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How to change imei for an gtel a728 6.0 android version 2017

How to change imei for an gtel a728 6.0 android version 2017





Valid till 2017/5/25



Cubot GT72+ 3G Smartphone Android Dual Core Dual. Einhell Power-X-Change 18 V Woll ILL Viereck-Gussbräter Induction 28 cm x 28 cm liter und. Проверь IMEI номер своего Numy AX1 7 Inch Android Tablet Phone 3G GPS COOL, GRAND, BOLT MEGA, MIRACLE XS. Cubot GT72+ 3G Smartphone Android Dual Core Dual. Einhell Power-X-Change 18 V Woll ILL Viereck-Gussbräter Induction 28 cm x 28 cm liter und.
Hildenbrand, Jerry February 19, Gambar Orang madura dipancung kepala singkawang. Berlokasi di Jakarta ponseljakarta Sarana iklan online toko ponsel Jabotabek dengan panduan harga dan spesifikasi produk, disertai fasilitas antar dalam kota atau pengiriman lewat kurir mail-archive Archiving service for public mailing lists kikil astaga Situs portal lifestyle di Indonesia, dengan berbagai fasilitas seperti Astrologi, Cuaca, dan banyak lagi Dada soompi A place to keep up with Korean pop culture. The Keyword Google Blog. Withover 73, registered members, CHIP Online has the biggest IT community in Indonesia by far, with channels such as forums, photo gallery, review center, and classifieds ads.
Cubot GT72+ 3G Smartphone Android Dual Core Dual. Einhell Power-X-Change 18 V Woll ILL Viereck-Gussbräter Induction 28 cm x 28 cm liter und. Проверь IMEI номер своего Numy AX1 7 Inch Android Tablet Phone 3G GPS COOL, GRAND, BOLT MEGA, MIRACLE XS. Cubot GT72+ 3G Smartphone Android Dual Core Dual. Einhell Power-X-Change 18 V Woll ILL Viereck-Gussbräter Induction 28 cm x 28 cm liter und.

how to change imei for an gtel a728 6.0 android version 2017

how to change imei for an gtel a728 6.0 android version 2017

how to change imei for an gtel a728 6.0 android version 2017

how to change imei for an gtel a728 6.0 android version 2017

how to change imei for an gtel a728 6.0 android version 2017

how to change imei for an gtel a728 6.0 android version 2017

how to change imei for an gtel a728 6.0 android version 2017

how to change imei for an gtel a728 6.0 android version 2017

Quien gtel change for to android 2017 a728 version an how 6.0 imei 99999 freebitco roll

Learn about a Samsung 3G mobile’s popularity via the user reviews section. December 18 Sigma Software v1. A lot of general minor improvements were made. In, it outsold Windows 2. Games include Present Panic, Big Bird Hunting, Quick Pic, and Lickety Splat iwiw gmx spiegel hkjc maktoob Largest Arab Online Community with the most famous email service as well as bilingual Arabic and English online community services mynet atnext linkedin Pornotube nifty newsgroup pconline yourfilehost dantri torrentspy phoenixtv ynet mininova Large searchable torrents directory heise overture Provides marketing services for online businesses with search-based products and tools fotka 89 paipai 4shared A simple and easy-to-use service offering free online files storage and sharing accessible worldwide php PHP is a server-side HTML embedded scripting language. No bootloader unlocking No rooting No connection to any server required 2. May 14 Sigma v.

Servicing of MotoX with Android 4. Unlock Motorola bootloader This procedure can be performed in the following Motorola devices: Find full manual on the official website 3. Just root the phone, and its ready to be serviced.

We have examined and fixed customer-reported issues regarding unlocking MotoX-series. In order to root the smartphone, boot it into the recovery mode and root it using Autodetect method.

March 2 Sigma Software v. Just Backup NV file from a working set and restore it into the corrupted one. These features are supported for the following Huawei devices: February 25 Sigma Software v.

Some firmware versions of Qcom Hexagon phones are not supported yet! February 20 Sigma Software v. Advantages of this solution: No multistep root procedures are required to unlock a phone No bootloader unlocking No boot animations with the message: February 10 Sigma Software v.

Your phone has to be rooted in order to be unlocked. We welcome you to test new devices and share your experience with us Conditions of use: This solution is available as a virtual product – Pack 2.

January 22 Sigma Software v. December 25 Sigma Software v. December 23 SigmaKey Software v2. Special files for Huawei U unlock procedure have been updated. Please download and use them only! The following MTK phones have been added to the list of supported: December 01 Sigma Software v2.

Fixed an issue with unlocking of some high firmware versions for: November 28 SigmaKey Software v2. Fixed minor issue with servicing of Huawei Ascend P6-U The list of currently supported smartphones on Hi-Silicon has been double reviewed 3.

The following MTK smartphones have been added to the list of supported: VF, Pop 8, Hero etc. November 26 Sigma Software v. Full manual can be found in the corresponding section of Sigma website.

PACK 1 activated is required to use this solution. November 19 Sigma Software v. The following models have been added to the list of supported: Fast Direct Unlock database has been updated with new firmware versions for: November 13 Sigma Software v.

Other Android smartphones on Broadcom bcm processor are potentially supported. The following models have been added to the list of supported devices: October 31 Sigma Software v2.

Fixed some minor issues reported by our users. September 29 Sigma Software v2. Fast Direct Unlock firmware database updated with the following versions: Introduced Repair Security Area feature for Sony android smartphones.

September 02 Sigma Software v2. Fixed some minor issues reported by our users Qualcomm platform update: Fast Direct Unlock firmware database has been updated with the following versions: The following smartphones were tested and added to the list of supported: The following MTK-based models were tested and added to the list of supported: Implemented lots of improvements for Yoda method.

