trap of creating a character who only has situation aspects.

But if situation aspects are all that your character offers to the game, you run a real risk of being difficult to hook into the bigger storyline. This is why you should be certain to include a few story aspects on your character.

Fundamentally, story aspects offer easy hooks to your GM to pull you into her story. You want this, since you came to the party to play the game. The GM will be grateful to you for it, and that kind of gratitude pays out in the form of a more satisfying game.

Out of all the things in the game, aspects are probably the clearest message you can send to the GM about what you want from the game, short of walking right up to the GM and saying so.

You want them reasonably short, because you want to be able to talk about them casually without running out of breath. Take the time with the GM to speak these unspoken things when you can.

Both the player and the GM should look at an aspect not as the end of an idea, but the start of one. Usually this works out fine — the combined perspectives make the whole greater than the sum — but sometimes the GM and the player will have a radically different idea of what the aspect entails.

Be clear with one another, and figure out how to iron out any differences — ideally, before the fate points start flying. The process of using an aspect begins by declaring that one is relevant. Either the player or the GM may make this declaration.

This is the guiding principle that all specific uses of aspects — invoking, tagging, compelling — start from. Each type of aspect use has specific rules governing how it functions, but if you ever find yourself confused about from there.

An aspect can be used to give you a bonus, when that aspect applies to the situation you are in. Doing this requires spending a fate point see below, and is called invoking the aspect. Invoking an aspect can be used to either:.

Usually this means the player must invoke an aspect that is appropriate to the situation at hand. If the player wants to invoke an inappropriate-seeming aspect, he should be given a chance to describe how the action is appropriate to the aspect.

A player can also invoke an aspect for effect, using it for a related benefit that is not related to a die roll or skill use at all. This costs a fate point like any other invocation does.

For example, a player could invoke a Secret Organization aspect to declare that the group has a chapter in town. This is subject to the same sort of restrictions as spending fate points for minor declarations see page XX but is more potent due to the focus of the aspect.

The scope of the minor declaration can be … well, less minor, and the GM is encouraged to keep this in mind. That said, this is not a method for the players to get away with anything; as always, aspect invocation is only allowed when the GM approves.

The aspects on your character are not the only aspects that you can potentially use. To invoke an aspect other than your own, your character needs to directly interact with the object, location, or person that has the aspect you want to invoke, in a way appropriate to the action in progress.

And that leads us to…. A free tag is subject to one key limitation: This usually means that the free tag must be taken within the same scene that the aspect was introduced.

The player who introduced the aspect has the option to pass his free tag to another character if he so wishes. This can allow for some great setup maneuvers in a fight; one person maneuvers to place an aspect on a target, then passes the free tag to an ally, who attacks, using the advantage.

Tagging often involves temporary aspects that result from maneuvers. Many temporary aspects are fragile, and may disappear after their first tag what does that mean exactly? If it does turn out to be a compel-worthy circumstance, then the GM may proceed with it.

This is a chain reaction; the tag for effect occurs, and concludes with the GM indicating whether or not it struck home. Sadly for Claudius and ultimately Hamlet! Tags usually happen when the tagger has a clear idea of what aspect is there to be tagged.

Guesses are allowed, but are subject to some special rules. For example, someone might guess that a scene has a Darkness aspect on it and ask if they can tag it for their Stealth roll.

If the guess misses the mark, but missing the mark tells the player something significant and potentially secret, the fate point is still spent. This sort of circumstance almost never comes up with scene aspects, but can come up when guessing at aspects on another character.

This will most often happen as the result of a Deceit action see page XX, although it might arise from other circumstances. In such a case, the deceiver has the option to return the fate point to the tagger, or to leave it spent.

If he leaves it spent, the tagger just learned he was duped. If he returns it to the tagger, things may actually be a bit worse for the tagger: The target whose aspect is compelled usually has the choice of spending a fate point and ignoring the aspect, or taking the consequences and limitations on his choices and receiving a fate point.

When the target accepts the fate point, the aspect is officially compelled. An aspect may limit actions and choice. In this way, the compel highlights the difficulty of the choices at hand by placing limits on those choices.

In come cases, complications may suggest that certain consequences are mandated, such as failing at a particular action — perhaps the character would succeed at a defense roll against a Deceit action, but his Gullible aspect is compelled, forcing a failure if accepted.

In such a case the GM should remember to give the character a fate point. In play, both the GM and players can initiate compels. When the GM initiates a compel, the process is very simple.

The GM remarks that the aspect might be appropriate here, and offers the player a fate point and the player either accepts it and takes appropriate action or accepts appropriate consequence, or he pays one of his fate points to the GM and chooses not to accept the consequences of the compel.

In a perfect world, the GM is always aware of all aspects and always knows when they should be compelled and rewarded. In practice, the GM is keeping track of a lot of stuff, and may not realize that a player has an aspect that is appropriate to the situation.

Sometimes characters simply play to their aspects without thinking to compel them. When that happens, the GM should make a note of it sometimes with the player reminding her and, if possible, award the player with a fate point retroactively.

Compels happen in order to make certain choices or situations more difficult or more dramatic for the compelled character. When two aspects are in conflict with one another, they are both subject to a compel.

If the player can see clear to acting in accordance with both — fantastic! Nothing says she has to compel both aspects. Rarely, in moments of high tension or drama, the GM can choose to escalate a compel.

This is an optional rule, and really should only be used when the character getting compelled is having a defining moment in his or her story. Escalation can occur only when a player has bought out of a compel.

In the rarest of cases, facing a second refusal, the GM may escalate a final time, making the reward and cost to buy out three fate points. If the player is willing to spend three to refuse this truly monstrous compulsion, the book is closed.

To get a sense of how aspects might be used in play, consider the examples below. Sometimes his rage gives him the drive to see things through, but more often it leads him to rash action rather than forethought.

A player might invoke this to: The GM might compel this to: Cause the character to lose his temper at an inappropriate moment. Interfere with any action that requires calm. The character is an academic, well versed in all manner of obscure lore.

His knowledge, unfortunately, is almost entirely from books, and theory is not always the same as practice. Dig up an obscure fact or other bit of knowledge at the right time. Research like a fiend.

The character is a firm believer in the better part of valor, either out of meekness, deep self interest, or some other motivator. Run, hide, or otherwise get away from something dangerous.

Inspire the character to flee when he really needs to stand his ground. The character owes a duty to some one or thing which should come out of creation.

Alternately, the character may simply take all of his responsibilities very seriously. Perform an action which directly upholds the duty. Present a player a choice between upholding his duty or doing something more practical.

Raise an issue of responsibility at an inconvenient moment. The character is a member of the priesthood, and is expected to support the appropriate dogma, as well as accept whatever duties, responsibilities and powers come with the position.

Give a stirring sermon. Resist the powers antithetical to his faith. Attempt to use the resources of his church. Deliver inconvenient orders from a superior.

Raise the ire of opposed religions. For whatever reason, the character seeks his own destruction, although he is unwilling to take direct action to do something about it.

Instead, he throws himself wholeheartedly into dangerous situations in the hopes that this time will be his last. Help the character do something stupid and dangerous. Make the character do something stupid and dangerous.

Threaten the house, use the house as the scene of a murder thus pulling the character in. The character has a knack for betrayal. Betrayal comes easily to the character, and while he may be steadfast and true in the end, it would be so easy not to be.

Incite suspicious reactions from NPCs, especially when the character is telling the truth. Offer opportunities to stab comrades in the back. The character is the survivor of many battles, and the experience has shaped him.

He probably was in the Great War, but may possibly have been elsewhere. This is appropriate for a seasoned campaigner who has seen many battles in contrast to Gallipoli, below.

Keep his wits about him in a fight. Assess a tactical situation. Pitch camp in unfriendly country. Introduce old rivals from the other side of the battlefield. The battles over the Dardanelles, the straits separating the Ottoman Empire from Europe, were supposed to be easy, a swift strike at the soft underbelly of Europe against the virtually helpless Turks.

As with Veteran, but also to know a bit about the Turks. As with Veteran, but also for many other consequences. This chapter is focused on getting an idea of what each skill does and why someone might want a particular one for a character.

Skills can be enhanced by the addition of stunts; stunts are covered in their own chapter page XX. Here, each skill has a description of what it does, and a write-up of how it is most commonly used.

Each skill also has a number of trappings, which are the rules for how to use the skill in certain specific circumstances. In some ways, trappings are like stunts which anyone with the skill can perform.

The specific rules governing setting difficulties for these various trappings of a skill are not covered here. Skills can sometimes be combined see page XX. Finally, skills can sometimes be used in partnership with one another, via assessments and declarations.

Sometimes skills will be used in careful assessment well in advance of taking action — maybe as part of putting together a plan, or simply observing the target long enough to learn something that would be a critical advantage.

This approach is most often used with skills that have an element of perception — including Investigation, Empathy, and even Burglary. Here, the skill is not used to place a temporary aspect so much as discover an existing one.

The character making the assessment still can tag this aspect for free, but is still subject to the usual limitations of a free tag — they must do so immediately after revealing it.

This usually means that the free tag must be taken within the same scene as the assessment or, if the assessment takes longer than a scene to perform, in the scene which immediately follows.

This provides a reward to balance out the time the player might otherwise spend talking through a more cautious plan. All assessment efforts require the use of a significant chunk of time, usually indicated in the skill write-up.

Perception skills only allow the discovery of what already exists. By contrast, knowledge skills will often allow declaration — in other words, using a knowledge skill successfully can allow a player to introduce entirely new facts into play, and then use those facts to his advantage.

The new facts take the form of a temporary aspect. The GM is encouraged to use creativity as her primary guideline, when judging the use of knowledge skills.

Creative and entertaining facts will be more likely to result in a successful use of a knowledge skill, and thus give rise to a temporary aspect, than boring facts will.

For example, an anthropologist with a solid Academics skill might use the declaration ability to state new truths about a tribe the characters have just encountered — and if successful, suddenly the scene or the tribe has an aspect on it in keeping with the fact the player just invented.

As with maneuvering and assessment, the first tagging of this aspect is free. A player, whose character is an expert in architecture, attempts declaration: The player and the GM discuss where it ought to lead, etc.

Now, to find out how to open it Any subsequent uses of such aspects, however, will cost or grant! This does mean that occasionally maneuvers and assessments and declarations will backfire, leading to a compel.

Since aspects are involved, such things are easily double-edged! Fate points may be spent to tag the other aspects that have been assessed or declared on the same roll, and later rolls may use other free tags.

Academics is a knowledge skill. Any knowledge that would not explicitly fall under Science, Mysteries, or Art falls under this skill though some overlap may exist among all of those.

Characters with high Academics include scholars of antiquity, professors and know-it-alls. The main use of Academics is to answer a question. If the character succeeds, he receives the information.

If he fails, he does not, but he may still attempt to research the topic see below — or, perhaps more entertainingly, may stumble onto a false lead that gets him deeper into trouble.

Researching a topic is frequently a time-consuming and arduous task, and exactly the sort of thing worth skimming over with a few quick dice rolls. It is treated as an extension of what knowledge the character has — he can answer some questions off the top of his head, and other questions because he knows what book to find the answer in.

As such, research is something that can happen when a character fails an Academics check. Provided the researcher is willing to spend time researching and that the answer can be found the only question is how long it will take and how good a library they have access to more on libraries in a bit.

Academic research requires a library. The quality of the library determines the hardest possible question that can be answered within it so a question of Good difficulty requires a Good library or better.

Most schools and private individuals have Mediocre, Average, or Fair libraries. Small colleges often have Good libraries while larger institutions may have Great ones. Superb and better libraries are few and far between.

Characters may own libraries of their own; see the Resources skill page XX for more. Sometimes the GM just needs to give the group a lot of information, and the character with a high knowledge skill tends to be the conduit of that.

When the GM needs to drop a lot of information on the group, she may ask the character with the most knowledge if she can use them as a mouthpiece. Assuming the player agrees, the GM can share all appropriate background, and is encouraged to give the player a fate point for having his character temporarily commandeered by the GM.

The character may use his knowledge to declare facts, filling in minor details which the GM has not mentioned. These facts must be within the field of Academics, and the GM has the right to veto them.

However, if the GM is all right with it, she may let the player make a declaration and roll Academics against a difficulty she sets. If successful, the fact is true, and if not, the character is mistaken.

Like most Academics rolls, the GM may or may not wish to share the difficulty, so the character may not know if he succeeded. This is a straight up declaration action, as described earlier see page XX.

If the academic or another character takes action based on the declared fact, that person can tag the aspect that has been introduced. If the academic was right, the aspect is placed, and is taggable as described earlier — first one being free.

Languages are part of a good classical education. A character may speak a number of additional languages based on his Academics score. Each step of Academics above Mediocre gives the character knowledge of one additional language so one at Average, two at Fair, and so on.

The player does not need to choose the languages when the character is created; instead, he may simply choose languages in the course of play, as is convenient. Under normal circumstances, the character may know the answer or not, but will not get a wrong answer.

A wrong answer should only be a result of one of two things. First, it may be the result of the compelling of an aspect — the player may be offered a fate point for his character to go haring off on a tangent or to reach the wrong conclusion.

Alternately, it may be as a result of an active deception, such as someone planting bad information. The result of that roll is the difficulty to spot the false information. When someone tries to discover information that is affected by this deception, he must make an Academics roll as usual.

If that roll less than the difficulty set by the deception, then the false information is discovered one step earlier than the real information might be. If the failure is significant missing the mark by three or more, then the true information may simply be unavailable.

If the researcher meets or exceeds the roll for the deception, he finds the false information and recognizes it for what it is. Specifically, it is the perception skill to notice things the character is not looking for.

In an exchange where characters are surprised and as such, are prevented from choosing which skill to roll, Alertness is the skill which is rolled. In conflicts of an active, physical nature, Alertness determines initiative.

Characters with high Alertness include bodyguards, outdoorsmen and criminals of a sneaky variety. Players will rarely ask to roll Alertness — if they are actively looking for something, Investigation is usually more appropriate.

Alertness is more appropriate for things that players and characters do not expect or are not looking for, such as whether they notice a surprise, or if they happen to spot a hidden clue. In short, it is reactive perception.

Whenever ambushed see Stealth, page XX, a character may make one final Alertness check against the Stealth of his attacker, in order to see if he is surprised.

If he fails this check, his defense skill is considered to be Mediocre for the first exchange. This includes knowledge, composition, and performance. Characters with high Art include artists obviously, aristocrats, and those of the avant garde.

Art is usually either used as a knowledge skill, for knowledge about art, artists, and what it takes to make art, or as a crafting skill, to create a work of art, or as a social skill to entertain.

As a crafting skill, Art is fairly straightforward — characters can make art of virtually any type of a quality equal to their skill. Sometimes, however, creations must be improvised, and that can be a little more fast and furious.

This usually takes a few minutes, and the character can make a roll to create their piece. Generally speaking, for the duration of the scene where it is displayed, the quality of the piece is equal to their roll, with it degrading one step in each subsequent scene.

While Academics covers the technical building blocks of communication, language, grammar and the like, Art covers the expression of ideas, and as such, covers most means of broad communication, like writing.

There are exceptions, such as dry, academic documents which use pure Academics and poetry which uses just Art. Public speaking is a similar creature, but it is more beholden to the charisma and presence of the speaker — in those cases, Art modifies whatever skill Rapport, Intimidate, Leadership or Deceit the character is using, as long as there is a creative aspect to the communication.

Art can also be used to shape the mood of a group. Normally, this aspect only remains on the scene for the duration of the performance, but some stunts allow this to extend into subsequent scenes.

In effect, this is a declaration on the part of the artist, but limited to declaring mood and emotional impact, rather than anything specific. When making a standard performance, any temporary aspects that result — either by treating the performance as a maneuver, or as an attack yielding consequences — must also be broad and nonspecific.

There is an exception; a performance that very clearly has a target, such as a satire, may plant fairly specific opinions of a target, with the difficulty based on the status of the target. When a character uses Art to make a forgery, the difficulty depends on the complexity of the thing being duplicated.

Having an original on hand can help reduce the difficulty. Deceit should also be used to complement the effort. Athletics covers running, jumping, climbing, and other broadly physical activities you might find in a track and field event.

Characters with high Athletics include athletes, soldiers and outdoorsmen. As a rule of thumb, Athletics is used to move yourself, Might is used to move other things and people.

When an action calls for both, they may modify one another. If there is no clear indication which should be primary, default to Athletics as primary and Might as secondary.

This is not the Olympics — jumping is something one does to get over obstacles or across bottomless chasms, and in those situations the GM will set a fixed difficulty to be met or exceeded.

Generally, that difficulty is going to be the bare minimum to clear the distance, so beating that by a few shifts is often a good idea. Outside of that, jumping is often just considered an extension of normal movement.

For GM advice on setting difficulties and designing jumping challenges, see page XX. A character may use their Athletics to move faster by taking a sprint action. Normally, characters may only move one zone on their turn by turning over one of their shifts as a supplemental action.

Characters who spend their entire action moving are sprinting; rolling Athletics against a target difficulty of Mediocre, they may cross a number of zones and borders equal to or less than the total shifts of effect.

In the absence of borders, characters can always move a minimum of one zone. See page XX for additional details. Athletics is the skill for climbing. The GM will set a difficulty for how hard it is to climb a given obstacle.

For GM advice on setting difficulties and designing climbing challenges, see page XX. When characters fall, they bypass the physical stress track entirely, and hop right to a consequence, with the severity of the consequence being determined by length of the fall.

Characters who fall can roll Athletics to try to limit the severity of the result. For guidelines on the severity of falls, please see the chapter on Running the Game, page XX.

The ability to overcome security systems, from alarms to locks, falls under the auspices of this skill. This also includes knowledge of those systems and the ability to assess them. Characters with a high Burglary include burglars, private eyes and even some cops.

Burglary can also be used as a very specialized perception skill, specifically to assess the weaknesses and strengths of a potential target. Here, the character is trying to determine the existence of inobvious or hidden aspects, using assessment see page XX.

This usage of Burglary can be blurred together with something like declaration, if the player comes up with an entertaining new aspect to place on the target of his future burglaring.

Thus, either the GM can indicate that some flaw exists and has been discovered, or the player can make a declaration about a flaw in the security that he intends to defeat. When a player is making declarations, casing follows the same guidelines as the minor details trapping for Academics page XX, but is limited to security facts including potential escape routes.

Contacting is the ability to find things out from people. A character may know a guy, who knows a guy, or maybe he just knows the right questions to ask. Whatever his methods, he know hows to find things out by asking around.

Characters with high Contacting include reporters, private eyes and spies. A character with a high Contacting skill knows a wide variety of people and has at least a mild amount of connection with virtually any organization.

There are Contacting stunts which give a character deep ties to a specific field like crime or business, and those allow a deeper level of contact within that field.

Contacting does not work in a vacuum. Thankfully, Contacting also covers the skill for building new social networks, so if a character stays in an area for any amount of time, he can diminish the difficulty by one per week spent.

If the Skills roll fails, then the research time investment table may be applied; instead of needing a library, the character needs people to talk to. Contacting finds out what people know, and people always have their own biases.

Information is only as good as the sources it comes from. Contacting rarely tests the veracity of the information provided — save by the discovery, through several sources, that contradictory answers are coming from different sources.

Contacting also keeps the character apprised of the general state of things, and acts as a sort of social Alertness, keeping the character abreast of things that might be coming his way.