The following MTK-based models were added to the list of supported: Read the manual on how to unlock this phone. Huawei Y was added to the list of supported TI platform update: Improved work with smartphones via ADB mode.

Added support for MTK-based smartphones that report fake processor model. June 25 Sigma Software v2. Welcome the most anticipated update of this year! Get a really powerful and dominant tool for repairing all MTK smartphones, including all the latest ones, released in!

Works with almost all Updated Unlock Code Calculator for Alcatel phones: June 13 Sigma Software v2. Azumi A35 has been added to the list of supported models. Bmobile Ax MT 2. The following phones added to the list of supported: This backup contains some crucial data – calibrations of phone radio module.

It will be possible to restore this area in the future. The following models added to the list of supported: Added Direct Unlock features for: Repair security area procedure for Alcatel Android smartphones has been modified.

All changes are described in the manual. Fast Direct Unlock firmware database has been updated with new versions for: April 09 Sigma Software v1. The following MTK models added to the list of supported: Fast Direct Unlock database updated with new firmware versions for: Also it makes the work a bit easier with already supported phones.

This update is free for all Sigma users MTK platform update: Added support for the new group of MTK smartphones: See the Help section for details 3. The following devices were added to the list of supported: Fast Direct Unlock database updated with new versions for: Root your device Connect it in the powered on state with USB Debugging enabled Select Adb interface in the ports selection tab and press Direct unlock button Read extended step-by-step manual at the help section, find video-tutorials at Sigma YouTube channel 2.

Added Repair Security Area feature for 2 new Huawei smartphones: The following new MTK smartphones were added to the list of supported: Ace Caracas 2 Blu Dash 3.

No need to unlock bootloader. Read the full manual at the help section. Its expected that this method of connection can be used for the following group of Huawei smartphones, added in test mode: The following MTK phones are added to the list of supported: Following models added to the list of supported: ZTE Z Altair is added in the test mode.

January 15 Sigma Software v1. Added worlds first Repair Security Area feature for 4 new Huawei smartphones: Following MTK models were added to the list of supported: Full manual is located in the help section of Sigma website.

No more need to ask Huawei support to give you bootloader password for these new models. December 18 Sigma Software v1. High-end options added for Huawei Android smartphones: Lets you fix corrupted security area of the phone.

This option is disabled by the manufacturer by default. Sigma, on contrary, unlocks it and lets you flash any firmware you want on the phone – from lowest to highest versions. Developers require security backups from different Huawei devices for further analysis.

You can read all the details on how to improve Sigma in this thread. Fast Direct Unlock database updated with new version for: November 27 Sigma Software v1. Implemented crucial changes into Read Dump procedure.

Added support of 3 new versions for Motorola Milestone A November 25 SigmaKey Software v1. First in the world! November 21 Sigma Software v1. Repair IMEI via download mode only.

Added Unlock support for new firmware version for: Following devices added to the list of supported: Added direct unlock for the following line of Motorola smartphones: November 13 Sigma Software v1.

Find full manual and drivers at the official website. Repair security data file for Qualcomm Alcatel smartphones. If Security data file in the device is missing or corrupted, after users permission it will be repaired.

Be aware that it works with Alcatel devices only! The following devices added to the list of supported: Fast Direct Unlock database updated with: E – 1 new firmware version Motorola: Sigma makes you the best in business with truly unique solutions.

Be the first to benefit from genuine features no one else but Sigma owners have access to. Heres the list of currently supported Blu phones. New supported firmware versions added for Fast Direct Unlock of various models: Following models were added to the list of supported: Fast Direct Unlock database – added 2 new firmware versions for: You will find full manual and drivers for these models at the corresponding sections of Sigma website, as usual.

Huawei C added to the list of supported 3. Following phones were added to the list of supported: New models added to the list of supported: Driver and full manual are available over Sigma main website, as usual.

Fast Direct Unlock database updated with new firmware versions for various models: New models were tested and added to the list of supported: Models added in the test mode: New ZTE models added to the list of supported: ZTE models that added in the test mode: New MTK models were tested and added to the list of supported: Full manual and drivers available at the official web site in the help section.

Added Auto Save Logs feature. From now on all the log files from performed operations will be saved in a Logs folder 3. Moreover, these models support heuristic method of unlocking, which means that even new or unknown firmware versions will be unlocked!

This model was supported by heuristic method of unlocking even before official release of this phone. ZTE V was tested by users and added to the list of supported. August 07 Sigma Software v1. Avvio T added to the list of supported for Direct Unlock and Service.

August 06 Sigma Software v1. Added More than 70 new Alcatel smartphones and much more Get all at once with Sigma! More than 70 new Alcatel smartphones added to Calculator.

Updated list of PIDs for all new models! Several ZTE smartphones added to the list of supported. July 23 Sigma Software v1. Added support of basic servicing options for Acer smartphones: Full manual and drivers can be found in the corresponding sections of Sigma website.

Fast Direct Unlock this feature for some of the added fw versions was introduced for the first time in the world! July 16 Sigma Software v1. Fast Direct Unlock database updated with the following versions: Added Unlock via Patching and Service support for: The following models were tested and added to the list of supported: July 18 Sigma Software v1.

Fast Direct Unlock firmware database updated with: Unlock feature for the following models was tested by users of Sigma Software and these devices were added to the list of supported: Also made many general improvements to work with Huawei phones.

Improved work with Micron SPI flash chips. Added Direct unlock features for the following phones: Detailed service manual on how to connect and service these devices is located in the help section of Sigma website.

Please check it out before you proceed to operation. May 31 Sigma Software v1. Detailed manual located in the Help section of the official website. Added support for Huawei S7 tablets and more Qualcomm platform update: Added Direct Unlock for the following Huawei tablets: You are welcome to connect these smartphones to Sigma, make Direct Unlock and post feedbacks in our section at the gsmhosting forum.