Contacting is also useful for planting rumors, not just for ferreting them out. The player simply tells the GM what rumor he wants to plant, and the GM may assign bonuses and penalties based on how preposterous or reasonable the rumor is.

The GM then uses the final roll to determine what the result of the rumor is. Deceit is the ability to lie, simple as that. Characters with high Deceit include grifters, spies, and politicians.

For simple deceptions, a contest between Deceit and an appropriate skill usually Empathy, Alertness or Investigation is all that is necessary, but for deeper deceptions, like convincing someone of a lie or selling someone the Brooklyn Bridge, a social conflict is appropriate, complete with Deceit attacks and social stress being dealt.

A character with Deceit may opt to use Deceit instead of Rapport to defend against another character using Empathy to get a read on him. This roll is modified by Rapport. If the character loses his defense roll, then the Empathy reader may proceed as usual — in attempting to hide himself, the character has blundered and revealed a truth.

If the character wins the roll, however, he may provide a false aspect to the reader, sending her off with an utterly fabricated notion of him. When a character tries to take advantage of an aspect that they falsely think is there, it can end up being a waste of a fate point or worse!

See Guessing Aspects, page XX. Deceit can be used for more than just dodging attention; it can be used to riposte a social query with a web of deception.

When another character initiates a social contest, including an Empathy read, the character turns the tables, using his Deceit as an offensive skill, and representing any Skills particularly convincing lies as consequences.

However, if the deceiver outclasses his opponent significantly, this can be a powerful technique. Drive is the ability to operate a motorcar, one of the greatest inventions of recent memory.

Mister Ford has put these all over the roads of America, and the first folks truly comfortable behind the wheel are emerging. Why, the most daring speed-demons among them can make the most of its 20 horsepower, nearing speeds of 45 miles per hour!

Characters with high Drive include chauffeurs, racers and getaway drivers. Drive is pretty easy to use. Trying to do something in a car? Roll Drive, simple as that.

Cars inevitably lead to chases, one of the major trappings of this skill. For an extensive treatment of car chase rules, see the GM section on page XX. This is the ability to understand what other people are thinking and feeling.

This can be handy if a character is trying to spot a liar or wants to tell someone what that person wants to hear. Empathy is usable as a defense against Deceit, and is the basis for initiative in a social conflict.

Characters with a high Empathy include gamblers, reporters and socialites. Rapport when reading people. This is an assessment action see page XX. Endurance is the ability to keep performing physical activity despite fatigue or injury.

In addition to fatigue, Endurance measures how well a character shrugs off poisons and disease for a treatment of poisons, see page XX. Characters with a high Endurance include explorers, athletes, and sailors.

Endurance is a passive skill. Players will very rarely need to ask to roll Endurance; instead, the GM will call for rolls when appropriate. Someone without a solid Endurance skill may be a good sprinter, but will find themselves winded and falling behind in a marathon.

By default, players have 5 boxes for their Health stress track. Better-than – Mediocre Endurance increases the number of boxes as shown here. Engineering is the understanding of how machinery works, both for purposes of building it and taking it apart.

Characters with a high Engineering include inventors, mechanics, and frequently, drivers and pilots. An engineer with time and tools can build a variety of items. For details on how to go about that, check out the Gadgets and Gizmos chapter see page XX.

Engineering can be used to repair devices, given the right tools and enough time. Engineering is also the skill for unmaking things. Given time and tools, an engineer can topple virtually any building or structure.

In those circumstances, Engineering works like a very peculiar combat skill, possibly resulting in maneuvers or weirdly indirect attacks like setting up a bridge to collapse when someone walks across it.

With specialized training, this may include the practice of more disciplined fisticuffs, such as the martial arts of the Orient. As a combat skill, Fists allows characters to defend themselves as well as attack.

Fists fighters are also well-versed in a variety of fighting styles from all over the world, and may use this skill as a limited sort of knowledge skill covering those areas.

Characters with high Fists include sailors, thugs, and martial artists. Gambling is the knowledge of how to gamble and moreover, how to win when gambling. It also includes knowledge of secondary things like bookmaking.

Characters with a high Gambling include gamblers and dapper secret agents. Finding a game, or obtaining an invitation to one, requires a Contacting roll complemented by Gambling, with a difficulty equal to the quality of the game page XX.

Characters with the Big Man stunt see page XX can automatically find a game with a quality up to their Gambling skill, but such a game is automatically high stakes see below.

However, a high stakes game also includes the potential for complications, like sore losers, or strange table stakes. Sometimes characters just need to shoot things. Guns can also be used to cover non-gun weapons that shoot at a distance, such as bows and strange electrical spears that shoot lightning, though usually with a small penalty.

If, at the time the player takes the skill, he decides the character is focused on using a method of shooting other than a gun, he may rename this skill to something more appropriate e.

Under such an Skills option, most Guns stunts are still available though Two Bow Joe might be a little tricky. The Guns skill does not allow characters to defend themselves as well as attack; it trades the a defense component for ability to act over greater range.

Guns users are also well-versed in a variety of small arms, large arms, and ammunitions, and may use this skill as a limited sort of knowledge skill covering those areas. Characters with high Guns include soldiers, assassins, and hunters.

If someone is devoted to using Guns as a strong component of their fighting style, it can safely be assumed that they possess at least one or two guns, regardless of Resources rating though whether or not they will be allowed to such things whereever they go is another matter entirely.

This is, of course, subject to the rigors of character concept and GM approval. There are more graceful social skills for convincing people to do what a character wants, but those skills tend not to have the pure efficiency of communicating that failing to comply may well result in some manner of harm.

Using Intimidation is a blatant social attack, which someone can defend against with their Resolve. This is the skill for interrogation as opposed to interviewing as well as scaring the bejeezus out of someone.

The lesson here is simple: Intimidation works best from a position of power. Achieve that position first, then apply the skill. If things get to the point of a face off, there are a lot of other actions an opponent can do other than stand there and be intimidated, such as disengage or pull out a weapon.

However, one of the real strengths of Intimidation is at the first flash of contact, when people instinctively get out of the way of someone intimidating. Intimidation can establish a powerful, menacing first impression.

If successful, the target is taken aback for a moment, generally long enough to brush past them, though usually with plenty of time to call for help if appropriate. Investigation is the ability to look for things and, hopefully, find them.

This is the skill used when the character is actively looking for something, such as searching a crime scene or trying to spot a hidden enemy. Investigation is the skill most commonly called for when the character wants to look for something like clues.

It is also useful for eavesdropping or any other activity where someone is trying to observe something over a period of time. When looking for deep patterns and hidden flaws, Investigation may be used as an assessment action see above, page XX.

This also means that an equivalent Investigation effort is nearly always going to yield better, more in-depth, information than an Alertness effort would; the downside is that Investigation is far more time consuming.

Leadership is a multi-faceted skill. A good leader knows how to direct and inspire people, but he also understands how to run an organization. As such, the Leadership skill covers acts of both types.

Characters with a high Leadership include military officers, politicians, bureaucrats, and lawyers. Any organization which the character is in charge of uses his Leadership as its default value for any question of how organized it is.

This establishes the difficulty for things like bribery or theft, and also gives a general sense of how quickly and efficiently the organization acts. A good leader has knowledge of organizations and the rules that govern them, including knowledge of laws, bribery and other means of dealing with red tape; this is why Leadership is a key skill for lawyers.

Leadership serves as an all-purpose knowledge skill for knowing how to act in a given organization, including important things like how much to bribe. Leadership can be used to direct troops, workers or any other group activity.

While attached minions cannot normally act, when they are being directed by the character with leadership, they act as if they were not attached. This is a measure of pure physical power, be it raw strength or simply the knowledge of how to use the strength one has.

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OHA adalah dari perusahaan-perusahaan teknologi seperti Google, produsen perangkat seluler seperti, dan, operator nirkabel seperti dan, serta produsen chipset seperti dan.

OHA sendiri bertujuan untuk mengembangkan bagi perangkat seluler. Saat itu, Android diresmikan sebagai produk pertamanya; sebuah perangkat seluler yang menggunakan versi 2.

Telepon seluler komersial pertama yang menggunakan sistem operasi Android adalah, yang diluncurkan pada 22 Oktober Pada tahun, Google merilis seri ; perangkat telepon pintar dan tablet dengan sistem operasi Android yang diproduksi oleh mitra produsen telepon seluler seperti HTC, , dan Samsung.

HTC bekerja sama dengan Google dalam merilis produk telepon pintar Nexus pertama, yakni. Seri ini telah diperbarui dengan perangkat yang lebih baru, misalnya telepon pintar dan tablet yang diproduksi oleh LG dan Samsung.

Pada 13 Maret, mengumumkan dalam postingan blognya bahwa Andy Rubin telah pindah dari divisi Android untuk mengerjakan proyek-proyek baru di Google. Ia digantikan oleh, yang sebelumnya menjabat sebagai kepala divisi Google Chrome, yang mengembangkan.

Sejak tahun, Android secara bertahap telah melakukan untuk meningkatkan kinerja sistem operasi, menambahkan fitur baru, dan memperbaiki yang terdapat pada versi sebelumnya.

Setiap versi utama yang dirilis dinamakan secara alfabetis berdasarkan nama-nama makanan pencuci mulut atau camilan bergula; misalnya, versi 1. Versi terbaru adalah 5. Antarmuka pengguna pada Android didasarkan pada, menggunakan masukan sentuh yang serupa dengan tindakan di dunia nyata, misalnya menggesek swiping, mengetuk tapping, dan mencubit pinching, untuk memanipulasi objek di layar.

Masukan pengguna direspon dengan cepat dan juga tersedia antarmuka sentuh layaknya permukaan air, seringkali menggunakan kemampuan getaran perangkat untuk memberikan kepada pengguna. Ketika dihidupkan, perangkat Android akan memuat pada layar depan homescreen, yakni navigasi utama dan pusat informasi pada perangkat, serupa dengan pada.

Layar depan Android biasanya terdiri dari ikon dan ; ikon aplikasi berfungsi untuk menjalankan aplikasi terkait, sedangkan widget menampilkan konten secara langsung dan terbarui otomatis, misalnya prakiraan cuaca, kotak masuk pengguna, atau menampilkan tiker berita secara langsung dari layar depan.

Layar depan bisa terdiri dari beberapa halaman, pengguna dapat menggeser bolak balik antara satu halaman ke halaman lainnya, yang memungkinkan pengguna Android untuk mengatur tampilan perangkat sesuai dengan selera mereka.

Beberapa aplikasi pihak ketiga yang tersedia di dan di toko aplikasi lainnya secara ekstensif mampu mengatur kembali tema layar depan Android, dan bahkan bisa meniru tampilan sistem operasi lain, misalnya.

Kebanyakan produsen telepon seluler dan operator nirkabel menyesuaikan tampilan perangkat Android buatan mereka untuk membedakannya dari pesaing mereka. Di bagian atas layar terdapat status bar, yang menampilkan informasi tentang perangkat dan konektivitasnya.

Status bar ini bisa “ditarik” ke bawah untuk membuka layar notifikasi yang menampilkan informasi penting atau pembaruan aplikasi, misalnya surel diterima atau SMS masuk, dengan cara tidak mengganggu kegiatan pengguna pada perangkat.

Pada versi awal Android, layar notifikasi ini bisa digunakan untuk membuka aplikasi yang relevan, namun setelah diperbarui, fungsi ini semakin disempurnakan, misalnya kemampuan untuk memanggil kembali nomor telepon dari notifikasi panggilan tak terjawab tanpa harus membuka aplikasi utama.

Notifikasi ini akan tetap ada sampai pengguna melihatnya, atau dihapus dan di nonaktifkan oleh pengguna. Android memungkinkan penggunanya untuk memasang aplikasi pihak ketiga, baik yang diperoleh dari toko aplikasi seperti, , ataupun dengan mengunduh dan memasang berkas dari situs pihak ketiga.

Di Google Play, pengguna bisa menjelajah, mengunduh, dan memperbarui aplikasi yang diterbitkan oleh Google dan pengembang pihak ketiga, sesuai dengan persyaratan kompatibilitas Google.

Google Play akan menyaring daftar aplikasi yang tersedia berdasarkan kompatibilitasnya dengan perangkat pengguna, dan pengembang dapat membatasi aplikasi ciptaan mereka bagi operator atau negara tertentu untuk alasan bisnis.

Pembelian aplikasi yang tidak sesuai dengan keinginan pengguna dapat dikembalikan dalam waktu 15 menit setelah pengunduhan. Beberapa operator seluler juga menawarkan tagihan langsung untuk pembelian aplikasi di Google Play dengan cara menambahkan harga pembelian aplikasi pada tagihan bulanan pengguna.

Pada bulan September, ada lebih dari Aplikasi Android dikembangkan dalam bahasa pemrograman dengan menggunakan kit SDK. SDK ini terdiri dari seperangkat perkakas pengembangan, termasuk, , emulator handset yang berbasis, dokumentasi, kode sampel, dan tutorial.

Dalam rangka menghadapi, perangkat Android yang dijual di RRT umumnya disesuaikan dengan layanan yang disetujui oleh negara. Karena perangkat Android umumnya bertenaga, Android dirancang untuk mengelola memori guna menjaga konsumsi daya minimal, berbeda dengan sistem operasi desktop yang bisa terhubung pada sumber daya tak terbatas.

Cara ini memiliki manfaat ganda, tidak hanya meningkatkan respon perangkat Android karena aplikasi tidak perlu ditutup dan dibuka kembali dari awal setiap saat, tetapi juga memastikan bahwa aplikasi yang berjalan di latar belakang tidak menghabiskan daya secara sia-sia.

Android mengelola aplikasi yang tersimpan di memori secara otomatis: Proses ini tidak terlihat oleh pengguna, jadi pengguna tidak perlu mengelola memori atau menonaktifkan aplikasi secara manual.

Namun, kebingungan pengguna atas pengelolaan memori pada Android telah menyebabkan munculnya beberapa aplikasi task killer pihak ketiga yang populer di Google Play. Ada juga dukungan untuk dari proyek, dan menggunakan versi x86 khusus Android.

Pada tahun, mengumumkan melibatkan Android dalam prosesor buatannya, yakni seri i. Pada, prosesor juga mulai muncul pada platform utama Android, misalnya pada telepon seluler. Beberapa komponen perangkat keras tidak diperlukan, namun sudah menjadi standar di perangkat tertentu.

Beberapa fitur awalnya dibutuhkan sebagai persyaratan, namun kemudian ditiadakan. Setelah Android menjadi OS telepon pintar, beberapa perangkat keras, seperti, lambat laun berubah menjadi perangkat opsional.

Selain itu, ditetapkan sebagai perangkat wajib bagi ponsel-ponsel Android. Perangkat Android menggabungkan berbagai komponen perangkat keras opsional, termasuk kamera video, , sensor orientasi perangkat keras, kontrol permainan, akselerometer, giroskop, barometer, magnetometer, sensor proksimitas, sensor tekanan, termometer, dan.

Beberapa aplikasi secara eksplisit mengharuskan versi tertentu dari OpenGL ES, sehingga perangkat keras GPU yang cocok diperlukan bagi perangkat Android untuk menjalankan aplikasi tertentu.

Android dikembangkan secara pribadi oleh Google sampai perubahan terbaru dan pembaruan siap untuk dirilis, dan informasi mengenai kode sumber juga mulai diungkapkan kepada publik.

Kode sumber ini hanya akan berjalan tanpa modifikasi pada perangkat tertentu, biasanya pada seri. Ada tersendiri yang disediakan oleh produsen agar Android bisa beroperasi.

Logo Android yang berwarna hijau awalnya dirancang untuk Google pada tahun oleh desainer grafis Irina Blok. Tim desain ditugaskan dengan sebuah proyek untuk membuat sebuah ikon universal yang mudah dikenali dengan menyertakan ikon secara spesifik dalam desain akhir.

Setelah sejumlah perkembangan desain yang didasarkan pada tema-tema dan film luar angkasa, tim akhirnya mendapat inspirasi dari simbol manusia yang terdapat di pintu toilet, dan memodifikasi bentuknya menjadi bentuk robot.

Karena Android adalah perangkat lunak, disepakati bahwa logo tersebut juga harus terbuka, dan sejak diluncurkan, logo hijau tersebut telah didesain ulang kembali dalam berbagai variasi yang tak terhitung jumlahnya.

Google menyediakan pembaruan utama bagi versi Android, dengan jangka waktu setiap enam sampai sembilan bulan. Sebagian besar perangkat mampu menerima pembaruan OTA. Pembaruan utama terbaru adalah Android 6.

Dibandingkan dengan sistem operasi seluler saingan utamanya, yaitu, pembaruan Android biasanya lebih lambat diterima oleh perangkat penggunanya. Untuk perangkat selain merek Nexus, pembaruan biasanya baru bisa diterima dalam waktu berbulan-bulan setelah dirilisnya versi resmi.

Hal ini disebabkan oleh banyaknya variasi Android, sehingga setiap pembaruan harus disesuaikan secara khusus, misalnya: Android pada perangkat keras tertentu yang dilakukan oleh produsen telepon seluler membutuhkan waktu dan proses, para produsen ini umumnya mengutamakan perangkat terbaru mereka untuk menerima pembaruan, dan mengenyampingkan perangkat lama.

Oleh sebab itu, telepon pintar lama seringkali tidak diperbarui jika produsen memutuskan bahwa itu hanya menghabiskan waktu, meskipun sebenarnya perangkat tersebut mampu menerima pembaruan.

Masalah ini diperparah ketika produsen menyesuaikan Android dengan antarmuka dan aplikasi ciptaan mereka, yang mana ini harus diterapkan kembali untuk setiap perilisan terbaru.

Penundaan lainnya juga bisa disebabkan oleh operator nirkabel; setelah menerima pembaruan dari produsen ponsel, operator akan menyesuaikannya dengan kebutuhan mereka, misalnya melakukan pengujian ekstensif terhadap jaringan sebelum mengirim pembaruan kepada pengguna.

Kurangnya dukungan pasca-penjualan dari produsen ponsel dan operator telah menimbulkan kritikan dari para konsumen dan media teknologi. Beberapa pengkritik menyatakan bahwa industri memiliki motif keuangan untuk tidak memperbarui perangkat mereka, seperti tidak adanya pembaruan bagi perangkat lama dan memperbarui perangkat yang baru dengan tujuan meningkatkan penjualan, sikap yang mereka sebut “menghina”.

Pada, Google, yang bekerja sama dengan sejumlah perusahaan industri, membentuk “Android Update Alliance”, dengan janji bahwa mereka akan memberikan pembaruan secara tepat waktu bagi setiap perangkat dalam jangka 18 bulan setelah dirilisnya versi resmi.

Sejak didirikan hingga tahun, organisasi ini tak pernah disebut-sebut lagi. Google kemudian mulai memperbarui aplikasinya, termasuk dan, sebagai aplikasi independen yang terpisah dari Android, dan juga memperkenalkan komponen tingkat-sistem yang menyediakan bagi aplikasi Google, yang terpasang otomatis dan diperbarui secara langsung oleh Google melalui, serta mendukung hampir semua perangkat Android dengan versi di atas 2.

Hingga November, Android menggunakan yang berbasis versi 3. Android menggunakan dengan untuk menjalankan ‘dex-code’ Dalvik Dalvik Executable, biasanya diterjemahkan dari. Arsitektur kernel Linux pada Android telah diubah oleh Google, berbeda dengan siklus pengembangan kernel Linux biasa.