Another Sigma worlds first solution! Check the full unlocking manual before start! May 23 Sigma Software v1. Heuristic method of unlocking, available with Sigma only, allows to unlock these devices in case they have new or unknown firmware versions.

Fast Direct Unlock firmware database was updated with the following versions: Added unlock and service for: Introduced relock Bootloader Password feature. This unique feature lets you re-lock Huawei smartphones bootloader and will work if bootloader was unlocked with Sigma or using Huawei bootloader unlocking service.

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We offer hour of forex trading experience for the new and savvy traders. Schonfeld, Erick November 5, Rubin, Andy November 5, Aamoth, Doug September 23, Gao, Richard September 23, Ion, Florence May 15, Hollister, Sean May 15, Cunningham, Andrew July 4, Cunningham, Andrew January 14, Cunningham, Andrew January 25, Chavez, Chris January 21, Smith, Mat August 28, Orion, Egan August 28, Page, Larry March 13, Arthur, Charles March 13, Brandom, Russell August 10, Conditt, Jessica August 10, Bergen, Mark October 9, Martonik, Andrew October 9, Kastrenakes, Jacob June 25, Seifert, Dan June 26, Woods, Ben June 25, Pichai, Sundar September 15, Bergen, Mark June 11, D’Orazio, Dante August 9, Lomas, Natasha August 18, Cooper, Daniel August 18, Efrati, Amir January 17, Savov, Vlad October 4, Retrieved March 13, Lawler, Richard October 4, Seifert, Dan October 4, Ng, Alfred October 6, Android Open Source Project.

Archived from on January 25, Chavez, Chris December 22, Hindy, Joe February 4, Gordon, Whitson May 20, Archived from on December 8, Mullis, Alex November 21, Opam, Kwame January 28, Retrieved March 28, Retrieved January 2, Retrieved June 4, Retrieved November 16, Chu, Eric April 13, Retrieved May 15, Ganapati, Priya June 11, Retrieved February 20, Amadeo, Ron July 29, Hutchinson, Lee March 14, Retrieved October 30, Victor Matos September 9, Archived from PDF on February 22, Retrieved April 15, Retrieved February 9, Retrieved November 2, Howley, Daniel May 18, Retrieved May 19, LaPedus, Mark April 26, Warman, Matt June 7, Telegraph Media Group Limited.

Retrieved June 19, Retrieved November 15, Retrieved November 1, Retrieved September 14, Michael Brown May 8, Retrieved April 7, Brad Chacos September 6, Jose Pagliery August 25, Paul Mozur March 5, La, Lynn; Bennett, Brian November 14, Lawler, Richard July 9, McCann, John July 10, Archived from on July 13, Archived from on January 7, Kennedy, Pagan October 11, Amadeo, Ron March 9, Samat, Sameer August 22, The Keyword Google Blog.

Lopez, Napier August 18, Villas-Boas, Antonio September 14, Johnston, Casey May 16, Dobie, Alex January 18, Hoffman, Chris May 25, Cunningham, Andrew August 31, Retrieved April 3, Ganapati, Priya March 15, Leyden, John November 22, Raphael, JR February 13, Amadeo, Ron September 3, Cunningham, Andrew August 9, Clark, Jack; Moritz, Scott May 25, Retrieved March 15, Amadeo, Ron May 26, Li, Abner May 25, Retrieved April 11, Retrieved May 5, Ryan Whitwam November 25, Retrieved December 2, Retrieved January 20, Retrieved November 3, Retrieved November 7, Archived from PDF on April 8, Retrieved May 23, Meyer, David February 3, Google shows no sign of working to get their code upstream anymore.

Some companies are trying to strip the Android-specific interfaces from their codebase and push that upstream, but that causes a much larger engineering effort, and is a pain that just should not be necessary.

Brian Proffitt August 10, Rooney, Paula April 15, Archived from on June 17, Vaughan-Nichols September 7, Chris von Eitzen December 23, Retrieved February 15, Retrieved February 28, Retrieved September 3, Retrieved September 15, McPherson, Amanda December 13, Retrieved April 16, Proschofsky, Andreas July 10, Retrieved March 14, Hildenbrand, Jerry November 8, Lynch, Jim August 20, Retrieved April 17, Ben Cheng; Bill Buzbee May Retrieved March 18, Nickinson, Phil May 26, Toombs, Cody November 6, Retrieved April 27, Retrieved December 30, Pruett, Chris January 11, Retrieved April 22, Archived from on June 4, McFerran, Damien April 17, Archived from on April 19, Russakovskii, Artem May 1, Isaac, Mike April 11, Retrieved January 31, Retrieved August 1, Sadun, Erica July 26, Crook, Jordan October 24, Menno June 6, Kopstein, Joshua November 20, Staff September 7, Retrieved September 7, Retrieved February 2, James Ball January 28, Protalinski, Emil July 17, Retrieved November 9, Ludwig, Adrian; Rapaka, Venkat August 5, Retrieved March 16, Whitwam, Ryan August 5, Chester, Brandon August 5, Amadeo, Ron October 14, Amadeo, Ron August 6, Tung, Liam August 6, Hildenbrand, Jerry February 19, Ludwig, Adrian; Miller, Mel March 22, Retrieved March 22, We released monthly Android security updates throughout the year for devices running Android 4.

Conger, Kate March 22, Franceschi-Bicchierai, Lorenzo July 29, Kingsley-Hughes, Adrian June 9, Retrieved August 8, The New York Times. Steve Lohr May 8, Retrieved February 16, Ganapati, Priya September 30, Retrieved January 30, Sims, Gary May 30, Lockheimer, Hiroshi February 2, Albanesius, Chloe February 2, Raphael, JR November 1, Whitwam, Ryan February 13, Wiggers, Kyle February 15, Mediati, Nick October 12, Seifert, Dan May 28, Hoffman, Chris October 11, Retrieved March 6, Wagoner, Ara November 1, Nova, Jason September 14, Protalinski, Emil August 2, Kastrenakes, Jacob August 2, Heater, Brian December 11, Whitwam, Ryan December 11, Garun, Natt December 5, Retrieved April 4, Lardinois, Frederic December 5, Boulton, Clint October 21, Retrieved February 17, Paul, Ryan November 6, Bray, Tim April 6, Jerry Hildenbrand March 24, Amadeo, Ron February 26, Brian Klug November 14, Retrieved November 19, Amadeo, Ron November 14, Stallman, Richard September 19, Retrieved September 9, Stallman, Richard August 5, Retrieved March 3, Warren, Tom February 24, Qing, Liau Yun October 15, Moyer, Edward September 15, Brodkin, Jon September 15, Brodkin, Jon September 17, Reardon, Marguerite February 11, Miller, Paul November 5, Reisinger, Don January 16, Retrieved May 26, Jeffries, Adrianne March 19, Steve Kovach July 30, Retrieved October 19, Eran, Daniel October 16, McLean, Prince August 21, Retrieved May 14, Van Camp, Jeffrey June 28, Barra, Hugo May 10, The Official Google Blog.

Archived from on October 5, Welch, Chris May 15, Fingas, Jon September 4, Retrieved November 24, Retrieved May 16, Archived from on February 10, Statt, Nick May 18, Reardon, Marguertite August 15, Perry, Douglas July 16, Whitney, Lance January 6, Retrieved April 23, Retrieved September 13, Retrieved October 21, Retrieved November 30, Retrieved September 23, Grush, Andrew October 21,

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Daftar Bank Terbesar Indonesia ziddu mahasiswa itenas. Nokia e63 haruskah berlangganan ke provider seperti blackberry? The source code is, in turn, adapted by OEMs to run on their hardware.

Android’s source code does not contain the often proprietary that are needed for certain hardware components. In, the green Android logo was designed for Google by graphic designer.

The design team was tasked with a project to create a universally identifiable icon with the specific inclusion of a robot in the final design. After numerous design developments based on and space movies, the team eventually sought inspiration from the human symbol on restroom doors and modified the figure into a robot shape.

As Android is open-source, it was agreed that the logo should be likewise, and since its launch the green logo has been reinterpreted into countless variations on the original design. Google announces major incremental upgrades to Android on a yearly basis.

The updates can be installed on devices. The latest major release is, announced in March, and released the following August. Compared to its primary rival mobile operating system, ‘s, Android updates typically reach various devices with significant delays.

Except for devices with the Google Nexus brand, updates often arrive months after the release of the new version, or not at all. This is partly due to the extensive variation in in Android devices, to which each upgrade must be specifically tailored, a time – and resource-consuming process.

Manufacturers often prioritize their newest devices and leave old ones behind. Additional delays can be introduced by wireless carriers that, after receiving updates from manufacturers, further customize and brand Android to their needs and conduct extensive testing on their networks before sending the upgrade out to users.

There are also situations in which upgrades are not possible due to one manufacturing partner not providing necessary updates to. The lack of after-sale support from manufacturers and carriers has been widely criticized by consumer groups and the technology media.

Some commentators have noted that the industry has a financial incentive not to upgrade their devices, as the lack of updates for existing devices fuels the purchase of newer ones, an attitude described as “insulting”.

In, Google partnered with a number of industry players to announce an “Android Update Alliance”, pledging to deliver timely updates for every device for 18 months after its release; however, there has not been another official word about that alliance since its announcement.

In, Google began decoupling certain aspects of the operating system particularly its core applications so they could be updated through the store independently of the OS.

One of those components, , is a system-level process providing for Google services, installed automatically on nearly all devices running and higher. With these changes, Google can add new system functionality through Play Services and update apps without having to distribute an upgrade to the operating system itself.

As a result, contained relatively fewer user-facing changes, focusing more on minor changes and platform improvements. In May, reported that Google was making efforts to keep Android more up-to-date, including accelerated rates of security updates, rolling out technological workarounds, reducing requirements for phone testing, and ranking phone makers in an attempt to “shame” them into better behavior.

As stated by Bloomberg: Wireless carriers were described in the report as the “most challenging discussions”, due to carriers’ slow approval time due to testing on their networks, despite some carriers, including and, having already shortened their respective approval times.

In a further effort for persuasion, Google shared a list of top phone makers measured by updated devices with its Android partners, and is considering making the list public.

Mike Chan, co-founder of phone maker Nextbit and former Android developer, said that “The best way to solve this problem is a massive re-architecture of the operating system”, “or Google could invest in training manufacturers and carriers “to be good Android citizens””.

Android’s is based on one of the ‘s LTS branches. Since April, Android devices mainly use versions 3. The specific kernel version depends on the actual Android device and its hardware platform; Android has used various kernel versions since the version 2.

Android’s variant of the Linux kernel has further architectural changes that are implemented by Google outside the typical Linux kernel development cycle, such as the inclusion of components like, ashmem, pmem, logger, wakelocks, and different OOM handling.

Certain features that Google contributed back to the Linux kernel, notably a power management feature called “wakelocks”, were rejected by mainline kernel developers partly because they felt that Google did not show any intent to maintain its own code.

Google announced in April that they would hire two employees to work with the Linux kernel community, but, the current Linux kernel maintainer for the stable branch, said in December that he was concerned that Google was no longer trying to get their code changes included in mainstream Linux.

Some Google Android developers hinted that “the Android team was getting fed up with the process,” because they were a small team and had more urgent work to do on Android. In August, said that “eventually Android and Linux would come back to a common kernel, but it will probably not be for four to five years”.

In December, Greg Kroah-Hartman announced the start of Android Mainlining Project, which aims to put some Android, patches and features back into the Linux kernel, starting in Linux 3.