Secara standar, Android tidak memiliki asli ataupun dukungan set lengkap dari perpustakaan standar. Oleh sebab itu, sulit untuk mem perpustakaan atau aplikasi Linux pada Android. Dukungan untuk aplikasi simpel C dan bisa dilakukan dengan cara menginjeksi Java dan menggunakan, misalnya pada port untuk Android.

Salah satu fitur yang coba disumbangkan oleh Google untuk kernel Linux adalah fitur manajemen daya yang disebut “wakelocks”, namun fitur ini ditolak oleh pengembang kernel utama karena mereka merasa bahwa Google tidak menunjukkan niatnya untuk mengembangkan kodenya sendiri.

Pada bulan April, Google mengumumkan bahwa mereka akan menyewa dua karyawan untuk mengembangkan komunitas kernel Linux, namun, , pengelola kernel Linux versi stabil, menyatakan pada bulan Desember ; ia khawatir bahwa Google tak lagi berusaha untuk mengubah kode utama Linux.

Beberapa pengembang Android di Google mengisyaratkan bahwa “tim Android sudah mulai jenuh dengan proses ini”, karena mereka hanyalah tim kecil dan dipaksa untuk melakukan pekerjaan yang mendesak demi keberlangsungan Android.

Pada Agustus, menyatakan: Pada Desember, Greg Kroah-Hartman mengumumkan dimulainya Android Mainlining Project, yang bertujuan untuk mengembalikan beberapa, patch, dan fitur Android pada kernel Linux, yang dimulai dengan Linux 3.

Setelah upaya sebelumnya gagal, Linux akhirnya menyertakan fitur wakelocks dan autosleep pada kernel 3. Antarmukanya masih sama, namun implementasi Linux yang baru memiliki dua mode suspend penangguhan berbeda: Penyertaan fitur baru ini akan rampung pada Kernel 3.

Namun, akses root dapat diperoleh dengan cara memanfaatkan kelemahan keamanan pada Android, cara ini sering digunakan oleh untuk meningkatkan kinerja perangkat mereka, namun juga bisa dimanfaatkan oleh pihak yang tidak bertanggungjawab untuk menyebarkan dan.

Terkait dengan masalah apakah Android bisa digolongkan ke dalam distribusi Linux masih diperdebatkan secara luas. Sedangkan yang lainnya, seperti teknisi Google Patrick Brady, menentangnya, ia beralasan bahwa Android kurang mendukung sebagian besar perkakas, termasuk.

Android memiliki komunitas pengembang dan penggemar aktif yang menggunakan kode sumber Android untuk mengembangkan dan mendistribusikan versi modifikasi Android buatan mereka. Mereka berupaya untuk terus memberikan dukungan bagi perangkat-perangkat lama yang tak lagi menerima pembaruan resmi, ataupun memodifikasi perangkat Android agar bisa berjalan dengan menggunakan sistem operasi lain, misalnya.

Komunitas ini seringkali merilis pembaruan bagi perangkat pra-, dan berisi modifikasi yang tidak cocok bagi pengguna non-teknis, misalnya kemampuan untuk atau prosesor perangkat.

Secara historis, produsen perangkat dan operator seluler biasanya tidak mendukung pengembangan firmware oleh pihak ketiga. Produsen khawatir bahwa akan muncul fungsi yang tidak sesuai jika perangkat menggunakan yang tidak resmi, sehingga akan menyebabkan munculnya biaya tambahan.

Selain itu, firmware modifikasi seperti CyanogenMod kadang-kadang menawarkan fitur yang membuat operator harus mengeluarkan biaya premium, misalnya. Akibatnya, kendala teknis seperti terkuncinya bootloader dan terbatasnya akses root umumnya bisa ditemui di kebanyakan perangkat Android.

Namun, perangkat lunak buatan komunitas pengembang semakin populer, dan setelah Kongres Pustakawan Amerika Serikat mengizinkan “” perangkat seluler, produsen ponsel dan operator mulai memperlunak sikap mereka terhadap pengembang pihak ketiga.

Beberapa produsen ponsel, termasuk, , dan, mulai memberikan dukungan dan mendorong pengembangan perangkat lunak pihak ketiga. Sebagai hasilnya, kendala untuk memasang tidak resmi mulai berkurang secara bertahap setelah meningkatnya jumlah perangkat yang memiliki kemampuan untuk membuka bootloader, sama dengan seri ponsel Nexus, meskipun pengguna harus kehilangan perangkat mereka jika melakukannya.

Akan tetapi, meskipun produsen ponsel telah menyetujui pengembangan perangkat lunak pihak ketiga, beberapa operator seluler di masih mewajibkan ponsel penggunanya untuk “dikunci”. Kemampuan untuk membuka dan meretas sistem pada telepon pintar dan tablet terus menjadi sumber perdebatan antar komunitas pengembang dan industri; komunitas beralasan bahwa pengembangan tidak resmi dilakukan karena industri gagal memberikan pembaruan yang tepat waktu bagi pengguna, atau untuk tetap melanjutkan dukungan versi terbaru bagi perangkat lama mereka.

Aplikasi Android berjalan di, sebuah area terisolasi yang tidak memiliki akses pada sistem, kecuali izin akses yang secara eksplisit diberikan oleh pengguna ketika memasang aplikasi.

Sebelum memasang aplikasi, akan menampilkan semua izin yang diperlukan, misalnya: Setelah meninjau izin tersebut, pengguna dapat memilih untuk menerima atau menolaknya, dan bisa memasang aplikasi hanya jika mereka menerimanya.

Sistem sandbox dan perizinan pada Android bisa mengurangi dampak kerentanan terhadap pada aplikasi, namun ketidaktahuan pengembang dan terbatasnya dokumentasi telah menghasilkan aplikasi yang secara rutin meminta izin yang tidak perlu, sehingga mengurangi efektivitasnya.

Beberapa perusahaan keamanan perangkat lunak seperti, , , dan, telah merilis perangkat lunak antivirus ciptaan mereka untuk perangkat Android. Perangkat lunak ini sebenarnya tidak bekerja secara efektif karena sandbox juga bekerja pada aplikasi tersebut, sehingga membatasi kemampuannya untuk memindai sistem secara lebih mendalam.

Hasil penelitian perusahaan keamanan menunjukkan bahwa penyalahgunaan layanan premium adalah tipe malware paling umum yang menyerang Android; pesan teks akan dikirim dari ponsel yang telah terinfeksi ke nomor telepon premium tanpa persetujuan atau sepengetahuan pengguna.

Perangkat perusak lainnya akan menampilkan iklan yang tidak diinginkan pada perangkat, atau mengirim informasi pribadi pada pihak ketiga yang tak berwenang. Ancaman keamanan pada Android dilaporkan tumbuh secara bertahap, namun teknisi di Google menyatakan bahwa perangkat perusak dan ancaman virus pada Android hanya dibesar-besarkan oleh perusahaan antivirus untuk alasan komersial, dan menuduh industri antivirus memanfaatkan situasi tersebut untuk menjual produknya kepada pengguna.

Google baru-baru ini menggunakan pemindai perangkat perusak untuk mengawasi dan memindai aplikasi di Google Play. Tindakan ini bertujuan untuk menandai aplikasi yang mencurigakan dan memperingatkan pengguna atas potensi masalah pada aplikasi sebelum mereka mengunduhnya.

Sistem akan memberikan peringatan yang memberitahukan pengguna ketika aplikasi mencoba mengirim pesan teks premium, dan memblokir pesan tersebut, kecuali jika pengguna mengizinkannya.

Telepon pintar Android memiliki kemampuan untuk melaporkan lokasi titik akses, terutama jika pengguna sedang bepergian, untuk menciptakan basis data yang berisi lokasi fisik dari ratusan juta titik akses tersebut.

Basis data ini membentuk peta elektronik yang bisa memosisikan lokasi telepon pintar. Hal ini memungkinkan pengguna untuk menjalankan aplikasi seperti, , , dan untuk mengirimkan iklan berbasis lokasi.

Beberapa perangkat lunak pemantau pihak ketiga juga bisa mendeteksi saat informasi pribadi dikirim dari aplikasi ke server jarak jauh. Sifat sumber terbuka Android memungkinkan perusahaan keamanan untuk menyesuaikan perangkat dengan penggunaan yang sangat aman.

Misalnya, Samsung bekerja sama dengan General Dynamics melalui proyek “Knox”. Mereka bisa membaca hampir keseluruhan informasi pada telepon pintar, termasuk, lokasi, , dan catatan.

Google menerbitkan sebagian besar kode termasuk kode jaringan dan telepon di bawah versi 2. Sisanya, perubahan berada di bawah versi 2. Selebihnya, Android dikembangkan secara pribadi oleh, dengan kode sumber yang diterbitkan untuk umum ketika versi baru diluncurkan.

Biasanya Google bekerja sama dengan produsen perangkat keras untuk mengembangkan sebuah perangkat “andalan” misalnya seri Google Nexus yang disertai dengan versi baru Android, kemudian menerbitkan kode sumbernya setelah perangkat tersebut dirilis.

Pada awal, Google memilih untuk menahan sementara kode sumber Android untuk tablet yang dirilis dengan versi 3. Menurut dalam sebuah posting blog resmi Android, alasannya karena Honeycomb dirilis untuk berjalan pada produk, dan Google tidak ingin pihak ketiga “memperburuk pengalaman pengguna” dengan mencoba mengoperasikan versi Android yang ditujukan untuk tablet pada telepon pintar.

Kode sumber tersebut akhirnya dipublikasikan pada bulan November dengan dirilisnya Android 4. Meskipun bersifat terbuka, produsen perangkat tidak bisa menggunakan Android Google seenaknya, kecuali Google menyatakan bahwa perangkat tersebut sesuai dengan Compatibility Definition Document CDD mereka.

Perangkat juga harus memenuhi lisensi persyaratan aplikasi sumber tertutup Google, termasuk. Mereka berpendapat bahwa dan yang diperlukan untuk mengoperasikan Android bersifat eksklusif, dan Google Play juga menawarkan perangkat lunak.

Android disambut dengan hangat ketika diresmikan pada tahun Meskipun para analis terkesan dengan perusahaan teknologi ternama yang bermitra dengan Google untuk membentuk Open Handset Alliance, masih diragukan apakah para produsen ponsel akan bersedia mengganti sistem operasinya dengan Android.

Gagasan mengenai sumber terbuka dan berbasis Linux telah menarik minat para pakar teknologi, tetapi juga muncul kekhawatiran mengenai persaingan ketat yang akan dihadapi Android dengan pemain mapan di pasar telepon pintar seperti dan.

Nokia menanggapinya dengan menyatakan: Android dengan cepat tumbuh menjadi telepon pintar yang paling banyak digunakan, dan menjadi “salah satu sistem operasi seluler tercepat yang pernah ada.

Alhasil, situs teknologi menyebut Android sebagai “sistem operasi standar untuk meluncurkan perangkat keras baru” bagi perusahaan tanpa harus memiliki platform seluler sendiri.

Sifat Android yang terbuka dan fleksibel juga dinikmati oleh pengguna: Android memungkinkan penggunanya untuk mengkustomisasi perangkatnya secara ekstensif, dan aplikasi juga tersedia bebas di toko aplikasi non-Google dan di situs-situs pihak ketiga.

Faktor ini menjadi salah satu keunggulan yang dimiliki oleh ponsel Android jika dibandingkan dengan ponsel lainnya. Meskipun Android sangat populer, dengan tingkat aktivasi perangkat tiga kali lipat lebih tinggi dari, ada laporan yang menyatakan bahwa Google belum mampu memanfaatkan produk mereka secara maksimal, dan layanan web pada akhirnya mengubah Android menjadi penghasil uang, seperti yang telah diperkirakan oleh para analis sebelumnya.

SVP Google, , yang posisinya sebagai kepala divisi Android digantikan pada bulan Maret, disalahkan karena gagal dalam membangun kemitraan yang sehat dengan para produsen ponsel. Pemimpin utama produk-produk Android di pasar global adalah ; salah satu produknya, , berperan penting dalam pengenalan merek Android sejak tahun Sedangkan produsen ponsel Android lainnya seperti LG, HTC, dan milik Google, telah berjuang keras untuk memasarkan produknya sejak tahun Ironisnya, di saat Google tidak mendapatkan apapun dari hasil penjualan produk Android secara langsung, dan malah berhasil memenangkan gugatan atas pembayaran royalti dari produsen perangkat Android.

Android juga dikatakan sangat “terfragmentasi”, yaitu suatu kondisi saat berbagai perangkat Android, baik dari segi variasi perangkat keras dan perbedaan perangkat lunak yang berjalan, ditugaskan untuk mengembangkan aplikasi agar bisa berjalan secara konsisten, lebih rumit jika dibandingkan dengan iOS, yang aplikasinya kurang bervariasi.

Sebagai contoh, menurut data pada Juli, terdapat Meskipun sukses di telepon pintar, pengadopsian Android untuk awalnya berjalan lambat. Salah satu penyebab utamanya adalah adanya situasi yang dikenal dengan “”, yaitu kondisi ketika konsumen ragu-ragu untuk membeli tablet Android karena kurangnya aplikasi tablet yang berkualitas tinggi, sementara di sisi lain, para pengembang juga ragu-ragu untuk menghabiskan waktu dan sumber daya mereka untuk mengembangkan aplikasi tablet sampai tersedianya pasar yang signifikan bagi produk tersebut.

Konten dan “ekosistem” aplikasi terbukti lebih penting jika dibandingkan dengan perangkat keras setelah dimulainya penjualan tablet. Karena kurangnya aplikasi untuk tablet pada, tablet Android awalnya terpaksa harus memasang aplikasi yang diperuntukkan bagi telepon pintar, sehingga ukuran layarnya tidak cocok dengan layar tablet yang besar.

Selain itu, lambannya pertumbuhan tablet Android juga disebabkan oleh dominasi Apple yang memiliki banyak aplikasi yang kompatibel dengan tablet. Pertumbuhan aplikasi tablet Android perlahan-lahan mulai meningkat, namun, di saat yang bersamaan, sejumlah besar tablet yang menggunakan sistem operasi lain seperti dan juga dirilis ke pasaran untuk memanfaatkan keberhasilan iPad.

InfoWorld menjuluki bisnis ini dengan sebutan “bisnis Frankenphone”; suatu peluang investasi rendah jangka pendek yang memaksakan penggunaan OS telepon pintar Android yang dioptimalkan sebelum Android 3.

Pendekatan ini gagal meraih traksi pasar dengan konsumen serta memperburuk reputasi tablet Android. Terlebih lagi, beberapa tablet Android seperti dibanderol dengan harga yang sama, atau lebih mahal dari iPad, yang semakin memperburuk penjualan.

Pengecualian ada pada, yang dijual dengan harga lebih murah dan kemampuan untuk mengakses konten dan “ekosistem” aplikasi Amazon. Hal ini mulai berubah pada tahun dengan dirilisnya, dan adanya dorongan dari Google kepada para pengembang untuk menciptakan aplikasi tablet yang lebih baik.

Pangsa pasar tablet Android akhirnya berhasil menyalip iPad pada pertengahan Pada bulan Juli, Google mengungkapkan bahwa terdapat Pada bulan September, juta perangkat Android telah diaktifkan, dengan 1,3 juta aktivasi per hari.

Pada Mei, di, Sundar Pichai mengumumkan bahwa total perangkat Android yang telah diaktifkan berjumlah juta. Pangsa pasar Android bervariasi menurut lokasi. Dari,1 juta telepon pintar yang terjual pada bulan Agustus, September, dan Oktober, sekitar juta di antaranya adalah perangkat Android.

Tabel di bawah ini menampilkan data mengenai persentase jumlah perangkat Android yang mengakses Google Play baru-baru ini, dan menjalankan Android versi tertentu hingga tanggal.

Ada beberapa kekhawatiran mengenai mudahnya aplikasi berbayar Android untuk. Pada bulan Mei, , pengembang, menyatakan bahwa rasio pemain bajakan vs pemain asli adalah 9: Pada, Google merilis sebuah alat yang berfungsi memvalidasi pembelian resmi untuk digunakan dalam aplikasi, tetapi pengembang mengeluh bahwa hal itu tidak cukup efisien.

Google menjawab bahwa alat tersebut dimaksudkan sebagai kerangka sampel bagi para pengembang untuk memodifikasi dan mengembangkannya sesuai dengan kebutuhan mereka, bukan sebagai solusi untuk mengakhiri pembajakan.

Pada tahun, Google merilis sebuah fitur dalam Android 4. Baik Android maupun produsen ponsel Android telah terlibat dalam berbagai kasus hukum. Pada tanggal 12 Agustus, menggugat Google atas tuduhan pelanggaran hak cipta dan paten yang berhubungan dengan bahasa pemrograman.

Oracle awalnya menuntut ganti rugi sebesar,1 miliar, namun tuntutan ini ditolak oleh pengadilan federal Amerika Serikat, yang meminta Oracle untuk merevisi gugatannya. Your GM has veto power over this use, but it has one dirty little secret.

If you use it to do something to make the game cooler for everyone, the GM will usually grant far more leeway than she will for something boring or, worse, selfish.

In a way, this is much like invoking an aspect, but without a die roll. Players usually regain fate points between sessions when a refresh occurs. If the GM left things at a cliffhanger, she is entitled to say that no refresh has occurred between sessions.

By the same token, if the GM feels that a substantial i. The amount of fate points a player gets at a refresh is called his refresh rate and it is usually equal to the number of aspects the player has.

When a refresh occurs, players bring their number of fate points up to their refresh rate. If they have more, their total does not change. Players earn fate points when their aspects create problems for them.

When the player ends up in a situation where his compelled aspect suggests a problematic course of action, the GM should offer the player a choice: He can spend a fate point to ignore the aspect, or he can act in accordance with the aspect and earn a fate point.

Sometimes, the GM may also simply award a fate point to a player without explanation, indicating that an aspect is going to complicate an upcoming situation.

See the Aspects chapter on page XX for a more detailed treatment of compels. A pulp setting can support characters of almost every stripe, but there are a few common themes worth taking a look at.

The academic lives somewhere between the scientist and the explorer. The academic is compelled by his interest in his field, which is usually something like history, linguistics, anthropology or most famously archaeology.

The academic knows that lost, hidden, and forgotten knowledge exists all over the world. Ancient ruins, obscure libraries, mysterious artifacts — all these can offer answers to questions that have not even been asked yet.

What are you doing: You are answering questions, finding what was lost, and trying to expand the breadth of human knowledge. Though much of the map of the world is filled in, much of it remains blank or is simply wrong.

The explorer thrives on discovering who and what is in those unknown places. The khaki-clad, pith-helmeted image of the explorer is perhaps the most compelling, but the same spirit can beat in the hearts of ship captains, spelunkers, or even ambassadors.

The gadget guy is the recipient of the wonders of science. He is the keeper of a unique piece of technology, usually at the behest of its creator. The creator may or may not still be alive and serving as a patron for him and in some cases, the creator and the gadget guy are the same person!

The device in question is usually quite potent, and serves as a signature for the character — something interesting and immediately recognizable, like a jet pack, a super car, or an exotic weapon.

With great technology comes great responsibility. Your gadget has made you more capable of taking action whatever action you pursue, so you have embraced it. Crime is usually a brutish thing, fueled by necessity, but for some it is the only true challenge available.