Linux included the autosleep and wakelocks capabilities in the 3. The interfaces are the same but the upstream Linux implementation allows for two different suspend modes: Google maintains a public code repository that contains their experimental work to Android off the latest stable Linux versions.

However, root access can be obtained by exploiting in Android, which is used frequently by the to enhance the capabilities of their devices, but also by malicious parties to install and.

Android is a according to the, Google’s open-source chief, and several journalists. Others, such as Google engineer Patrick Brady, say that Android is not Linux in the traditional Linux distribution sense; Android does not include the it uses as an alternative C library and some of other components typically found in Linux distributions.

On top of the Linux kernel, there are the, and written in, and running on an which includes – compatible libraries. Development of the Linux kernel continues independently of other Android’s source code bases.

Following the trace-based JIT principle, in addition to the majority of application code, Dalvik performs the compilation and of select frequently executed code segments “traces” each time an application is launched.

For its Java library, the Android platform uses a subset of the now discontinued project. In December, Google announced that the next version of Android would switch to a Java implementation based on.

Android’s, , was developed by Google specifically for Android, as a derivation of the ‘s standard C library code. Bionic itself has been designed with several major features specific to the Linux kernel.

The main benefits of using Bionic instead of the glibc or are its smaller runtime footprint, and optimization for low-frequency CPUs. At the same time, Bionic is licensed under the terms of the, which Google finds more suitable for the Android’s overall licensing model.

Android does not have a native by default, nor does it support the full set of standard libraries. This made it difficult to port existing Linux applications or libraries to Android, until version r5 of the brought support for applications written completely in or.

Libraries written in C may also be used in applications by injection of a small and usage of the. Since Marshmallow, “”, a collection of command line utilities mostly for use by apps, as Android doesn’t provide a by default, replaced similar “Toolbox” collection.

Android has an active community of developers and enthusiasts who use the Android Open Source Project AOSP source code to develop and distribute their own modified versions of the operating system.

Community releases often come pre – and contain modifications not provided by the original vendor, such as the ability to or the device’s processor. There have also been attempts with varying degrees of success to port Android to iPhones, notably the iDroid Project.

Historically, device manufacturers and mobile carriers have typically been unsupportive of third-party development. Manufacturers express concern about improper functioning of devices running unofficial software and the support costs resulting from this.

Moreover, modified firmwares such as CyanogenMod sometimes offer features, such as, for which carriers would otherwise charge a premium. As a result, technical obstacles including locked and restricted access to root permissions are common in many devices.

However, as community-developed software has grown more popular, and following a statement by the Librarian of Congress in the United States that permits the “” of mobile devices, manufacturers and carriers have softened their position regarding third party development, with some, including, , and, providing support and encouraging development.

As a result of this, over time the need to circumvent to install unofficial firmware has lessened as an increasing number of devices are shipped with unlocked or unlockable, similar to series of phones, although usually requiring that users waive their devices’ warranties to do so.

However, despite manufacturer acceptance, some carriers in the US still require that phones are locked down, frustrating developers and customers. They are reportedly able to read almost all smartphone information, including SMS, location, emails, and notes.

In January, further reports revealed the intelligence agencies’ capabilities to intercept the personal information transmitted across the Internet by social networks and other popular applications such as, which collect personal information of their users for advertising and other commercial reasons.

GCHQ has, according to, a – style guide of different apps and advertising networks, and the different data that can be siphoned from each. Later that week, the Finnish Angry Birds developer announced that it was reconsidering its relationships with its advertising platforms in the light of these revelations, and called upon the wider industry to do the same.

The documents revealed a further effort by the intelligence agencies to intercept Google Maps searches and queries submitted from Android and other smartphones to collect location information in bulk.

The NSA and GCHQ insist their activities are in compliance with all relevant domestic and international laws, although the Guardian stated “the latest disclosures could also add to mounting public concern about how the technology sector collects and uses information, especially for those outside the US, who enjoy fewer privacy protections than Americans.

Research from security company lists premium service abuse as the most common type of Android malware, where text messages are sent from infected phones to without the consent or even knowledge of the user.

Other malware displays unwanted and intrusive advertisements on the device, or sends personal information to unauthorised third parties. Security threats on Android are reportedly growing exponentially; however, Google engineers have argued that the malware and virus threat on Android is being by security companies for commercial reasons, and have accused the security industry of playing on fears to sell virus protection software to users.

Google maintains that dangerous malware is actually extremely rare, and a survey conducted by showed that only 0. In August, Google announced that devices in the series would begin to receive monthly security.

Google also wrote that “Nexus devices will continue to receive major updates for at least two years and security patches for the longer of three years from initial availability or 18 months from last sale of the device via the.

Ron Amadeo of wrote also in August that “Android was originally designed, above all else, to be widely adopted. Google was starting from scratch with zero percent market share, so it was happy to give up control and give everyone a seat at the table in exchange for adoption.

As such, security has become a big issue. Android still uses a software update chain-of-command designed back when the Android ecosystem had zero devices to update, and it just doesn’t work”.

Following news of Google’s monthly schedule, some manufacturers, including Samsung and LG, promised to issue monthly security updates, but, as noted by Jerry Hildenbrand in Android Central in February, “instead we got a few updates on specific versions of a small handful of models.

And a bunch of broken promises”. They also wrote that “About half of devices in use at the end of had not received a platform security update in the previous year”, stating that their work would continue to focus on streamlining the security updates program for easier deployment by manufacturers.

Patches to bugs found in the core operating system often do not reach users of older and lower-priced devices. However, the open-source nature of Android allows security contractors to take existing devices and adapt them for highly secure uses.

For example, Samsung has worked with General Dynamics through their acquisition to rebuild Jelly Bean on top of their hardened microvisor for the “Knox” project. Android smartphones have the ability to report the location of access points, encountered as phone users move around, to build databases containing the physical locations of hundreds of millions of such access points.

These databases form electronic maps to locate smartphones, allowing them to run apps like, , , and to deliver location-based ads. Third party monitoring software such as TaintDroid, an academic research-funded project, can, in some cases, detect when personal information is being sent from applications to remote servers.

Android applications run in a, an isolated area of the system that does not have access to the rest of the system’s resources, unless access permissions are explicitly granted by the user when the application is installed.

Since February, Google has used its scanner to watch over and scan apps available in the Google Play store. A “Verify Apps” feature was introduced in November, as part of the operating system version, to scan all apps, both from Google Play and from third-party sources, for malicious behavior.

Originally only doing so during installation, Verify Apps received an update in to “constantly” scan apps, and in the feature was made visible to users through a menu in Settings. Before installing an application, the store displays a list of the requirements an app needs to function.

After reviewing these permissions, the user can choose to accept or refuse them, installing the application only if they accept. In, the permissions system was changed; apps are no longer automatically granted all of their specified permissions at installation time.

An opt-in system is used instead, in which users are prompted to grant or deny individual permissions to an app when they are needed for the first time. Applications remember the grants, which can be revoked by the user at any time.

The new permissions model is used only by applications developed for Marshmallow using its SDK, and older apps will continue to use the previous all-or-nothing approach.

Permissions can still be revoked for those apps, though this might prevent them from working properly, and a warning is displayed to that effect. Nova wrote that “The Android operating system deals with software packages by sandboxing them; this does not allow applications to list the directory contents of other apps to keep the system safe.

By not allowing the antivirus to list the directories of other apps after installation, applications that show no inherent suspicious behavior when downloaded are cleared as safe.

The study by Fraunhofer AISEC, examining antivirus software from, , , , , , , , , , and, revealed that “the tested antivirus apps do not provide protection against customized malware or targeted attacks”, and that “the tested antivirus apps were also not able to detect malware which is completely unknown to date but does not make any efforts to hide its malignity”.

In August, Google announced Android Device Manager, a website that allows users to remotely track, locate, and wipe their Android device, with an Android app for the service released in December.

In December, Google introduced a Trusted Contacts app, letting users request location-tracking of loved ones during emergencies. The for Android is: Google publishes most of the code including network and telephony under the version 2.

The license does not grant rights to the “Android” trademark, so device manufacturers and wireless carriers have to license it from Google under individual contracts.

Associated Linux kernel changes are released under the version 2, developed by the, with the source code publicly available at all times. Typically, Google collaborates with a hardware manufacturer to produce a flagship device part of the Nexus series featuring the new version of Android, then makes the source code available after that device has been released.

The only Android release which was not immediately made available as source code was the tablet-only 3. The reason, according to in an official Android blog post, was because Honeycomb was rushed for production of the, and they did not want third parties creating a “really bad user experience” by attempting to put onto smartphones a version of Android intended for tablets.

These applications must be licensed from Google by device makers, and can only be shipped on devices which meet its compatibility guidelines and other requirements. Custom, certified distributions of Android produced by manufacturers such as and may also replace certain stock Android apps with their own proprietary variants and add additional software not included in the stock Android operating system.

There may also be “” required for certain hardware components in the device. Moreover, open-source variants of some applications also exclude functions that are present in their non-free versions, such as Photosphere panoramas in Camera, and a page on the default home screen exclusive to the proprietary version “Google Now Launcher”, whose code is embedded within that of the main Google application.

Google licenses their Google Mobile Services software, along with Android trademarks, only to hardware manufacturers for devices that meet Google’s compatibility standards specified in the Android Compatibility Program document.

Thus, forks of Android that make major changes to the operating system itself do not include any of Google’s non-free components, stay incompatible with applications that require them, and must ship with an alternative software marketplace in lieu of Google Play Store.

Examples of such Android forks are ‘s which is used on the line of tablets, and oriented toward Amazon services, the a fork used by the, oriented primarily toward and services, and other forks that exclude Google apps due to the general unavailability of Google services in certain regions such as.

In, Google also began to require that all Android devices which license the Google Mobile Services software display a prominent “Powered by Android” logo on their boot screens.

Members of the Open Handset Alliance, which include the majority of Android OEMs, are also contractually forbidden from producing Android devices based on forks of the OS; in, was forced by Google to halt production on a device powered by ‘s with threats of removal from the OHA, as Google deemed the platform to be an incompatible version of Android.

Alibaba Group defended the allegations, arguing that the OS was a distinct platform from Android primarily using apps, but incorporated portions of Android’s platform to allow backwards compatibility with third-party Android software.

Indeed, the devices did ship with an application store which offered Android apps; however, the majority of them were. Android received a lukewarm reaction when it was unveiled in Although analysts were impressed with the respected technology companies that had partnered with Google to form the Open Handset Alliance, it was unclear whether mobile phone manufacturers would be willing to replace their existing operating systems with Android.

The idea of an open-source, Linux-based sparked interest, but there were additional worries about Android facing strong competition from established players in the smartphone market, such as Nokia and Microsoft, and rival Linux mobile operating systems that were in development.

These established players were skeptical: Since then Android has grown to become the most widely used smartphone operating system and “one of the fastest mobile experiences available.

As a result, it has been described by technology website as “practically the default operating system for launching new hardware” for companies without their own mobile platforms.

This openness and flexibility is also present at the level of the end user: Android allows extensive customisation of devices by their owners and apps are freely available from non-Google app stores and third party websites.

These have been cited as among the main advantages of Android phones over others. Despite Android’s popularity, including an activation rate three times that of iOS, there have been reports that Google has not been able to leverage their other products and web services successfully to turn Android into the money maker that analysts had expected.