Usually possessed of copious talents, enough that they have already found success elsewhere, gentleman criminals pursue a life of crime because of its excitement. Such characters enjoy the good life and civilization, so the adventures of exploration hold no appeal to them, especially when compared to the thrill of the chase, outwitting investigators, and similar brushes with danger.

Often, these criminals turn into sociopathic masterminds as they turn more and more to crime. But others maintain a certain basic, albeit twisted, honesty that informs their crimes. A burglar may have a strong code to harm no one, or may rob from the rich to give to the poor.

An assassin may only accept contracts on those he feels society is better off without. Most such ethical criminals can be convinced to leave their past behind them and use their talents to more challenging, world-bettering ends, but true retirement is not often in their nature.

When you find it, you seize upon it with gusto. Usually awkward in the face of civilization, these heroes act with a simpler understanding of things like justice, but with time, they can become bridges between two worlds.

There is no magic, only things science does not yet understand — and there are a lot of those. Whatever this knowledge is, it separates him from his fellow man, often so much that the hero adopts a persona to allow separation between his heroic personality and his normal life.

He may not know, himself. Whatever the agency says it is. Thankfully, that is usually exactly what the Operator would be interested in doing in the first place. When conflict eventually arises between the operator and the agency, it usually goes very badly indeed for one of them or the other.

One of the things that makes the world so much smaller is the news. A few decades back, if something happened a few states away, or anywhere else in the world, it would take time to trickle into the awareness of the average person.

You are finding out everything you can so you can share it with the world. The subject of condescension and curiosity, he is also the keeper of knowledge that has been lost, or not yet discovered, by the white man in his tall cities.

You are representing your people, looking for knowledge to take back to them, or perhaps trying to carve out a new life in exile. Thankfully, most science heroes are slightly less obvious examples of the superman incarnate.

A science hero may be very much like a gadget hero, someone who has benefited from extreme science in some way — perhaps making them a little stronger, tougher or faster than they would have been.

Such characters tend to be well rounded though rarely to the somewhat silly level of a Doc Savage himself but their specific interests are frequently tied to their origin. You do a bit of everything, taking all comers.

In pulp, everyone is a scientist. Science is the door to the future, and every educated man has an interest in it. Despite that, it is easy to spot the committed scientist, master of one or more fields, dedicating his time and effort to the pursuit of science.

Whereas other heroes seek adventure and appreciate science, the scientist seeks science and appreciates adventure. While the scientist may have richly appointed labs or shops, there is still too much to be found, too many theories to be tested, too much to do, to simply stay cooped up.

Scientists can have one or more fields of interest, which will generally be reflected by their equipment. A chemist or botanist may have a steady supply of bizarre and unique concoctions, while an engineer might have exotic gadgets or weapons.

The world is getting smaller as we watch, and aviation lies at the heart of it. Every year, the utility of planes is growing, and their range and power increases in kind. The pilot shares much of his spirit with the explorer, and in many ways is the next step in the chain of discovery.

The explorer may find an exotic locale, but it is the pilot who ties it in to the rest of the world. The Great War made pilots into dashing, romantic figures, and the commercial realities of the post-war era are making them more and more important.

Your passion is in seeing all there is to see, going to strange and exotic locales and bringing the outside world along for the ride, and taking a piece with you when you leave.

Character generation takes place over five phases. The first phase sets up their general background, concept, and early youth. The second covers the events of The Great War the common term of the time for World War I, bringing them to adulthood.

As laid out, character creation is a group activity, done at the same time, with at least three players remember, the more players for a character creation session, the better!

The character creation process includes a number of built-in ways to establish ties and history between the characters and the setting. During character creation, players are encouraged to talk out loud about their characters, make suggestions to each other, discuss how to make their characters intersect, talk about relationships and interactions between the characters, and otherwise establish some of the campaign background.

Your character could be modeled after a particular pulp hero, or could be based around some specific thing that you want to be able to do, like fly with a jetpack, blow things up, or break boards with your head.

Pulp heroes can usually be described briefly, so try to think of a concept that you can express simply. If you can express it with an exclamation point at the end, all the better!

Pulp names can be like any kind of name, but there is usually a particular cadence to them. The most common model is a short first name and a last name which is also a word usually a noun or adjective, but sometimes a proper noun will be a good fit.

Such names are more appropriate if your character also has an alias a la Lamont Cranston and The Shadow or is intentionally cultivating an aristocratic air. While youth may be a time of adventure and excitement, it is also the time when we are most shaped by our family and environs.

When describing events in this phase, consider answers to the following questions:. While the characters may technically have been too young to serve, they may have done so anyway; as exceptional individuals, it would not have been hard for them to fake their age.

Alternatively, they may have spent their time in other parts of the world, dealing with the end of colonialism, or exploring the mysterious East. This is the time when the characters start coming into their own, and begin realizing their true potential.

Each player needs to come up with a title for the novel starring his character, in a fashion reminiscent of the pulps. The general pattern is:. The Redemption Game would be ideal. Then, each player needs to think up a story to go with his title.

At the beginning of this phase, the GM writes down all the book titles on separate sheets of paper or a set of index cards, shuffles the stack, and hands them out. The title of the book a player is now holding is a book that his character had a supporting role in.

Phase five is identical to phase four, with the sole caveat that no character can costar in the same book twice. Players who join after the initial character creation session should ask for volunteers to be in their book volunteers do not get additional aspects, however.

They should also pick two books that sound interesting to costar in. Each player gets to choose skills as shown here. Any skill the character does not explicitly take defaults to Mediocre. Each player selects five stunts for his character.

At the end of the character creation exercise, each player should now have a complete character with:. SotC characters are exceptional, and they could very easily find success in less exciting fields than those that are likely to come the way of the characters, so it is on your head to figure out why your character is going to keep getting involved in these things.

By having a character leave the adventuring life and become wealthy, powerful and successful elsewhere, they beat the system that otherwise forces them to constantly grind against an escalating scale of opposition for negligible rewards.

The thing to remember with SotC is that your character has already won. The true goal, whatever it is for the character, is something that calls for action. Once you have that pinned down, you almost definitely want to reflect it in your choice of aspects.

Aspects can be both useful and dangerous, but they should never be boring. Whenever you choose an aspect, stop a minute to think about what kinds of situations you can imagine using it for, and what kind of trouble it might get you into.

The very best aspects suggest answers to both those questions, and an aspect that can answer neither is likely to be very dull indeed. This is especially handy if the GM suggests the aspect — she probably has a pretty clear idea of what it means when she suggests it, but that idea may not be immediately obvious.

See, there are three very large problems with aspects like this: Boring is a pretty obvious problem. The latter aspect can be used for just as many good things as the former, but it also allows for a much wider range of possibilities.

And that leads to the last point. If nothing else, you have just established that the Secret Brotherhood of the Flame exists in the setting, and the GM will probably turn to you for the details.

For more extensive advice on choosing aspects, see the Aspects chapter, starting at page XX. Sometimes you simply do not have time to do a full character generation and you just want to get started.

In those situations, simply begin with a blank character sheet, and ask each player to choose the following:. This way, the player ends up filling out the skill tree over the course of play.

Similarly, the player may write in aspects and stunts at the point where they would use them. Every time you write down an aspect, take a fate point. The players give a quick blurb of a salient point from their novel and how this reminds them of it, however tenuously.

As soon as this is done, the player gains a fate point. If the player then immediately spends the FP to make a declaration about the scene, the GM may give it extra weight for falling in line with the flashback.

Athletics, Guns, Burglary, Mysteries: Characters have a set of attributes called aspects. By contrast, skills could be said to paint a similar picture of what the character can do.

Scenes also have aspects. Aspects in this context serve as a compact way to describe the relevant details of an environment, and can be used by the characters present in the scene.

In terms of game rules, aspects are the main avenue by which a player gains or spends fate points, a kind of currency that can be spent for bonuses or earned when aspects cause problems for the player.

Some possible aspects for characters include:. GMs should want players to use their aspects; players should pick the ones they want to use, and GMs should encourage them to choose aspects that will be both interesting and useful.

Once a player decides on an idea for an aspect, he needs to figure out what aspect name best describes what he intends; there are usually many possible names for a desired aspect, which can make this choice somewhat difficult.

However, most of the time, an aspect is going to be a phrase, a person or a prop. Phrase aspects come into play based on how well the situation matches them; a colorful phrase adds a lot of flavor and innately suggests several different ways to use it.

This potentially makes phrase aspects some of the most flexible aspects in the game. A person can be anyone important to the character. A friend, an enemy, a family member, a sidekick, a mentor — as long as someone matters to the character, he makes an appropriate aspect.

For example, if a character has his mentor as an aspect, that aspect might be useful for things his mentor would have instructed him on. This sort of interest means time in the limelight.

And interesting comes most strongly from aspects that are neither purely good nor purely bad. As a rule of thumb, when picking an aspect, think of three situations where you can see the aspect coming into play.

This is powerful juju, and the best part is, you are in total control of it with the words you choose for your aspect. So when you pick an aspect, ask yourself: Story aspects suggest one or more sources for stories involving the character, by bringing in an external element from the world at large.

People and prop aspects are almost exclusively story aspects. You can most easily identify a story aspect by asking yourself if the aspect, independent of the character, is something other characters might interact with, affect, and change.

Strange cults, lost artifacts, enemies, hidden lairs, foreign lands, spouses, and more, all fit into this category. Situation aspects suggest the kind of situations a character might be in much more than they suggest the origin of those situations.

Phrase aspects fall strongly into this camp, and they operate as a statement to the GM of the style of stories the player wants his character to be in. You can very easily fall into the trap of creating a character who only has situation aspects.

But if situation aspects are all that your character offers to the game, you run a real risk of being difficult to hook into the bigger storyline. This is why you should be certain to include a few story aspects on your character.

Fundamentally, story aspects offer easy hooks to your GM to pull you into her story. You want this, since you came to the party to play the game. The GM will be grateful to you for it, and that kind of gratitude pays out in the form of a more satisfying game.

Out of all the things in the game, aspects are probably the clearest message you can send to the GM about what you want from the game, short of walking right up to the GM and saying so. You want them reasonably short, because you want to be able to talk about them casually without running out of breath.

Take the time with the GM to speak these unspoken things when you can. Both the player and the GM should look at an aspect not as the end of an idea, but the start of one.

Usually this works out fine — the combined perspectives make the whole greater than the sum — but sometimes the GM and the player will have a radically different idea of what the aspect entails.

Be clear with one another, and figure out how to iron out any differences — ideally, before the fate points start flying. The process of using an aspect begins by declaring that one is relevant.

Either the player or the GM may make this declaration. This is the guiding principle that all specific uses of aspects — invoking, tagging, compelling — start from. Each type of aspect use has specific rules governing how it functions, but if you ever find yourself confused about from there.

An aspect can be used to give you a bonus, when that aspect applies to the situation you are in. Doing this requires spending a fate point see below, and is called invoking the aspect.

Invoking an aspect can be used to either:. Usually this means the player must invoke an aspect that is appropriate to the situation at hand. If the player wants to invoke an inappropriate-seeming aspect, he should be given a chance to describe how the action is appropriate to the aspect.

A player can also invoke an aspect for effect, using it for a related benefit that is not related to a die roll or skill use at all. This costs a fate point like any other invocation does.

For example, a player could invoke a Secret Organization aspect to declare that the group has a chapter in town. This is subject to the same sort of restrictions as spending fate points for minor declarations see page XX but is more potent due to the focus of the aspect.

The scope of the minor declaration can be … well, less minor, and the GM is encouraged to keep this in mind. That said, this is not a method for the players to get away with anything; as always, aspect invocation is only allowed when the GM approves.

The aspects on your character are not the only aspects that you can potentially use. To invoke an aspect other than your own, your character needs to directly interact with the object, location, or person that has the aspect you want to invoke, in a way appropriate to the action in progress.

And that leads us to…. A free tag is subject to one key limitation: This usually means that the free tag must be taken within the same scene that the aspect was introduced. The player who introduced the aspect has the option to pass his free tag to another character if he so wishes.

This can allow for some great setup maneuvers in a fight; one person maneuvers to place an aspect on a target, then passes the free tag to an ally, who attacks, using the advantage.

Tagging often involves temporary aspects that result from maneuvers. Many temporary aspects are fragile, and may disappear after their first tag what does that mean exactly?

If it does turn out to be a compel-worthy circumstance, then the GM may proceed with it. This is a chain reaction; the tag for effect occurs, and concludes with the GM indicating whether or not it struck home.

Sadly for Claudius and ultimately Hamlet! Tags usually happen when the tagger has a clear idea of what aspect is there to be tagged. Guesses are allowed, but are subject to some special rules.

For example, someone might guess that a scene has a Darkness aspect on it and ask if they can tag it for their Stealth roll. If the guess misses the mark, but missing the mark tells the player something significant and potentially secret, the fate point is still spent.

This sort of circumstance almost never comes up with scene aspects, but can come up when guessing at aspects on another character. This will most often happen as the result of a Deceit action see page XX, although it might arise from other circumstances.

In such a case, the deceiver has the option to return the fate point to the tagger, or to leave it spent. If he leaves it spent, the tagger just learned he was duped.

If he returns it to the tagger, things may actually be a bit worse for the tagger: The target whose aspect is compelled usually has the choice of spending a fate point and ignoring the aspect, or taking the consequences and limitations on his choices and receiving a fate point.

When the target accepts the fate point, the aspect is officially compelled. An aspect may limit actions and choice. In this way, the compel highlights the difficulty of the choices at hand by placing limits on those choices.

In come cases, complications may suggest that certain consequences are mandated, such as failing at a particular action — perhaps the character would succeed at a defense roll against a Deceit action, but his Gullible aspect is compelled, forcing a failure if accepted.

In such a case the GM should remember to give the character a fate point. In play, both the GM and players can initiate compels. When the GM initiates a compel, the process is very simple.

The GM remarks that the aspect might be appropriate here, and offers the player a fate point and the player either accepts it and takes appropriate action or accepts appropriate consequence, or he pays one of his fate points to the GM and chooses not to accept the consequences of the compel.

In a perfect world, the GM is always aware of all aspects and always knows when they should be compelled and rewarded. In practice, the GM is keeping track of a lot of stuff, and may not realize that a player has an aspect that is appropriate to the situation.

Sometimes characters simply play to their aspects without thinking to compel them. When that happens, the GM should make a note of it sometimes with the player reminding her and, if possible, award the player with a fate point retroactively.

Compels happen in order to make certain choices or situations more difficult or more dramatic for the compelled character. When two aspects are in conflict with one another, they are both subject to a compel.

If the player can see clear to acting in accordance with both — fantastic! Nothing says she has to compel both aspects. Rarely, in moments of high tension or drama, the GM can choose to escalate a compel.

This is an optional rule, and really should only be used when the character getting compelled is having a defining moment in his or her story. Escalation can occur only when a player has bought out of a compel.

In the rarest of cases, facing a second refusal, the GM may escalate a final time, making the reward and cost to buy out three fate points. If the player is willing to spend three to refuse this truly monstrous compulsion, the book is closed.

To get a sense of how aspects might be used in play, consider the examples below. Sometimes his rage gives him the drive to see things through, but more often it leads him to rash action rather than forethought.

A player might invoke this to: The GM might compel this to: Cause the character to lose his temper at an inappropriate moment. Interfere with any action that requires calm.

The character is an academic, well versed in all manner of obscure lore. His knowledge, unfortunately, is almost entirely from books, and theory is not always the same as practice.

Dig up an obscure fact or other bit of knowledge at the right time. Research like a fiend. The character is a firm believer in the better part of valor, either out of meekness, deep self interest, or some other motivator.

Run, hide, or otherwise get away from something dangerous. Inspire the character to flee when he really needs to stand his ground. The character owes a duty to some one or thing which should come out of creation.

Alternately, the character may simply take all of his responsibilities very seriously. Perform an action which directly upholds the duty. Present a player a choice between upholding his duty or doing something more practical.

Raise an issue of responsibility at an inconvenient moment. The character is a member of the priesthood, and is expected to support the appropriate dogma, as well as accept whatever duties, responsibilities and powers come with the position.

Give a stirring sermon. Resist the powers antithetical to his faith. Attempt to use the resources of his church. Deliver inconvenient orders from a superior. Raise the ire of opposed religions. For whatever reason, the character seeks his own destruction, although he is unwilling to take direct action to do something about it.

Instead, he throws himself wholeheartedly into dangerous situations in the hopes that this time will be his last. Help the character do something stupid and dangerous. Make the character do something stupid and dangerous.

Threaten the house, use the house as the scene of a murder thus pulling the character in. The character has a knack for betrayal. Betrayal comes easily to the character, and while he may be steadfast and true in the end, it would be so easy not to be.

Incite suspicious reactions from NPCs, especially when the character is telling the truth. Offer opportunities to stab comrades in the back. The character is the survivor of many battles, and the experience has shaped him.

He probably was in the Great War, but may possibly have been elsewhere. This is appropriate for a seasoned campaigner who has seen many battles in contrast to Gallipoli, below.

Keep his wits about him in a fight. Assess a tactical situation. Pitch camp in unfriendly country. Introduce old rivals from the other side of the battlefield. The battles over the Dardanelles, the straits separating the Ottoman Empire from Europe, were supposed to be easy, a swift strike at the soft underbelly of Europe against the virtually helpless Turks.

As with Veteran, but also to know a bit about the Turks. As with Veteran, but also for many other consequences. This chapter is focused on getting an idea of what each skill does and why someone might want a particular one for a character.

Skills can be enhanced by the addition of stunts; stunts are covered in their own chapter page XX. Here, each skill has a description of what it does, and a write-up of how it is most commonly used.

Each skill also has a number of trappings, which are the rules for how to use the skill in certain specific circumstances. In some ways, trappings are like stunts which anyone with the skill can perform.

The specific rules governing setting difficulties for these various trappings of a skill are not covered here. Skills can sometimes be combined see page XX. Finally, skills can sometimes be used in partnership with one another, via assessments and declarations.

Sometimes skills will be used in careful assessment well in advance of taking action — maybe as part of putting together a plan, or simply observing the target long enough to learn something that would be a critical advantage.

This approach is most often used with skills that have an element of perception — including Investigation, Empathy, and even Burglary. Here, the skill is not used to place a temporary aspect so much as discover an existing one.

The character making the assessment still can tag this aspect for free, but is still subject to the usual limitations of a free tag — they must do so immediately after revealing it. This usually means that the free tag must be taken within the same scene as the assessment or, if the assessment takes longer than a scene to perform, in the scene which immediately follows.

This provides a reward to balance out the time the player might otherwise spend talking through a more cautious plan. All assessment efforts require the use of a significant chunk of time, usually indicated in the skill write-up.

Perception skills only allow the discovery of what already exists. By contrast, knowledge skills will often allow declaration — in other words, using a knowledge skill successfully can allow a player to introduce entirely new facts into play, and then use those facts to his advantage.

The new facts take the form of a temporary aspect. The GM is encouraged to use creativity as her primary guideline, when judging the use of knowledge skills.

Creative and entertaining facts will be more likely to result in a successful use of a knowledge skill, and thus give rise to a temporary aspect, than boring facts will. For example, an anthropologist with a solid Academics skill might use the declaration ability to state new truths about a tribe the characters have just encountered — and if successful, suddenly the scene or the tribe has an aspect on it in keeping with the fact the player just invented.

As with maneuvering and assessment, the first tagging of this aspect is free. A player, whose character is an expert in architecture, attempts declaration: The player and the GM discuss where it ought to lead, etc.