In, in an effort to improve prominence of the Android brand, Google began to require that devices featuring its proprietary components display an Android logo on the boot screen. Android has suffered from “fragmentation”, a situation where the variety of Android devices, in terms of both hardware variations and differences in the software running on them, makes the task of developing applications that work consistently across the ecosystem harder than rival platforms such as iOS where hardware and software varies less.

For example, according to data from in July, there were 11, models of Android device, numerous different screen sizes and eight Android OS versions simultaneously in use, while the large majority of iOS users have upgraded to the latest iteration of that OS.

Critics such as have asserted that fragmentation via hardware and software pushed Android’s growth through large volumes of low end, budget-priced devices running older versions of Android.

They maintain this forces Android developers to write for the “lowest common denominator” to reach as many users as possible, who have too little incentive to make use of the latest hardware or software features only available on a smaller percentage of devices.

However, OpenSignal, who develops both Android and iOS apps, concluded that although fragmentation can make development trickier, Android’s wider global reach also increases the potential reward.

Research company Canalys estimated in the second quarter of, that Android had a 2. By the third quarter of, estimated that more than half In July, Google said that, Android devices were being activated every day, up from, per day in May, and more than million devices had been activated with 4.

In September, million devices had been activated with 1. In May, at, Sundar Pichai announced that million Android devices had been activated. Android market share varies by location.

In April Android had 1. As of May, 48 billion applications “apps” have been installed from the Google Play store, and by September, one billion Android devices have been activated.

As of February, the store has over 2. The operating system’s success has made it a target for patent litigation as part of the so-called “” between technology companies. Android devices account for more than half of smartphone sales in most markets, including the US, while “only in Japan was Apple on top” September—November numbers.

At the end of, over 1. Three billion Android smartphones are estimated to be sold by the end of including previous years. According to Gartner research company, Android-based devices outsold all contenders, every year since In, it outsold Windows 2.

According to, which tracks only the use for browsing the web, Android is the most popular mobile operating system since August Android is the most popular operating system for web browsing in India and several other countries e.

According to StatCounter, Android is most used on mobile in all African countries, and it stated “mobile usage has already overtaken desktop in several countries including India, South Africa and Saudi Arabia”, with virtually all countries in Africa having done so already except for seven countries, including Egypt, such as Ethiopia and Kenya in which mobile including tablets usage is at While Android phones in the commonly include Google’s proprietary add-ons such as Google Play to the otherwise open-source operating system, this is increasingly not the case in emerging markets; “ABI Research claims that 65 million devices shipped globally with open-source Android in the second quarter of [], up from 54 million in the first quarter”; depending on country, percent of phones estimated to be based only on Android’s source code AOSP, forgoing the Android trademark: According to a January report, “Android surpassed a billion shipments of devices in, and will continue to grow at a double-digit pace in, with a 26 percent increase year over year.

Gartner expected the whole mobile phone market to “reach two billion units in “, including Android. Describing the statistics, Farhad Manjoo wrote in that “About one of every two computers sold today is running Android.

According to a ‘s estimate, Android smartphones had an installed base of 1. Android has the largest installed base of any and, since, the highest-selling operating system overall with sales in, and close to the installed base of all PCs.

In the third quarter of, Android’s share of the global smartphone shipment market was As of September 28, , with By August, the two biggest continents have gone mobile-majority, judged by web use “desktop” has By, Android was on the majority of smartphones in virtually all countries in the world, excluding United States and Canada while including North America continent as a whole, Australia and Japan.

A few countries, such as the UK, lose Android-majority if tablets are included. In September, Google announced that Android had 1. Despite its success on smartphones, initially Android tablet adoption was slow.

One of the main causes was the situation where consumers were hesitant to buy an Android tablet due to a lack of high quality tablet applications, but developers were hesitant to spend time and resources developing tablet applications until there was a significant market for them.

The content and app “ecosystem” proved more important than hardware as the selling point for tablets. Due to the lack of Android tablet-specific applications in, early Android tablets had to make do with existing smartphone applications that were ill-suited to larger screen sizes, whereas the dominance of Apple’s was reinforced by the large number of tablet-specific applications.

Despite app support in its infancy, a considerable number of Android tablets alongside those using other operating systems, such as the and were rushed out to market in an attempt to capitalize on the success of the iPad.

InfoWorld has suggested that some Android manufacturers initially treated their first tablets as a “Frankenphone business”, a short-term low-investment opportunity by placing a smartphone-optimized Android OS before Android 3.

This approach, such as with the, failed to gain market traction with consumers as well as damaging the early reputation of Android tablets. Furthermore, several Android tablets such as the were priced the same or higher than the, which hurt sales.

An exception was the, which relied upon lower pricing as well as access to Amazon’s ecosystem of applications and content. This began to change in, with the release of the affordable and a push by Google for developers to write better tablet applications.

As of the end of, over This made Android tablets the most-sold type of tablet in, surpassing iPads in the second quarter of According to the StatCounter’s June web use statistics, Android tablets represent the majority of tablet devices used on the then lost majority and continents In about half of the European countries, Android tablets have a majority market share.

China is an exception for the major developing countries, in which Android classified as smartphones while similar in size to tablets are more popular than Android tablets or iPads.

In March, Galen Gruman of stated that Android devices could be a “real part of your business [.. It can now be as integral to your mobile portfolio as ‘s devices are”.

A year earlier, Gruman had stated that ‘s own were “better on iOS and Android” than on Microsoft’s own devices. Charts in this section provide breakdowns of Android versions, based on devices accessing the in a seven-day period ending on April 3, Therefore, these statistics exclude devices running various Android that do not access the Google Play Store, such as Amazon’s.

In general, paid Android applications can easily be. In a May interview with, the developers of stated that the ratio of pirated players vs legitimate players was 9: In, Google released a tool for validating authorized purchases for use within apps, but developers complained that this was insufficient and trivial to.