Now, to find out how to open it Any subsequent uses of such aspects, however, will cost or grant! This does mean that occasionally maneuvers and assessments and declarations will backfire, leading to a compel.

Since aspects are involved, such things are easily double-edged! Fate points may be spent to tag the other aspects that have been assessed or declared on the same roll, and later rolls may use other free tags.

Academics is a knowledge skill. Any knowledge that would not explicitly fall under Science, Mysteries, or Art falls under this skill though some overlap may exist among all of those. Characters with high Academics include scholars of antiquity, professors and know-it-alls.

The main use of Academics is to answer a question. If the character succeeds, he receives the information. If he fails, he does not, but he may still attempt to research the topic see below — or, perhaps more entertainingly, may stumble onto a false lead that gets him deeper into trouble.

Researching a topic is frequently a time-consuming and arduous task, and exactly the sort of thing worth skimming over with a few quick dice rolls. It is treated as an extension of what knowledge the character has — he can answer some questions off the top of his head, and other questions because he knows what book to find the answer in.

As such, research is something that can happen when a character fails an Academics check. Provided the researcher is willing to spend time researching and that the answer can be found the only question is how long it will take and how good a library they have access to more on libraries in a bit.

Academic research requires a library. The quality of the library determines the hardest possible question that can be answered within it so a question of Good difficulty requires a Good library or better.

Most schools and private individuals have Mediocre, Average, or Fair libraries. Small colleges often have Good libraries while larger institutions may have Great ones. Superb and better libraries are few and far between.

Characters may own libraries of their own; see the Resources skill page XX for more. Sometimes the GM just needs to give the group a lot of information, and the character with a high knowledge skill tends to be the conduit of that.

When the GM needs to drop a lot of information on the group, she may ask the character with the most knowledge if she can use them as a mouthpiece. Assuming the player agrees, the GM can share all appropriate background, and is encouraged to give the player a fate point for having his character temporarily commandeered by the GM.

The character may use his knowledge to declare facts, filling in minor details which the GM has not mentioned. These facts must be within the field of Academics, and the GM has the right to veto them.

However, if the GM is all right with it, she may let the player make a declaration and roll Academics against a difficulty she sets. If successful, the fact is true, and if not, the character is mistaken.

Like most Academics rolls, the GM may or may not wish to share the difficulty, so the character may not know if he succeeded. This is a straight up declaration action, as described earlier see page XX.

If the academic or another character takes action based on the declared fact, that person can tag the aspect that has been introduced. If the academic was right, the aspect is placed, and is taggable as described earlier — first one being free.

Languages are part of a good classical education. A character may speak a number of additional languages based on his Academics score. Each step of Academics above Mediocre gives the character knowledge of one additional language so one at Average, two at Fair, and so on.

The player does not need to choose the languages when the character is created; instead, he may simply choose languages in the course of play, as is convenient. Under normal circumstances, the character may know the answer or not, but will not get a wrong answer.

A wrong answer should only be a result of one of two things. First, it may be the result of the compelling of an aspect — the player may be offered a fate point for his character to go haring off on a tangent or to reach the wrong conclusion.

Alternately, it may be as a result of an active deception, such as someone planting bad information. The result of that roll is the difficulty to spot the false information.

When someone tries to discover information that is affected by this deception, he must make an Academics roll as usual. If that roll less than the difficulty set by the deception, then the false information is discovered one step earlier than the real information might be.

If the failure is significant missing the mark by three or more, then the true information may simply be unavailable. If the researcher meets or exceeds the roll for the deception, he finds the false information and recognizes it for what it is.

Specifically, it is the perception skill to notice things the character is not looking for. In an exchange where characters are surprised and as such, are prevented from choosing which skill to roll, Alertness is the skill which is rolled.

In conflicts of an active, physical nature, Alertness determines initiative. Characters with high Alertness include bodyguards, outdoorsmen and criminals of a sneaky variety. Players will rarely ask to roll Alertness — if they are actively looking for something, Investigation is usually more appropriate.

Alertness is more appropriate for things that players and characters do not expect or are not looking for, such as whether they notice a surprise, or if they happen to spot a hidden clue. In short, it is reactive perception.

Whenever ambushed see Stealth, page XX, a character may make one final Alertness check against the Stealth of his attacker, in order to see if he is surprised. If he fails this check, his defense skill is considered to be Mediocre for the first exchange.

This includes knowledge, composition, and performance. Characters with high Art include artists obviously, aristocrats, and those of the avant garde. Art is usually either used as a knowledge skill, for knowledge about art, artists, and what it takes to make art, or as a crafting skill, to create a work of art, or as a social skill to entertain.

As a crafting skill, Art is fairly straightforward — characters can make art of virtually any type of a quality equal to their skill. Sometimes, however, creations must be improvised, and that can be a little more fast and furious.

This usually takes a few minutes, and the character can make a roll to create their piece. Generally speaking, for the duration of the scene where it is displayed, the quality of the piece is equal to their roll, with it degrading one step in each subsequent scene.

While Academics covers the technical building blocks of communication, language, grammar and the like, Art covers the expression of ideas, and as such, covers most means of broad communication, like writing.

There are exceptions, such as dry, academic documents which use pure Academics and poetry which uses just Art. Public speaking is a similar creature, but it is more beholden to the charisma and presence of the speaker — in those cases, Art modifies whatever skill Rapport, Intimidate, Leadership or Deceit the character is using, as long as there is a creative aspect to the communication.

Art can also be used to shape the mood of a group. Normally, this aspect only remains on the scene for the duration of the performance, but some stunts allow this to extend into subsequent scenes.

In effect, this is a declaration on the part of the artist, but limited to declaring mood and emotional impact, rather than anything specific. When making a standard performance, any temporary aspects that result — either by treating the performance as a maneuver, or as an attack yielding consequences — must also be broad and nonspecific.

There is an exception; a performance that very clearly has a target, such as a satire, may plant fairly specific opinions of a target, with the difficulty based on the status of the target.

When a character uses Art to make a forgery, the difficulty depends on the complexity of the thing being duplicated. Having an original on hand can help reduce the difficulty. Deceit should also be used to complement the effort.

Athletics covers running, jumping, climbing, and other broadly physical activities you might find in a track and field event. Characters with high Athletics include athletes, soldiers and outdoorsmen.

As a rule of thumb, Athletics is used to move yourself, Might is used to move other things and people. When an action calls for both, they may modify one another. If there is no clear indication which should be primary, default to Athletics as primary and Might as secondary.

This is not the Olympics — jumping is something one does to get over obstacles or across bottomless chasms, and in those situations the GM will set a fixed difficulty to be met or exceeded.

Generally, that difficulty is going to be the bare minimum to clear the distance, so beating that by a few shifts is often a good idea. Outside of that, jumping is often just considered an extension of normal movement.

For GM advice on setting difficulties and designing jumping challenges, see page XX. A character may use their Athletics to move faster by taking a sprint action. Normally, characters may only move one zone on their turn by turning over one of their shifts as a supplemental action.

Characters who spend their entire action moving are sprinting; rolling Athletics against a target difficulty of Mediocre, they may cross a number of zones and borders equal to or less than the total shifts of effect.

In the absence of borders, characters can always move a minimum of one zone. See page XX for additional details. Athletics is the skill for climbing. The GM will set a difficulty for how hard it is to climb a given obstacle.

For GM advice on setting difficulties and designing climbing challenges, see page XX. When characters fall, they bypass the physical stress track entirely, and hop right to a consequence, with the severity of the consequence being determined by length of the fall.

Characters who fall can roll Athletics to try to limit the severity of the result. For guidelines on the severity of falls, please see the chapter on Running the Game, page XX.

The ability to overcome security systems, from alarms to locks, falls under the auspices of this skill. This also includes knowledge of those systems and the ability to assess them. Characters with a high Burglary include burglars, private eyes and even some cops.

Burglary can also be used as a very specialized perception skill, specifically to assess the weaknesses and strengths of a potential target. Here, the character is trying to determine the existence of inobvious or hidden aspects, using assessment see page XX.

This usage of Burglary can be blurred together with something like declaration, if the player comes up with an entertaining new aspect to place on the target of his future burglaring.

Thus, either the GM can indicate that some flaw exists and has been discovered, or the player can make a declaration about a flaw in the security that he intends to defeat.

When a player is making declarations, casing follows the same guidelines as the minor details trapping for Academics page XX, but is limited to security facts including potential escape routes. Contacting is the ability to find things out from people.

A character may know a guy, who knows a guy, or maybe he just knows the right questions to ask. Whatever his methods, he know hows to find things out by asking around. Characters with high Contacting include reporters, private eyes and spies.

A character with a high Contacting skill knows a wide variety of people and has at least a mild amount of connection with virtually any organization. There are Contacting stunts which give a character deep ties to a specific field like crime or business, and those allow a deeper level of contact within that field.

Contacting does not work in a vacuum. Thankfully, Contacting also covers the skill for building new social networks, so if a character stays in an area for any amount of time, he can diminish the difficulty by one per week spent.

If the Skills roll fails, then the research time investment table may be applied; instead of needing a library, the character needs people to talk to. Contacting finds out what people know, and people always have their own biases.

Information is only as good as the sources it comes from. Contacting rarely tests the veracity of the information provided — save by the discovery, through several sources, that contradictory answers are coming from different sources.

Contacting also keeps the character apprised of the general state of things, and acts as a sort of social Alertness, keeping the character abreast of things that might be coming his way.

Contacting is also useful for planting rumors, not just for ferreting them out. The player simply tells the GM what rumor he wants to plant, and the GM may assign bonuses and penalties based on how preposterous or reasonable the rumor is.

The GM then uses the final roll to determine what the result of the rumor is. Deceit is the ability to lie, simple as that. Characters with high Deceit include grifters, spies, and politicians. For simple deceptions, a contest between Deceit and an appropriate skill usually Empathy, Alertness or Investigation is all that is necessary, but for deeper deceptions, like convincing someone of a lie or selling someone the Brooklyn Bridge, a social conflict is appropriate, complete with Deceit attacks and social stress being dealt.

A character with Deceit may opt to use Deceit instead of Rapport to defend against another character using Empathy to get a read on him. This roll is modified by Rapport. If the character loses his defense roll, then the Empathy reader may proceed as usual — in attempting to hide himself, the character has blundered and revealed a truth.

If the character wins the roll, however, he may provide a false aspect to the reader, sending her off with an utterly fabricated notion of him. When a character tries to take advantage of an aspect that they falsely think is there, it can end up being a waste of a fate point or worse!

See Guessing Aspects, page XX. Deceit can be used for more than just dodging attention; it can be used to riposte a social query with a web of deception. When another character initiates a social contest, including an Empathy read, the character turns the tables, using his Deceit as an offensive skill, and representing any Skills particularly convincing lies as consequences.

However, if the deceiver outclasses his opponent significantly, this can be a powerful technique. Drive is the ability to operate a motorcar, one of the greatest inventions of recent memory.

Mister Ford has put these all over the roads of America, and the first folks truly comfortable behind the wheel are emerging. Why, the most daring speed-demons among them can make the most of its 20 horsepower, nearing speeds of 45 miles per hour!

Characters with high Drive include chauffeurs, racers and getaway drivers. Drive is pretty easy to use. Trying to do something in a car? Roll Drive, simple as that. Cars inevitably lead to chases, one of the major trappings of this skill.

For an extensive treatment of car chase rules, see the GM section on page XX. This is the ability to understand what other people are thinking and feeling. This can be handy if a character is trying to spot a liar or wants to tell someone what that person wants to hear.

Empathy is usable as a defense against Deceit, and is the basis for initiative in a social conflict. Characters with a high Empathy include gamblers, reporters and socialites.

Rapport when reading people. This is an assessment action see page XX. Endurance is the ability to keep performing physical activity despite fatigue or injury. In addition to fatigue, Endurance measures how well a character shrugs off poisons and disease for a treatment of poisons, see page XX.

Characters with a high Endurance include explorers, athletes, and sailors. Endurance is a passive skill. Players will very rarely need to ask to roll Endurance; instead, the GM will call for rolls when appropriate.

Someone without a solid Endurance skill may be a good sprinter, but will find themselves winded and falling behind in a marathon. By default, players have 5 boxes for their Health stress track. Better-than – Mediocre Endurance increases the number of boxes as shown here.

Engineering is the understanding of how machinery works, both for purposes of building it and taking it apart. Characters with a high Engineering include inventors, mechanics, and frequently, drivers and pilots.

An engineer with time and tools can build a variety of items. For details on how to go about that, check out the Gadgets and Gizmos chapter see page XX.

Engineering can be used to repair devices, given the right tools and enough time. Engineering is also the skill for unmaking things. Given time and tools, an engineer can topple virtually any building or structure.

In those circumstances, Engineering works like a very peculiar combat skill, possibly resulting in maneuvers or weirdly indirect attacks like setting up a bridge to collapse when someone walks across it.

With specialized training, this may include the practice of more disciplined fisticuffs, such as the martial arts of the Orient. As a combat skill, Fists allows characters to defend themselves as well as attack.

Fists fighters are also well-versed in a variety of fighting styles from all over the world, and may use this skill as a limited sort of knowledge skill covering those areas. Characters with high Fists include sailors, thugs, and martial artists.

Gambling is the knowledge of how to gamble and moreover, how to win when gambling. It also includes knowledge of secondary things like bookmaking. Characters with a high Gambling include gamblers and dapper secret agents.

Finding a game, or obtaining an invitation to one, requires a Contacting roll complemented by Gambling, with a difficulty equal to the quality of the game page XX.

Characters with the Big Man stunt see page XX can automatically find a game with a quality up to their Gambling skill, but such a game is automatically high stakes see below. However, a high stakes game also includes the potential for complications, like sore losers, or strange table stakes.

Sometimes characters just need to shoot things. Guns can also be used to cover non-gun weapons that shoot at a distance, such as bows and strange electrical spears that shoot lightning, though usually with a small penalty.

If, at the time the player takes the skill, he decides the character is focused on using a method of shooting other than a gun, he may rename this skill to something more appropriate e.

Under such an Skills option, most Guns stunts are still available though Two Bow Joe might be a little tricky. The Guns skill does not allow characters to defend themselves as well as attack; it trades the a defense component for ability to act over greater range.

Guns users are also well-versed in a variety of small arms, large arms, and ammunitions, and may use this skill as a limited sort of knowledge skill covering those areas.

Characters with high Guns include soldiers, assassins, and hunters. If someone is devoted to using Guns as a strong component of their fighting style, it can safely be assumed that they possess at least one or two guns, regardless of Resources rating though whether or not they will be allowed to such things whereever they go is another matter entirely.

This is, of course, subject to the rigors of character concept and GM approval. There are more graceful social skills for convincing people to do what a character wants, but those skills tend not to have the pure efficiency of communicating that failing to comply may well result in some manner of harm.

Using Intimidation is a blatant social attack, which someone can defend against with their Resolve. This is the skill for interrogation as opposed to interviewing as well as scaring the bejeezus out of someone.

The lesson here is simple: Intimidation works best from a position of power. Achieve that position first, then apply the skill. If things get to the point of a face off, there are a lot of other actions an opponent can do other than stand there and be intimidated, such as disengage or pull out a weapon.

However, one of the real strengths of Intimidation is at the first flash of contact, when people instinctively get out of the way of someone intimidating. Intimidation can establish a powerful, menacing first impression.

If successful, the target is taken aback for a moment, generally long enough to brush past them, though usually with plenty of time to call for help if appropriate.

Android memiliki komunitas pengembang dan penggemar aktif yang menggunakan kode sumber Android untuk mengembangkan dan mendistribusikan versi modifikasi Android buatan mereka. Mereka berupaya untuk terus memberikan dukungan bagi perangkat-perangkat lama yang tak lagi menerima pembaruan resmi, ataupun memodifikasi perangkat Android agar bisa berjalan dengan menggunakan sistem operasi lain, misalnya.

Komunitas ini seringkali merilis pembaruan bagi perangkat pra-, dan berisi modifikasi yang tidak cocok bagi pengguna non-teknis, misalnya kemampuan untuk atau prosesor perangkat.

Secara historis, produsen perangkat dan operator seluler biasanya tidak mendukung pengembangan firmware oleh pihak ketiga. Produsen khawatir bahwa akan muncul fungsi yang tidak sesuai jika perangkat menggunakan yang tidak resmi, sehingga akan menyebabkan munculnya biaya tambahan.

Selain itu, firmware modifikasi seperti CyanogenMod kadang-kadang menawarkan fitur yang membuat operator harus mengeluarkan biaya premium, misalnya. Akibatnya, kendala teknis seperti terkuncinya bootloader dan terbatasnya akses root umumnya bisa ditemui di kebanyakan perangkat Android.

Namun, perangkat lunak buatan komunitas pengembang semakin populer, dan setelah Kongres Pustakawan Amerika Serikat mengizinkan “” perangkat seluler, produsen ponsel dan operator mulai memperlunak sikap mereka terhadap pengembang pihak ketiga.

Beberapa produsen ponsel, termasuk, , dan, mulai memberikan dukungan dan mendorong pengembangan perangkat lunak pihak ketiga. Sebagai hasilnya, kendala untuk memasang tidak resmi mulai berkurang secara bertahap setelah meningkatnya jumlah perangkat yang memiliki kemampuan untuk membuka bootloader, sama dengan seri ponsel Nexus, meskipun pengguna harus kehilangan perangkat mereka jika melakukannya.

Akan tetapi, meskipun produsen ponsel telah menyetujui pengembangan perangkat lunak pihak ketiga, beberapa operator seluler di masih mewajibkan ponsel penggunanya untuk “dikunci”. Kemampuan untuk membuka dan meretas sistem pada telepon pintar dan tablet terus menjadi sumber perdebatan antar komunitas pengembang dan industri; komunitas beralasan bahwa pengembangan tidak resmi dilakukan karena industri gagal memberikan pembaruan yang tepat waktu bagi pengguna, atau untuk tetap melanjutkan dukungan versi terbaru bagi perangkat lama mereka.

Aplikasi Android berjalan di, sebuah area terisolasi yang tidak memiliki akses pada sistem, kecuali izin akses yang secara eksplisit diberikan oleh pengguna ketika memasang aplikasi.

Sebelum memasang aplikasi, akan menampilkan semua izin yang diperlukan, misalnya: Setelah meninjau izin tersebut, pengguna dapat memilih untuk menerima atau menolaknya, dan bisa memasang aplikasi hanya jika mereka menerimanya.

Sistem sandbox dan perizinan pada Android bisa mengurangi dampak kerentanan terhadap pada aplikasi, namun ketidaktahuan pengembang dan terbatasnya dokumentasi telah menghasilkan aplikasi yang secara rutin meminta izin yang tidak perlu, sehingga mengurangi efektivitasnya.

Beberapa perusahaan keamanan perangkat lunak seperti, , , dan, telah merilis perangkat lunak antivirus ciptaan mereka untuk perangkat Android. Perangkat lunak ini sebenarnya tidak bekerja secara efektif karena sandbox juga bekerja pada aplikasi tersebut, sehingga membatasi kemampuannya untuk memindai sistem secara lebih mendalam.

Hasil penelitian perusahaan keamanan menunjukkan bahwa penyalahgunaan layanan premium adalah tipe malware paling umum yang menyerang Android; pesan teks akan dikirim dari ponsel yang telah terinfeksi ke nomor telepon premium tanpa persetujuan atau sepengetahuan pengguna.

Perangkat perusak lainnya akan menampilkan iklan yang tidak diinginkan pada perangkat, atau mengirim informasi pribadi pada pihak ketiga yang tak berwenang. Ancaman keamanan pada Android dilaporkan tumbuh secara bertahap, namun teknisi di Google menyatakan bahwa perangkat perusak dan ancaman virus pada Android hanya dibesar-besarkan oleh perusahaan antivirus untuk alasan komersial, dan menuduh industri antivirus memanfaatkan situasi tersebut untuk menjual produknya kepada pengguna.

Google baru-baru ini menggunakan pemindai perangkat perusak untuk mengawasi dan memindai aplikasi di Google Play. Tindakan ini bertujuan untuk menandai aplikasi yang mencurigakan dan memperingatkan pengguna atas potensi masalah pada aplikasi sebelum mereka mengunduhnya.

Sistem akan memberikan peringatan yang memberitahukan pengguna ketika aplikasi mencoba mengirim pesan teks premium, dan memblokir pesan tersebut, kecuali jika pengguna mengizinkannya.

Telepon pintar Android memiliki kemampuan untuk melaporkan lokasi titik akses, terutama jika pengguna sedang bepergian, untuk menciptakan basis data yang berisi lokasi fisik dari ratusan juta titik akses tersebut.

Basis data ini membentuk peta elektronik yang bisa memosisikan lokasi telepon pintar. Hal ini memungkinkan pengguna untuk menjalankan aplikasi seperti, , , dan untuk mengirimkan iklan berbasis lokasi.

Beberapa perangkat lunak pemantau pihak ketiga juga bisa mendeteksi saat informasi pribadi dikirim dari aplikasi ke server jarak jauh. Sifat sumber terbuka Android memungkinkan perusahaan keamanan untuk menyesuaikan perangkat dengan penggunaan yang sangat aman.

Misalnya, Samsung bekerja sama dengan General Dynamics melalui proyek “Knox”. Mereka bisa membaca hampir keseluruhan informasi pada telepon pintar, termasuk, lokasi, , dan catatan.

Google menerbitkan sebagian besar kode termasuk kode jaringan dan telepon di bawah versi 2. Sisanya, perubahan berada di bawah versi 2. Selebihnya, Android dikembangkan secara pribadi oleh, dengan kode sumber yang diterbitkan untuk umum ketika versi baru diluncurkan.

Biasanya Google bekerja sama dengan produsen perangkat keras untuk mengembangkan sebuah perangkat “andalan” misalnya seri Google Nexus yang disertai dengan versi baru Android, kemudian menerbitkan kode sumbernya setelah perangkat tersebut dirilis.

Pada awal, Google memilih untuk menahan sementara kode sumber Android untuk tablet yang dirilis dengan versi 3. Menurut dalam sebuah posting blog resmi Android, alasannya karena Honeycomb dirilis untuk berjalan pada produk, dan Google tidak ingin pihak ketiga “memperburuk pengalaman pengguna” dengan mencoba mengoperasikan versi Android yang ditujukan untuk tablet pada telepon pintar.

Kode sumber tersebut akhirnya dipublikasikan pada bulan November dengan dirilisnya Android 4. Meskipun bersifat terbuka, produsen perangkat tidak bisa menggunakan Android Google seenaknya, kecuali Google menyatakan bahwa perangkat tersebut sesuai dengan Compatibility Definition Document CDD mereka.

Perangkat juga harus memenuhi lisensi persyaratan aplikasi sumber tertutup Google, termasuk. Mereka berpendapat bahwa dan yang diperlukan untuk mengoperasikan Android bersifat eksklusif, dan Google Play juga menawarkan perangkat lunak.

Android disambut dengan hangat ketika diresmikan pada tahun Meskipun para analis terkesan dengan perusahaan teknologi ternama yang bermitra dengan Google untuk membentuk Open Handset Alliance, masih diragukan apakah para produsen ponsel akan bersedia mengganti sistem operasinya dengan Android.

Gagasan mengenai sumber terbuka dan berbasis Linux telah menarik minat para pakar teknologi, tetapi juga muncul kekhawatiran mengenai persaingan ketat yang akan dihadapi Android dengan pemain mapan di pasar telepon pintar seperti dan.

Nokia menanggapinya dengan menyatakan: Android dengan cepat tumbuh menjadi telepon pintar yang paling banyak digunakan, dan menjadi “salah satu sistem operasi seluler tercepat yang pernah ada.

Alhasil, situs teknologi menyebut Android sebagai “sistem operasi standar untuk meluncurkan perangkat keras baru” bagi perusahaan tanpa harus memiliki platform seluler sendiri. Sifat Android yang terbuka dan fleksibel juga dinikmati oleh pengguna: Android memungkinkan penggunanya untuk mengkustomisasi perangkatnya secara ekstensif, dan aplikasi juga tersedia bebas di toko aplikasi non-Google dan di situs-situs pihak ketiga.

Faktor ini menjadi salah satu keunggulan yang dimiliki oleh ponsel Android jika dibandingkan dengan ponsel lainnya. Meskipun Android sangat populer, dengan tingkat aktivasi perangkat tiga kali lipat lebih tinggi dari, ada laporan yang menyatakan bahwa Google belum mampu memanfaatkan produk mereka secara maksimal, dan layanan web pada akhirnya mengubah Android menjadi penghasil uang, seperti yang telah diperkirakan oleh para analis sebelumnya.

SVP Google, , yang posisinya sebagai kepala divisi Android digantikan pada bulan Maret, disalahkan karena gagal dalam membangun kemitraan yang sehat dengan para produsen ponsel. Pemimpin utama produk-produk Android di pasar global adalah ; salah satu produknya, , berperan penting dalam pengenalan merek Android sejak tahun Sedangkan produsen ponsel Android lainnya seperti LG, HTC, dan milik Google, telah berjuang keras untuk memasarkan produknya sejak tahun Ironisnya, di saat Google tidak mendapatkan apapun dari hasil penjualan produk Android secara langsung, dan malah berhasil memenangkan gugatan atas pembayaran royalti dari produsen perangkat Android.

Android juga dikatakan sangat “terfragmentasi”, yaitu suatu kondisi saat berbagai perangkat Android, baik dari segi variasi perangkat keras dan perbedaan perangkat lunak yang berjalan, ditugaskan untuk mengembangkan aplikasi agar bisa berjalan secara konsisten, lebih rumit jika dibandingkan dengan iOS, yang aplikasinya kurang bervariasi.

Sebagai contoh, menurut data pada Juli, terdapat Meskipun sukses di telepon pintar, pengadopsian Android untuk awalnya berjalan lambat. Salah satu penyebab utamanya adalah adanya situasi yang dikenal dengan “”, yaitu kondisi ketika konsumen ragu-ragu untuk membeli tablet Android karena kurangnya aplikasi tablet yang berkualitas tinggi, sementara di sisi lain, para pengembang juga ragu-ragu untuk menghabiskan waktu dan sumber daya mereka untuk mengembangkan aplikasi tablet sampai tersedianya pasar yang signifikan bagi produk tersebut.

Konten dan “ekosistem” aplikasi terbukti lebih penting jika dibandingkan dengan perangkat keras setelah dimulainya penjualan tablet. Karena kurangnya aplikasi untuk tablet pada, tablet Android awalnya terpaksa harus memasang aplikasi yang diperuntukkan bagi telepon pintar, sehingga ukuran layarnya tidak cocok dengan layar tablet yang besar.

Selain itu, lambannya pertumbuhan tablet Android juga disebabkan oleh dominasi Apple yang memiliki banyak aplikasi yang kompatibel dengan tablet. Pertumbuhan aplikasi tablet Android perlahan-lahan mulai meningkat, namun, di saat yang bersamaan, sejumlah besar tablet yang menggunakan sistem operasi lain seperti dan juga dirilis ke pasaran untuk memanfaatkan keberhasilan iPad.

InfoWorld menjuluki bisnis ini dengan sebutan “bisnis Frankenphone”; suatu peluang investasi rendah jangka pendek yang memaksakan penggunaan OS telepon pintar Android yang dioptimalkan sebelum Android 3.

Pendekatan ini gagal meraih traksi pasar dengan konsumen serta memperburuk reputasi tablet Android. Terlebih lagi, beberapa tablet Android seperti dibanderol dengan harga yang sama, atau lebih mahal dari iPad, yang semakin memperburuk penjualan.

Pengecualian ada pada, yang dijual dengan harga lebih murah dan kemampuan untuk mengakses konten dan “ekosistem” aplikasi Amazon. Hal ini mulai berubah pada tahun dengan dirilisnya, dan adanya dorongan dari Google kepada para pengembang untuk menciptakan aplikasi tablet yang lebih baik.

Pangsa pasar tablet Android akhirnya berhasil menyalip iPad pada pertengahan Pada bulan Juli, Google mengungkapkan bahwa terdapat Pada bulan September, juta perangkat Android telah diaktifkan, dengan 1,3 juta aktivasi per hari.

Pada Mei, di, Sundar Pichai mengumumkan bahwa total perangkat Android yang telah diaktifkan berjumlah juta. Pangsa pasar Android bervariasi menurut lokasi.

Dari,1 juta telepon pintar yang terjual pada bulan Agustus, September, dan Oktober, sekitar juta di antaranya adalah perangkat Android. Tabel di bawah ini menampilkan data mengenai persentase jumlah perangkat Android yang mengakses Google Play baru-baru ini, dan menjalankan Android versi tertentu hingga tanggal.

Ada beberapa kekhawatiran mengenai mudahnya aplikasi berbayar Android untuk. Pada bulan Mei, , pengembang, menyatakan bahwa rasio pemain bajakan vs pemain asli adalah 9: Pada, Google merilis sebuah alat yang berfungsi memvalidasi pembelian resmi untuk digunakan dalam aplikasi, tetapi pengembang mengeluh bahwa hal itu tidak cukup efisien.

Google menjawab bahwa alat tersebut dimaksudkan sebagai kerangka sampel bagi para pengembang untuk memodifikasi dan mengembangkannya sesuai dengan kebutuhan mereka, bukan sebagai solusi untuk mengakhiri pembajakan.

Pada tahun, Google merilis sebuah fitur dalam Android 4. Baik Android maupun produsen ponsel Android telah terlibat dalam berbagai kasus hukum. Pada tanggal 12 Agustus, menggugat Google atas tuduhan pelanggaran hak cipta dan paten yang berhubungan dengan bahasa pemrograman.

Oracle awalnya menuntut ganti rugi sebesar,1 miliar, namun tuntutan ini ditolak oleh pengadilan federal Amerika Serikat, yang meminta Oracle untuk merevisi gugatannya.

Sebagai tanggapan, Google mengajukan beberapa pembelaan, mengklaim bahwa Android tidak melanggar paten atau Oracle, bahwa paten Oracle tidak valid, dan beberapa pembelaan lainnya. Pihak Oracle menyatakan bahwa Android berbasis pada, implementasi perpustakaan kelas Java, dan secara independen mengembangkan mesin virtual yang disebut.

Pada bulan Mei, juri dalam kasus ini menemukan bahwa Google tidak melanggar paten Oracle, dan hakim memutuskan bahwa struktur API Java yang digunakan oleh Google tidak memiliki hak cipta.

Selain tuntutan secara langsung terhadap Google, berbagai “” juga dilancarkan terhadap Android secara tidak langsung dengan menargetkan produsen perangkat Android, dengan tujuan untuk memperkecil peluang produsen tersebut mengadopsi platform Android dan meningkatkan biaya peluncuran produk Android ke pasaran.

Kasus pelanggaran paten antara Samsung dan Microsoft berakhir dengan kesepakatan bahwa Samsung akan mengalokasikan lebih banyak sumber daya untuk mengembangkan dan memasarkan ponsel dengan sistem operasi besutan Microsoft.

Google secara terbuka menyatakan kefrustrasiannya dalam menghadapi gugatan pelanggaran paten di Amerika Serikat, menuduh bahwa Apple, Oracle, dan Microsoft sedang berupaya untuk melemahkan kedigjayaan Android melalui litigasi paten, alih-alih berinovasi dan bersaing dengan cara menciptakan produk dan layanan yang lebih baik.

Pada, Google membeli seharga,5 miliar. Upaya ini dipandang sebagai langkah pertahanan Google untuk melindungi Android, karena Motorola Mobility memegang lebih dari Pada Desember, Google juga membeli lebih dari seribu paten dari.

Pada, Fairsearch, sebuah organisasi yang didukung oleh Microsoft, Oracle, dan lainnya, mengajukan keluhan terhadap Android pada, menyatakan bahwa distribusi perangkat Android yang bebas biaya merupakan bentuk persaingan harga anti-kompetitif.

Sifat Android yang terbuka dan bisa dikustomisasi menyebabkan sistem operasi ini juga digunakan pada perangkat elektronik lainnya, termasuk laptop dan, , , dan dan.

Selain itu, sistem operasi Android juga mengembangkan aplikasinya pada kacamata pintar, jam tangan, , CD mobil dan pemutar, cermin, , , dan. Mengontrol lampu dikatakan dapat dikendalikan dari ponsel atau tablet Android.

Pimpinan Android Andy Rubin menegaskan bahwa “menyalakan dan mematikan lampu bukanlah hal yang baru, Google berpikir lebih ambisius dan tujuannya adalah untuk menggunakan posisinya sebagai penyedia jasa guna membawa produk-produk Google ke rumah pelanggan.

Pada bulan Agustus, Parrot meluncurkan sistem stereo mobil dengan platform Android, yang dikenal dengan Asteroid dan dilengkapi dengan perintah suara. Pada September, Clarion merilis sistem stereo mobil dengan platform Android yang lebih maju, yang dikenal dengan AX1 dan Mirage, menggunakan Android 2.

Berbagai perangkat lainnya, meskipun tidak menggunakan Android, juga dirancang dengan antarmuka yang berfungsi sebagai pendamping atau pelengkap bagi perangkat Android, misalnya atau.

The integrated Road Research Facility IRRF is a unique research initiative committed to the evolution of sustainable roadway construction. This behavior requires special construction considerations; the IRRF endeavors to identify these requirements and their implications.

By employing innovative methods and advanced technologies, the IRRF ventures to progress engineering construction and design practices with alternate and sustainable road solutions. We pride ourselves in being a full-service propane company, and we are even more proud to be serving the southeast Texas communities that we live in.

Unlike most other propane companies in our area, Green’s Blue Flame does not charge extra fees for our services; when we quote you a price, that is the price you will pay.

Our experienced staff is dedicated to providing exceptional propane service for your home or business! Android Layar depan Android 7. Layar notifikasi pada ponsel Android yang diakses dengan menggeser dari bagian atas layar.

Dukungan resmi bit untuk semua platforms diperkenalkan dalam Android 5. Diakses tanggal June 6, Diakses tanggal January 25, Diakses tanggal December 8, Diakses tanggal September 21, Diakses tanggal February 20, Android Open Source Project.

Diakses tanggal September 9, Why Apache Software License? For userspace that is, non-kernel software, we do in fact prefer ASL2. Android is about freedom and choice. The purpose of Android is promote openness in the mobile world, but we don’t believe it’s possible to predict or dictate all the uses to which people will want to put our software.

So, while we encourage everyone to make devices that are open and modifiable, we don’t believe it is our place to force them to do so. Using LGPL libraries would often force them to do so.

Diarsipkan dari tanggal February 24, The New York Times. Diakses tanggal May 27, Shankland, Stephen November 12, Developer Economics Q3 analyst report — — Retrieved July Diakses tanggal 2 July Arthur, Charles 30 July Diakses tanggal 1 August Diakses tanggal 16 May Markoff, John November 4, Kirsner, Scott September 2, Diarsipkan dari tanggal January 4, Vogelstein, Fred April Diakses tanggal June 2, Vance, Ashlee 27 July Diakses tanggal 3 November Block, Ryan August 28, Sharma, Amol; Delaney, Kevin J.

Diarsipkan dari tanggal July 3, McKay, Martha December 21, And don’t hold your breath, but the same cell phone-obsessed tech watchers say it won’t be long before Google jumps headfirst into the phone biz.

Claburn, Thomas September 19, Diarsipkan dari tanggal July 12, Richard Wray March 14, Ganapati, Priya June 11, Diakses tanggal 9 January Chu, Eric 13 April Diakses tanggal 15 May ZD Net, 15 Oktober Warman, Matt 7 June Telegraph Media Group Limited.

Diakses tanggal 19 June Huffington Post, Betsy Isaacsen, January 4, Diakses tanggal 5 April The New York Times, 11 Oktober Rubin, Andy 29 Oktober Diakses tanggal 29 Oktober March 15, Diakses tanggal September 3, Tim Bray November 24, Paul, Ryan February 23, Google shows no sign of working to get their code upstream anymore.

Some companies are trying to strip the Android-specific interfaces from their codebase and push that upstream, but that causes a much larger engineering effort, and is a pain that just should not be necessary.

Brian Proffitt August 10, Brian Proffitt April 15, Vaughan-Nichols September 7, The character is the survivor of many battles, and the experience has shaped him. He probably was in the Great War, but may possibly have been elsewhere.

This is appropriate for a seasoned campaigner who has seen many battles in contrast to Gallipoli, below. Keep his wits about him in a fight. Assess a tactical situation. Pitch camp in unfriendly country.

Introduce old rivals from the other side of the battlefield. The battles over the Dardanelles, the straits separating the Ottoman Empire from Europe, were supposed to be easy, a swift strike at the soft underbelly of Europe against the virtually helpless Turks.

As with Veteran, but also to know a bit about the Turks. As with Veteran, but also for many other consequences. This chapter is focused on getting an idea of what each skill does and why someone might want a particular one for a character.

Skills can be enhanced by the addition of stunts; stunts are covered in their own chapter page XX. Here, each skill has a description of what it does, and a write-up of how it is most commonly used.

Each skill also has a number of trappings, which are the rules for how to use the skill in certain specific circumstances. In some ways, trappings are like stunts which anyone with the skill can perform.

The specific rules governing setting difficulties for these various trappings of a skill are not covered here. Skills can sometimes be combined see page XX. Finally, skills can sometimes be used in partnership with one another, via assessments and declarations.

Sometimes skills will be used in careful assessment well in advance of taking action — maybe as part of putting together a plan, or simply observing the target long enough to learn something that would be a critical advantage.

This approach is most often used with skills that have an element of perception — including Investigation, Empathy, and even Burglary. Here, the skill is not used to place a temporary aspect so much as discover an existing one.

The character making the assessment still can tag this aspect for free, but is still subject to the usual limitations of a free tag — they must do so immediately after revealing it. This usually means that the free tag must be taken within the same scene as the assessment or, if the assessment takes longer than a scene to perform, in the scene which immediately follows.

This provides a reward to balance out the time the player might otherwise spend talking through a more cautious plan. All assessment efforts require the use of a significant chunk of time, usually indicated in the skill write-up.

Perception skills only allow the discovery of what already exists. By contrast, knowledge skills will often allow declaration — in other words, using a knowledge skill successfully can allow a player to introduce entirely new facts into play, and then use those facts to his advantage.

The new facts take the form of a temporary aspect. The GM is encouraged to use creativity as her primary guideline, when judging the use of knowledge skills. Creative and entertaining facts will be more likely to result in a successful use of a knowledge skill, and thus give rise to a temporary aspect, than boring facts will.

For example, an anthropologist with a solid Academics skill might use the declaration ability to state new truths about a tribe the characters have just encountered — and if successful, suddenly the scene or the tribe has an aspect on it in keeping with the fact the player just invented.

As with maneuvering and assessment, the first tagging of this aspect is free. A player, whose character is an expert in architecture, attempts declaration: The player and the GM discuss where it ought to lead, etc.

Now, to find out how to open it Any subsequent uses of such aspects, however, will cost or grant! This does mean that occasionally maneuvers and assessments and declarations will backfire, leading to a compel.

Since aspects are involved, such things are easily double-edged! Fate points may be spent to tag the other aspects that have been assessed or declared on the same roll, and later rolls may use other free tags.

Academics is a knowledge skill. Any knowledge that would not explicitly fall under Science, Mysteries, or Art falls under this skill though some overlap may exist among all of those. Characters with high Academics include scholars of antiquity, professors and know-it-alls.

The main use of Academics is to answer a question. If the character succeeds, he receives the information. If he fails, he does not, but he may still attempt to research the topic see below — or, perhaps more entertainingly, may stumble onto a false lead that gets him deeper into trouble.

Researching a topic is frequently a time-consuming and arduous task, and exactly the sort of thing worth skimming over with a few quick dice rolls. It is treated as an extension of what knowledge the character has — he can answer some questions off the top of his head, and other questions because he knows what book to find the answer in.

As such, research is something that can happen when a character fails an Academics check. Provided the researcher is willing to spend time researching and that the answer can be found the only question is how long it will take and how good a library they have access to more on libraries in a bit.

Academic research requires a library. The quality of the library determines the hardest possible question that can be answered within it so a question of Good difficulty requires a Good library or better.

Most schools and private individuals have Mediocre, Average, or Fair libraries. Small colleges often have Good libraries while larger institutions may have Great ones. Superb and better libraries are few and far between.

Characters may own libraries of their own; see the Resources skill page XX for more. Sometimes the GM just needs to give the group a lot of information, and the character with a high knowledge skill tends to be the conduit of that.

When the GM needs to drop a lot of information on the group, she may ask the character with the most knowledge if she can use them as a mouthpiece. Assuming the player agrees, the GM can share all appropriate background, and is encouraged to give the player a fate point for having his character temporarily commandeered by the GM.

The character may use his knowledge to declare facts, filling in minor details which the GM has not mentioned. These facts must be within the field of Academics, and the GM has the right to veto them.

However, if the GM is all right with it, she may let the player make a declaration and roll Academics against a difficulty she sets. If successful, the fact is true, and if not, the character is mistaken.

Like most Academics rolls, the GM may or may not wish to share the difficulty, so the character may not know if he succeeded. This is a straight up declaration action, as described earlier see page XX.

If the academic or another character takes action based on the declared fact, that person can tag the aspect that has been introduced. If the academic was right, the aspect is placed, and is taggable as described earlier — first one being free.

Languages are part of a good classical education. A character may speak a number of additional languages based on his Academics score. Each step of Academics above Mediocre gives the character knowledge of one additional language so one at Average, two at Fair, and so on.

The player does not need to choose the languages when the character is created; instead, he may simply choose languages in the course of play, as is convenient. Under normal circumstances, the character may know the answer or not, but will not get a wrong answer.

A wrong answer should only be a result of one of two things. First, it may be the result of the compelling of an aspect — the player may be offered a fate point for his character to go haring off on a tangent or to reach the wrong conclusion.

Alternately, it may be as a result of an active deception, such as someone planting bad information. The result of that roll is the difficulty to spot the false information.

When someone tries to discover information that is affected by this deception, he must make an Academics roll as usual. If that roll less than the difficulty set by the deception, then the false information is discovered one step earlier than the real information might be.

If the failure is significant missing the mark by three or more, then the true information may simply be unavailable. If the researcher meets or exceeds the roll for the deception, he finds the false information and recognizes it for what it is.

Specifically, it is the perception skill to notice things the character is not looking for. In an exchange where characters are surprised and as such, are prevented from choosing which skill to roll, Alertness is the skill which is rolled.

In conflicts of an active, physical nature, Alertness determines initiative. Characters with high Alertness include bodyguards, outdoorsmen and criminals of a sneaky variety.

Players will rarely ask to roll Alertness — if they are actively looking for something, Investigation is usually more appropriate. Alertness is more appropriate for things that players and characters do not expect or are not looking for, such as whether they notice a surprise, or if they happen to spot a hidden clue.

In short, it is reactive perception. Whenever ambushed see Stealth, page XX, a character may make one final Alertness check against the Stealth of his attacker, in order to see if he is surprised.

If he fails this check, his defense skill is considered to be Mediocre for the first exchange. This includes knowledge, composition, and performance. Characters with high Art include artists obviously, aristocrats, and those of the avant garde.

Art is usually either used as a knowledge skill, for knowledge about art, artists, and what it takes to make art, or as a crafting skill, to create a work of art, or as a social skill to entertain.

As a crafting skill, Art is fairly straightforward — characters can make art of virtually any type of a quality equal to their skill. Sometimes, however, creations must be improvised, and that can be a little more fast and furious.

This usually takes a few minutes, and the character can make a roll to create their piece. Generally speaking, for the duration of the scene where it is displayed, the quality of the piece is equal to their roll, with it degrading one step in each subsequent scene.

While Academics covers the technical building blocks of communication, language, grammar and the like, Art covers the expression of ideas, and as such, covers most means of broad communication, like writing.

There are exceptions, such as dry, academic documents which use pure Academics and poetry which uses just Art. Public speaking is a similar creature, but it is more beholden to the charisma and presence of the speaker — in those cases, Art modifies whatever skill Rapport, Intimidate, Leadership or Deceit the character is using, as long as there is a creative aspect to the communication.

Art can also be used to shape the mood of a group. Normally, this aspect only remains on the scene for the duration of the performance, but some stunts allow this to extend into subsequent scenes.

In effect, this is a declaration on the part of the artist, but limited to declaring mood and emotional impact, rather than anything specific. When making a standard performance, any temporary aspects that result — either by treating the performance as a maneuver, or as an attack yielding consequences — must also be broad and nonspecific.

There is an exception; a performance that very clearly has a target, such as a satire, may plant fairly specific opinions of a target, with the difficulty based on the status of the target. When a character uses Art to make a forgery, the difficulty depends on the complexity of the thing being duplicated.

Having an original on hand can help reduce the difficulty. Deceit should also be used to complement the effort. Athletics covers running, jumping, climbing, and other broadly physical activities you might find in a track and field event.

Characters with high Athletics include athletes, soldiers and outdoorsmen. As a rule of thumb, Athletics is used to move yourself, Might is used to move other things and people.

When an action calls for both, they may modify one another. If there is no clear indication which should be primary, default to Athletics as primary and Might as secondary. This is not the Olympics — jumping is something one does to get over obstacles or across bottomless chasms, and in those situations the GM will set a fixed difficulty to be met or exceeded.

Generally, that difficulty is going to be the bare minimum to clear the distance, so beating that by a few shifts is often a good idea. Outside of that, jumping is often just considered an extension of normal movement.

For GM advice on setting difficulties and designing jumping challenges, see page XX. A character may use their Athletics to move faster by taking a sprint action. Normally, characters may only move one zone on their turn by turning over one of their shifts as a supplemental action.

Characters who spend their entire action moving are sprinting; rolling Athletics against a target difficulty of Mediocre, they may cross a number of zones and borders equal to or less than the total shifts of effect.

In the absence of borders, characters can always move a minimum of one zone. See page XX for additional details. Athletics is the skill for climbing. The GM will set a difficulty for how hard it is to climb a given obstacle.

For GM advice on setting difficulties and designing climbing challenges, see page XX. When characters fall, they bypass the physical stress track entirely, and hop right to a consequence, with the severity of the consequence being determined by length of the fall.

Characters who fall can roll Athletics to try to limit the severity of the result. For guidelines on the severity of falls, please see the chapter on Running the Game, page XX. The ability to overcome security systems, from alarms to locks, falls under the auspices of this skill.

This also includes knowledge of those systems and the ability to assess them. Characters with a high Burglary include burglars, private eyes and even some cops.

Burglary can also be used as a very specialized perception skill, specifically to assess the weaknesses and strengths of a potential target. Here, the character is trying to determine the existence of inobvious or hidden aspects, using assessment see page XX.

This usage of Burglary can be blurred together with something like declaration, if the player comes up with an entertaining new aspect to place on the target of his future burglaring.

Thus, either the GM can indicate that some flaw exists and has been discovered, or the player can make a declaration about a flaw in the security that he intends to defeat.

When a player is making declarations, casing follows the same guidelines as the minor details trapping for Academics page XX, but is limited to security facts including potential escape routes.

Contacting is the ability to find things out from people. A character may know a guy, who knows a guy, or maybe he just knows the right questions to ask. Whatever his methods, he know hows to find things out by asking around.

Characters with high Contacting include reporters, private eyes and spies. A character with a high Contacting skill knows a wide variety of people and has at least a mild amount of connection with virtually any organization.

There are Contacting stunts which give a character deep ties to a specific field like crime or business, and those allow a deeper level of contact within that field.

Contacting does not work in a vacuum. Thankfully, Contacting also covers the skill for building new social networks, so if a character stays in an area for any amount of time, he can diminish the difficulty by one per week spent.

If the Skills roll fails, then the research time investment table may be applied; instead of needing a library, the character needs people to talk to. Contacting finds out what people know, and people always have their own biases.

Information is only as good as the sources it comes from. Contacting rarely tests the veracity of the information provided — save by the discovery, through several sources, that contradictory answers are coming from different sources.

Contacting also keeps the character apprised of the general state of things, and acts as a sort of social Alertness, keeping the character abreast of things that might be coming his way.

Contacting is also useful for planting rumors, not just for ferreting them out. The player simply tells the GM what rumor he wants to plant, and the GM may assign bonuses and penalties based on how preposterous or reasonable the rumor is.

The GM then uses the final roll to determine what the result of the rumor is. Deceit is the ability to lie, simple as that. Characters with high Deceit include grifters, spies, and politicians.

For simple deceptions, a contest between Deceit and an appropriate skill usually Empathy, Alertness or Investigation is all that is necessary, but for deeper deceptions, like convincing someone of a lie or selling someone the Brooklyn Bridge, a social conflict is appropriate, complete with Deceit attacks and social stress being dealt.

A character with Deceit may opt to use Deceit instead of Rapport to defend against another character using Empathy to get a read on him. This roll is modified by Rapport.

If the character loses his defense roll, then the Empathy reader may proceed as usual — in attempting to hide himself, the character has blundered and revealed a truth. If the character wins the roll, however, he may provide a false aspect to the reader, sending her off with an utterly fabricated notion of him.

When a character tries to take advantage of an aspect that they falsely think is there, it can end up being a waste of a fate point or worse! See Guessing Aspects, page XX. Deceit can be used for more than just dodging attention; it can be used to riposte a social query with a web of deception.

When another character initiates a social contest, including an Empathy read, the character turns the tables, using his Deceit as an offensive skill, and representing any Skills particularly convincing lies as consequences.

However, if the deceiver outclasses his opponent significantly, this can be a powerful technique. Drive is the ability to operate a motorcar, one of the greatest inventions of recent memory.

Mister Ford has put these all over the roads of America, and the first folks truly comfortable behind the wheel are emerging. Why, the most daring speed-demons among them can make the most of its 20 horsepower, nearing speeds of 45 miles per hour!

Characters with high Drive include chauffeurs, racers and getaway drivers. Drive is pretty easy to use. Trying to do something in a car? Roll Drive, simple as that. Cars inevitably lead to chases, one of the major trappings of this skill.

For an extensive treatment of car chase rules, see the GM section on page XX. This is the ability to understand what other people are thinking and feeling. This can be handy if a character is trying to spot a liar or wants to tell someone what that person wants to hear.

Empathy is usable as a defense against Deceit, and is the basis for initiative in a social conflict. Characters with a high Empathy include gamblers, reporters and socialites. Rapport when reading people.

This is an assessment action see page XX. Endurance is the ability to keep performing physical activity despite fatigue or injury. In addition to fatigue, Endurance measures how well a character shrugs off poisons and disease for a treatment of poisons, see page XX.

Characters with a high Endurance include explorers, athletes, and sailors. Endurance is a passive skill. Players will very rarely need to ask to roll Endurance; instead, the GM will call for rolls when appropriate.

Someone without a solid Endurance skill may be a good sprinter, but will find themselves winded and falling behind in a marathon. By default, players have 5 boxes for their Health stress track.

Better-than – Mediocre Endurance increases the number of boxes as shown here. Engineering is the understanding of how machinery works, both for purposes of building it and taking it apart.

Characters with a high Engineering include inventors, mechanics, and frequently, drivers and pilots. An engineer with time and tools can build a variety of items. For details on how to go about that, check out the Gadgets and Gizmos chapter see page XX.

Engineering can be used to repair devices, given the right tools and enough time. Engineering is also the skill for unmaking things. Given time and tools, an engineer can topple virtually any building or structure.

In those circumstances, Engineering works like a very peculiar combat skill, possibly resulting in maneuvers or weirdly indirect attacks like setting up a bridge to collapse when someone walks across it.

With specialized training, this may include the practice of more disciplined fisticuffs, such as the martial arts of the Orient. As a combat skill, Fists allows characters to defend themselves as well as attack.

Fists fighters are also well-versed in a variety of fighting styles from all over the world, and may use this skill as a limited sort of knowledge skill covering those areas. Characters with high Fists include sailors, thugs, and martial artists.

Gambling is the knowledge of how to gamble and moreover, how to win when gambling. It also includes knowledge of secondary things like bookmaking. Characters with a high Gambling include gamblers and dapper secret agents.

Finding a game, or obtaining an invitation to one, requires a Contacting roll complemented by Gambling, with a difficulty equal to the quality of the game page XX.

Characters with the Big Man stunt see page XX can automatically find a game with a quality up to their Gambling skill, but such a game is automatically high stakes see below.

However, a high stakes game also includes the potential for complications, like sore losers, or strange table stakes. Sometimes characters just need to shoot things.

Guns can also be used to cover non-gun weapons that shoot at a distance, such as bows and strange electrical spears that shoot lightning, though usually with a small penalty. If, at the time the player takes the skill, he decides the character is focused on using a method of shooting other than a gun, he may rename this skill to something more appropriate e.

Under such an Skills option, most Guns stunts are still available though Two Bow Joe might be a little tricky. The Guns skill does not allow characters to defend themselves as well as attack; it trades the a defense component for ability to act over greater range.

Guns users are also well-versed in a variety of small arms, large arms, and ammunitions, and may use this skill as a limited sort of knowledge skill covering those areas.

Characters with high Guns include soldiers, assassins, and hunters. If someone is devoted to using Guns as a strong component of their fighting style, it can safely be assumed that they possess at least one or two guns, regardless of Resources rating though whether or not they will be allowed to such things whereever they go is another matter entirely.

This is, of course, subject to the rigors of character concept and GM approval. There are more graceful social skills for convincing people to do what a character wants, but those skills tend not to have the pure efficiency of communicating that failing to comply may well result in some manner of harm.

Using Intimidation is a blatant social attack, which someone can defend against with their Resolve. This is the skill for interrogation as opposed to interviewing as well as scaring the bejeezus out of someone.

The lesson here is simple: Intimidation works best from a position of power. Achieve that position first, then apply the skill. If things get to the point of a face off, there are a lot of other actions an opponent can do other than stand there and be intimidated, such as disengage or pull out a weapon.

However, one of the real strengths of Intimidation is at the first flash of contact, when people instinctively get out of the way of someone intimidating. Intimidation can establish a powerful, menacing first impression.

If successful, the target is taken aback for a moment, generally long enough to brush past them, though usually with plenty of time to call for help if appropriate. Investigation is the ability to look for things and, hopefully, find them.

This is the skill used when the character is actively looking for something, such as searching a crime scene or trying to spot a hidden enemy. Investigation is the skill most commonly called for when the character wants to look for something like clues.

It is also useful for eavesdropping or any other activity where someone is trying to observe something over a period of time. When looking for deep patterns and hidden flaws, Investigation may be used as an assessment action see above, page XX.

This also means that an equivalent Investigation effort is nearly always going to yield better, more in-depth, information than an Alertness effort would; the downside is that Investigation is far more time consuming.

Leadership is a multi-faceted skill. A good leader knows how to direct and inspire people, but he also understands how to run an organization. As such, the Leadership skill covers acts of both types.

Characters with a high Leadership include military officers, politicians, bureaucrats, and lawyers. Any organization which the character is in charge of uses his Leadership as its default value for any question of how organized it is.

This establishes the difficulty for things like bribery or theft, and also gives a general sense of how quickly and efficiently the organization acts. A good leader has knowledge of organizations and the rules that govern them, including knowledge of laws, bribery and other means of dealing with red tape; this is why Leadership is a key skill for lawyers.

Leadership serves as an all-purpose knowledge skill for knowing how to act in a given organization, including important things like how much to bribe. Leadership can be used to direct troops, workers or any other group activity.

While attached minions cannot normally act, when they are being directed by the character with leadership, they act as if they were not attached. This is a measure of pure physical power, be it raw strength or simply the knowledge of how to use the strength one has.

For lifting, moving and breaking things, Might is the skill of choice. Might may be used indirectly as well, to modify, complement, or limit some skill uses.

Characters with a high Might include strongmen, laborers, and lords of the jungle. In combat, Might can be used to help with particular applications of Fists and Weapons — if force is a very significant element at play, Might will modify the primary skill.

Such a switch would result from a maneuver of some sort. Might is the skill of choice for applying brute force to break things in halves or smaller pieces, and includes breaking boards, knocking down doors and the like.

Using Might, items can be damaged over time or broken with a single dramatic blow. For guidelines on breaking things, see page XX. Might also controls how much the character can lift or move. The weight of the thing being moved sets the difficulty for the roll.

For a discussion of weight and the lifting of heavy things, see page XX. There is more to the world than science has explained yet. Ethereal photography, mesmerism and other mentalist tricks, rituals of lost pre-Roman empires, secrets of the distant East — all these and more are known to a master of Mysteries.

Characters with high Mysteries include mystics, explorers, and adventurous archaeologists. The actual use of Mysteries is fairly flexible — in appropriate situations it can serve as a knowledge skill like Academics, a perception skill like Alertness, or even something else entirely.

The GM may occasionally call upon a character to roll Mysteries in the same way she might ask for Alertness rolls. Occasionally, it may allow the player an assessment action to discover hidden aspects of a locale that are shrouded in mystic and arcane ways.

Mysteries can be used for hypnosis. People are hypnotized because they want to be, and they suffer no lasting consequences. There are no post-hypnotic suggestions or other mind control tricks though certain mesmerism-focused Mysteries stunts break this rule.

Despite those limitations, mesmerism does have some practical uses. First, it can be useful to recover lost memories. A mesmerist can put another character in a trance and give them a chance to try to remember a scene more precisely.

Additionally, a Mesmerist can put a willing subject into a calming trance to help them ignore external distractions. This can be very useful in leading a panicked arachnophobe though a room full of spiders or the like.

Mysteries can be used in the same way Academics can, for research of exceptionally esoteric topics. The main limitation is that libraries necessary for this sort of research are few and far between, though characters may have an Arcane Library of their own if they have sufficient Resources see page XX.

Casting tarot, throwing chicken bones or reading horoscopes — a character can use Mysteries to try to make guesses about the future. The knowledge gleaned is never terribly specific, but it allows the player to determine if a course of action is auspicious.

The character should summarize the fortune as best they can, ideally to something that could go on a fortune cookie. The GM can guide a player through building a proper fortune, using her guidelines page XX.

Fortune-telling is a form of declaration. The character may, once per session, make a prediction, and make a roll against a difficulty set by the GM. If the target of the fortune was a person, they receive the temporary aspect for the duration of the adventure.

If it was a general prediction, it is considered to be a scene aspect on every scene for the duration of the adventure. Mysteries can be used to create artifacts and talismans in much the same way that Engineering can.

This requires an Arcane Workshop of appropriate level, but otherwise follows most of the same guidelines as Engineering see page XX. Perhaps even more exciting than the automobile is the airplane. The Great War brought numerous advances in aviation into the world, and the pilot is still a dashing, heroic figure.

With the end of the war, the commercial and practical applications of aviation are beginning to be explored. Characters with a high Pilot are usually professional pilots, though it is sometimes the domain of the idle rich.

In play, the trappings of Drive can easily apply to Pilot as well. Any time a character wants to communicate without an implicit threat, this is the skill to use, which makes it appropriate for interviewing.

Characters with high Rapport include grifters, reporters, and good cops. The first time a character meets someone, the GM may call for a quick Rapport roll to determine the impression the character makes.

For more guidelines governing first impressions, see page XX. Rapport controls the face the character shows to the world, and that includes what they choose not to show. As such, when a character tries to use Empathy to get a read on a character, it is opposed by Rapport.

Characters skilled in Rapport are able to control which side of their personality is shown to others, seeming to open up while actually guarding their deepest secrets. Since true things are still revealed about the character, this is not an inherently deceptive action.

When a character opens up, he defends against an Empathy read with Rapport, as usual. If his opponent succeeds and generates at least one shift, he finds something out, as usual. This can effectively be used to stonewall someone without the obvious poker face of Closing Down.

On top of it all, the character opening up can always choose to reveal something that the other character already knows about. It plays a key part in efforts to resist torture or the strange mental powers of psychic villainy.

Resolve is almost always rolled in response to something, rather than on its own. Its primary role is as defense against most kinds of social manipulation or distraction. Resolve also shines in situations which have spun very much out of control.

Characters with a high Resolve have a distinct advantage in continuing to keep their head about them and respond calmly. Similarly, when all seems lost, a character with a strong Resolve is often capable of soldiering on.

Resolve is the mental or social parallel to physical Endurance. By default, players have a Composure capacity of 5, but they may increase that capacity based upon their Resolve.

Better than Mediocre Resolve adds more boxes to the stress track as shown here. Usually Resources is simply a measure of available wealth, but the specific form this takes, from a secret family silver mine to a well invested portfolio, can vary from character to character and may be indicated and enhanced by their aspects.

Some large-scale conflicts may be about trying to out-spend the other guy; here, Resources can act as an attack or defense skill. These expenditures are tracked by the organization, and as such, if subterfuge is important, personal resources are a wiser choice.

The cost of items is measured on the adjective ladder for an examination of the costs of things, please see page XX. Characters can buy reasonable quantities of anything of a value less than their Resources without worr ying about it.

For items greater than or equal to their Resources, they need to roll against the cost of the thing. Characters can only make one Resources roll per scene. Characters are generally assumed to have all the tools they would normally need to do their job, whether that job is fixing engines or shooting people.

Still, sometimes a situation will arise where something needs to be bought. When that happens, the price is measured in terms of how much Resources it requires. Characters are assumed to live in accordance to their means, which may mean that rich characters may not even need to go shopping.

Part of the passive measure of Resources is the tools and spaces the character has access to. Workspaces are environments where a character can perform a certain type of work, and owning and maintaining a world-class lab or library requires a certain amount of resources.

Characters may use their Resources to set up the tools they need for their job. For the various types of skills which need workspaces, the breakdown is as shown in the following table. See the respective skills for more details.

If the character wishes to have a specialized workspace, such as a workshop that can only work on guns, they may have it at a quality equal to their Resources-1 instead.

This skill represents a broad knowledge of entific method, and includes the field of medicine. Characters with a high Science include scientists and physicians, but any gentleman of quality has at least some familiarity with the sciences.

The GM will call for a roll to see if the character can answer the question. In the end, this functions the same as Academics performing research in a library see page XX. Pulp scientists are broadly versed, and this includes a basic understanding of medicine.

A character can use the Science skill for first aid and more advanced medicine. See page XX for a discussion of the difficulties in using Science for medical purposes.

More importantly, Science here means pulp science. Do mathematical equations Is there a cure for lycantrophy and vampirism? Of course there is, and Dr. Thanatos has a glowing syringe to prove it in his bag!

Is phlogiston, the subatomic particle of fire, a valid theory? When confronted with a challenge, the character can apply a scientific explanation, and roll against a difficulty set by the GM.

This is a declaration action. The hand can certainly be quicker than the eye. This skill covers fine, dexterous activities like stage magic, pickpocketing, and replacing an idol with a bag of sand without tripping a trap.

Characters with a high Sleight of Hand include stage magicians, pickpockets, and jugglers. Characters may use Sleight of Hand to try to hide things in plain sight, and may use Sleight of Hand to oppose any perception check for something that they could try to hide, misplace, or distract attention from.

When a character uses this skill to hide something, his skill roll indicates the difficulty of any Investigation rolls to find it. This is the ability to remain unseen and unheard.

Directly opposed by Alertness or Investigation, this ability covers everything from skulking in the shadows to hiding under the bed. Characters with a high Stealth include burglars, assassins, and sneaky children.

Skulking is the art of moving while trying to remain unnoticed. It uses many of the same rules as Hiding, but is somewhat more difficult for obvious reasons. While we can be sure that heroes would never strike an opponent from ambush, they may end up on the receiving end of such nefarious actions!

When a strike is made from ambush, the target gets one last Alertness check to see if he notices something at the last moment. On a success, the target s can defend normally. This is the skill of outdoorsmen.

It covers hunting, trapping, tracking, building fires, and lots of other wilderness skills that a civilized man has no use for. Characters with a high Survival include explorers, hunters, scouts, and lords of the jungle.

Survival also covers the breadth of interaction with animals, from training them to communicating with them, albeit in a limited fashion. This includes handling beasts of burden and carriage animals, as well as common pets.

Survival serves as a stand-in for all social skills when dealing with animals. Not to say animals are great conversationalists, but when one is trying to soothe or stare down an animal, Survival is the skill to roll.

The horse is not yet absent from the landscape, and other exotic beasts occasionally need riding across deserts and through time-forgotten jungles. The Survival skill may be used for riding animals, and should operate much as Drive does when it comes to chases.

Survival also covers the basics of riding. Characters looking to be accomplished horsemen should consider the Equestrian stunt from Athletics page XX, but for getting by and not falling off a horse, Survival does the job.

Whether the character personally commands a mount may be subject to character concept or judicious application of the Resources skill. Truly exceptional mounts are the domain of stunts.

Survival can be used to construct blinds and other ways to help remain hidden outdoors. On a Mediocre roll, a character can build a blind or otherwise create a place to hide, which lets Survival modify Stealth rolls.

Such a construction takes a few hours to build, and will last a day, plus one extra day per shift. If characters need to scrounge up something from the wilderness — sticks, bones, sharp rocks, vines that can serve as rope and so on — they can roll Survival to find these things.

This is the skill for fighting with weapons, from swords to knives to axes to clubs to whips. The exact weapon is more of a choice of style than anything else, as this covers everything from fencing in European salons to sailors using knives and batons on the docks.

The Weapons skill also covers the ability to throw small handheld weapons up to one zone away, or to use weapons like a whip with unusually long reach to attack adjacent zones, so a character would use this skill to be a good knife fighter and knife thrower.

This gives Weapons-focused characters a small leg up on folks who fight with their Fists, with the downside that a Weapons user needs to have a weapon in hand in order to make much use of the skill.

As a combat skill, Weapons inherently carries the ability to defend oneself in a fight and as such, may be rolled for defense. Weapons users are also well-versed in a variety of fighting styles and weapons, and may use this skill as a limited sort of knowledge skill covering those areas.

Characters with high Weapons include sailors, fencers, and some kinds of athletes and circus performers. If someone is devoted to using Weapons as a strong component of their fighting style, it can safely be assumed that they possess the sufficient weaponry in order to make use of the skill, regardless of Resources rating.

Stunts exist to provide guaranteed situational benefits, or special abilities or minor powers, under particular circumstances. A stunt may grant a character the ability to use a skill under unusual circumstances, such as using it in a broader array of situations, substituting it for another skill, or using it in a complementary fashion to another skill.

A stunt might allow a character to gain an effect roughly equal to two shifts, when used in a specific way, or otherwise grant other small effects. Put more simply, stunts allow the usual rules about skills to be broken — or at least bent.

Some stunts may have prerequisites other stunts or even aspects. Particularly potent stunts may also require the use of a fate point in order to activate. In general, a character should not take a stunt tied to a skill he does not have at least at Average.

What follows is not a comprehensive list of stunts. GMs and players under GM supervision are encouraged to create their own to fit their game. The important thing to keep in mind is that entry level stunts — without prerequisites — are the baseline; if the effect of the stunt is really unusual or particularly potent, it may be somewhere down the line of a chain of stunts.

The stunts in this chapter are presented skill by skill, and under each skill they are further divided into thematic groups. As mentioned in Character Creation, characters start with five stunts. Normally, someone may only speak a number of additional languages equivalent to the value of his Academics skill.

With this stunt, your character may speak five additional languages. The Linguist stunt may be taken multiple times in order to increase this number. The character is always considered to have a library on hand of a quality equal to his Academics skill, enabling him to answer questions with a base difficulty less than or equal to his Academics skill, using nothing other than his brain and some time for contemplation.

See the time table on page XX for more. Your photographic memory extends outside of books. Once per scene, you may spend a fate point and roll Academics against a difficulty of Mediocre.

Each shift you generate may be used to specify a target that you wish to memorize as you might a book — returning later, in your mind, to assess new details using an appropriate perception skill, usually Investigation.

Your character is a respected authority in a specific academic field. Possibilities include history, English, archeology, mathematics and so on. In the elite circles of that particular field, you are recognized for your expertise.

Even if your skill level is low, it merely means you are towards the bottom of that particular group of the elite. Beyond this, you should pick a specific specialization within that area like ancient Sumerian history, or cryptography.

Any research efforts involving the specialization take one unit less time; this may be combined with Walking Library, in the Memory group of stunts, for lightning-fast research.

When taking part in an academic conference or otherwise interacting with others in the field, you may use Academics to complement your social skills Rapport, Empathy, Deceit, etc.

This stunt may be taken more than once, each time for an additional field. The bonuses may not overlap, however. Once per session, you can use this ability when you are about to perform an action which your academic field touches upon.

The connection can be tenuous, provided you can explain to the GM how it might apply. If you get at least one shift, you successfully declare one aspect; for every two shifts you gain beyond the first, you may declare one additional aspect about the subject in question so two aspects total at 3 shifts, three aspects total at 5 shifts, etc.

If you opt to declare only one aspect in total, you may instead convert these additional shifts into non-aspect facts. You may spend a fate point to go first in an exchange, regardless of your initiative.

If the exchange has already started, and you have not yet acted, you may instead spend a fate point to act next, out of the usual turn order. Your character must not have acted yet in the exchange in order to use the ability in this way.

This stunt breaks ties whenever facing opponents with the same initiative. If your character has this stunt, you may bend that rule. Whenever you choose to hold your action, you may spend a fate point before someone acts to have that person truthfully declare what he is about to do.

You may then use your held action to block see page XX the action your target has declared, using whatever skill is appropriate to create the block. If you are not opting to block the effort, you may not use your held action before your target, and your target may proceed.

If you commit to performing a block action regardless of what your target declares, before he declares it, you do not need to spend the fate point. Be clear about this when you make your demand!

Regardless, if you do act and your most recent target then changes his mind based on that block, he must do so as a supplemental action page XX, putting him at a If he continues his declared course of action despite what you did, he must overcome the block.

The character maintains a quick and easy awareness of ambushes and other nasty surprises — perhaps preternaturally, perhaps simply due to finely tuned mundane senses.

The character is never surprised; he may always take a full defensive action when ambushed, and his base defense is never reduced to Mediocre by surprise. Not only is the character never surprised, he is never forced onto a defensive footing by an ambush.

The ambush rules simply do not apply to him; in the first exchange, where others may normally only defend if that, he may act freely, in normal initiative order. The character has tuned his Alertness to the point where, if he takes a normal Investigation length of time to open his senses to a location, he can gather an Investigation level of detail about it, without really going through the motions of a methodical search.

When acting in this fashion, he may use Alertness instead of Investigation which, really, is nearly all of the cases where he might use Investigation. The trick with the results, here, is that they may come to the character with a different set of details than a methodical approach would yield.

Conclusions may precede supporting details; the GM might choose to describe the middle part of a piece of information before the beginning or the end. Such are the hazards of Alertness. The artist is always examining the world for the creative hand at work.

While this does not reveal identity, it does allow the artist to determine common traits, themes, and behaviors with ease. If the character has encountered several products of the same person, he may see past those things to the person — thus confirming a common source.

When encountering a work of art in any form, the character may roll Art to gain insight into the artist behind the work, as if he were using the Empathy skill on the actual artist resisted by the usual skills.

This stunt may only be used once per piece of art. Taken as a whole, this stunt allows the artist to make assessment efforts against his target in absentia.

The character is a master of some specific form of art — painting, composition, singing, conducting or playing music, or the like. The character is a virtuoso in his field and recognized worldwide for his skill.

Even if his actual skill level is not high, he is still on the list of the finest artists in the world, just not necessarily at the top of it. When applicable, the virtuoso may produce works of art one time increment faster than would normally take.

Whenever the artist uses his art to place an aspect on the scene, the aspect remains in place in any subsequent scenes involving the audience, up to a day from the end of the performance.

At its best, this can essentially move such an aspect from a scene to the story itself, persisting across many scenes and many office members. The artist has a way with words, and knows how to craft the most exquisite insults.

The artist may choose a target normally, and that target need not be in the audience though it should be one familiar to the audience. Normally, aspects resulting from a performance may not be specific; with this stunt, however, the player may specify the target in any aspect he puts on the scene.

The character halves any additional difficulty bonuses due to distractions rounded down ; see page XX for details. At that point, normally it would stop being a performance and be more about trying to fool someone — crossing over to Deceit.

Your works and performances are heavily sought out, and there are those who will pay handsomely for it. Once per session, you may use your Art skill instead of Resources, representing a successful past commission.

Your widespread name and your art are interlinked as one. When identif ying yourself in order to get your way in a social or other applicable situation, you may complement Rapport, Intimidation, Deceit and Contacting rolls with your Art skill.

Your reputation as an artist is so well known that it occasionally covers up for your social shortcomings. For a fate point, you may use your Art skill instead of Rapport, Intimidation, Contacting, or Deceit, provided those you are dealing with are aware of your reputation a second fate point will nearly always assure that they are.

You can fit into and through spaces and shapes that no normal human readily can. Normally, contorting tasks are impossible to attempt, or at best default to a non-existent Contortion skill rated at Mediocre.

With this stunt, you can use your full Athletics score instead, and have rationale to attempt feats of contortion that are simply unavailable to others. You are able to perform any number of impressive acrobatic feats.

Difficulties assigned for complex maneuvers while acting e. When used acrobatically, your Athletics skill can never be used to restrict another skill, only complement it.

The character can skip effortlessly down sheer surfaces without harm, allowing him to safely fall great distances. When the character falls, but is near a solid surface, such as the wall of a shaft, or has sufficient other things like ropes to offset his fall, all falls are treated as two categories shorter and may be reduced another step with Athletics as normal.

You know how to conserve your energy when undergoing lengthy athletic activity long-distance running, multi-day climbs, etc. You may use Athletics instead of Endurance under such circumstances, and in most other cases may complement any Endurance rolls with your Athletics.

You are incredibly fast on your feet. Whenever taking a sprint but not move action using Athletics, the value of that action is improved by two. You are simply, astonishingly fast. Furthermore, you face no penalties for moving one zone as a supplemental action.

The character may reduce any height related borders see page XX by up to three. The character can use Athletics instead of Survival for all maneuvers when riding horses or other riding animals.

You have an acute understanding of what it takes to burglarize a place, and can investigate such crimes from the perspective of the criminal instead of the cop. You may use your Burglary skill instead of Investigation when investigating a theft or other act such as arson committed by someone using the Burglary skill.

You may roll Burglary instead of Alertness or Investigation in order to uncover or otherwise avoid stumbling onto a trap. When your GM calls for an Alertness roll, be sure to make her aware that you have this stunt — it may change the skill to roll.

You are always aware of exactly how much time has passed, and further, may use Burglary instead of Alertness as your initiative skill while everything is going to plan. Characters with this stunt never suffer an increased difficulty for lacking proper tools on a Burglary roll, and when given proper tools, can defeat locks at one time increment faster than usual.

Requires Mental Blueprint and at least one other Burglary stunt. With this stunt, however, if the character gains spin on his roll, he may reveal or declare one or more additional aspects one additional aspect at 3 shifts, two at 5 shifts, or three at 7 or more shifts.

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Kemampuan untuk membuka dan meretas sistem pada telepon pintar dan tablet terus menjadi sumber perdebatan antar komunitas pengembang dan industri; komunitas beralasan bahwa pengembangan tidak resmi dilakukan karena industri gagal memberikan pembaruan yang tepat waktu bagi pengguna, atau untuk tetap melanjutkan dukungan versi terbaru bagi perangkat lama mereka. Sometimes, however, creations must be improvised, and that can be a little more fast and furious. Oleh sebab itu, telepon pintar lama seringkali tidak diperbarui jika produsen memutuskan bahwa itu hanya menghabiskan waktu, meskipun sebenarnya perangkat tersebut mampu menerima pembaruan. Akibatnya, kendala teknis seperti terkuncinya bootloader dan terbatasnya akses root umumnya bisa ditemui di kebanyakan perangkat Android. Still, sometimes a situation will arise where something needs to be bought. The specific rules governing setting difficulties for these various trappings of a skill are not covered here.

Sifat Android yang terbuka juga telah mendorong munculnya sejumlah besar komunitas pengembang aplikasi untuk menggunakan kode sumber terbuka sebagai dasar proyek pembuatan aplikasi, dengan menambahkan fitur-fitur baru bagi pengguna tingkat lanjut atau mengoperasikan Android pada perangkat yang secara resmi dirilis dengan menggunakan sistem operasi lain. The character may use his knowledge to declare facts, filling in minor details which the GM has not mentioned. However, a high stakes game also includes the potential for complications, like sore losers, or strange table stakes. The artist has a way with words, and knows how to craft the most exquisite insults.

An aspect may limit actions and choice. Secara standar, Android tidak memiliki asli ataupun dukungan set lengkap dari perpustakaan standar. Any knowledge that would not explicitly fall under Science, Mysteries, or Art falls under this skill though some overlap may exist among all of those. Each step of Academics above Mediocre gives the character knowledge of one additional language so one at Average, two at Fair, and so on.

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The stunts in this chapter are presented skill by skill, and under each skill they are further divided into thematic groups. If things get to the point of a face off, there are a lot of other actions an opponent can do other than stand there and be intimidated, such as disengage or pull out a weapon. Characters with high Guns include soldiers, assassins, and hunters. See…

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