Google responded that the tool, especially its initial release, was intended as a sample framework for developers to modify and build upon depending on their needs, not as a finished piracy solution.

Android “Jelly Bean” introduced the ability for paid applications to be encrypted, so that they may work only on the device for which they were purchased. Both Android and Android phone manufacturers have been involved in numerous patent lawsuits.

On August 12, , sued Google over claimed infringement of copyrights and patents related to the programming language. Oracle originally sought damages up to. In response, Google submitted multiple lines of defense, counterclaiming that Android did not infringe on Oracle’s patents or copyright, that Oracle’s patents were invalid, and several other defenses.

They said that Android’s Java runtime environment is based on, a implementation of the Java class libraries, and an independently developed virtual machine called. In May, the jury in this case found that Google did not infringe on Oracle’s patents, and the trial judge ruled that the structure of the Java APIs used by Google was not copyrightable.

The parties agreed to zero dollars in for a small amount of copied code. On May 9, , the partially reversed the district court ruling, ruling in Oracle’s favor on the copyrightability issue, and the issue of to the district court.

In December, Google announced that the next major release of Android would switch to, which is the official open-source implementation of the Java platform, instead of using the now-discontinued Apache Harmony project as its runtime.

Code reflecting this change was also posted to the AOSP source repository. In its announcement, Google claimed this was part of an effort to create a “common code base” between Java on Android and other platforms.

Google later admitted in a court filing that this was part of an effort to address the disputes with Oracle, as its use of OpenJDK code is governed under the GPL with a, and that “any damages claim associated with the new versions expressly licensed by Oracle under OpenJDK would require a separate analysis of damages from earlier releases”.

In addition to lawsuits against Google directly, various have been waged against Android indirectly by targeting manufacturers of Android devices, with the effect of discouraging manufacturers from adopting the platform by increasing the costs of bringing an Android device to market.

Both and Microsoft have sued several manufacturers for patent infringement, with Apple’s ongoing being a particularly high-profile case. In October, Microsoft said they had signed patent license agreements with ten Android device manufacturers, whose products account for.

Samsung’s patent settlement with Microsoft included an agreement to allocate more resources to developing and marketing phones running Microsoft’s Windows Phone operating system. Microsoft has also its own Android software to patent licenses, requiring the bundling of and applications on Android devices to subsidize the licensing fees, while at the same time helping to promote its software lines.

Google has publicly expressed its frustration for the current patent landscape in the United States, accusing Apple, Oracle and Microsoft of trying to take down Android through patent litigation, rather than innovating and competing with better products and services.

In September, Google purchased for US. In December, Google bought over a thousand patents from. In, , a lobbying organization supported by Microsoft, Oracle and others, filed a complaint regarding Android with the, alleging that its free-of-charge distribution model constituted anti-competitive.

The, whose donors include Google, disputed the Fairsearch allegations. On April 20, , the EU filed a formal antitrust complaint against Google based upon the FairSearch allegations, arguing that its leverage over Android vendors, including the mandatory bundling of the entire suite of proprietary Google software, hindering the ability for competing search providers to be integrated into Android, and barring vendors from producing devices running forks of Android, constituted anti-competitive practices.

In August, Google was fined US. Google has developed several variations of Android for specific use cases, including for wearable devices such as wrist watches, for televisions, for cars, and Brillo, later renamed, for smart devices and.

The open and customizable nature of Android allows to use it on other electronics as well, including laptops and, , cameras, headphones, home automation systems, game consoles, mirrors, media players, and telephones.

Prototype light bulbs were announced that could be controlled from an Android phone or tablet, but Android head Andy Rubin was cautious to note that “turning a lightbulb on and off is nothing new”, pointing to numerous failed home automation services.

Google, he said, was thinking more ambitiously and the intention was to use their position as a services provider to bring Google products into customers’ homes.

In, released its own Android-based car stereo, the AX1. In January, at the CES, Google announced the formation of the, a group including several major automobile makers, , , and and, which aims to produce Android-based systems for automobiles, “[bringing] the best of Android into the automobile in a safe and seamless way.

Android comes preinstalled on a few laptops a similar functionality of running Android applications is also available in Google’s and can also be installed on by end users. On those platforms Android provides additional functionality for physical and, together with the “” key combination for switching applications quickly with a keyboard.

In December, one reviewer commented that Android’s notification system is “vastly more complete and robust than in most environments” and that Android is “absolutely usable” as one’s primary desktop operating system.

In October, reported that Android will serve as Google’s future main laptop operating system, with the plan to fold Chrome OS into it by Google’s Sundar Pichai, who led the development of Android, explained that “mobile as a computing paradigm is eventually going to blend with what we think of as desktop today.

That is unlike Android where support is shorter with ” dates [being.. This forum is for all of your questions about the App Development Forums. If you need help troubleshooting a problem, please be as specific as possible by describing your software configuration, including the ROM, kernel, and any modifications you’ve done.

All Samsung Firmwares on this site are for Help purpose and you can use Kies to update your Samsung mobile phone instead. Added support of 3 new versions for Motorola Milestone A November 25 SigmaKey Software v1.

First in the world! November 21 Sigma Software v1. Repair IMEI via download mode only. Added Unlock support for new firmware version for: Following devices added to the list of supported: Added direct unlock for the following line of Motorola smartphones: November 13 Sigma Software v1.

Find full manual and drivers at the official website. Repair security data file for Qualcomm Alcatel smartphones. If Security data file in the device is missing or corrupted, after users permission it will be repaired.

Be aware that it works with Alcatel devices only! The following devices added to the list of supported: Fast Direct Unlock database updated with: E – 1 new firmware version Motorola: Sigma makes you the best in business with truly unique solutions.

Be the first to benefit from genuine features no one else but Sigma owners have access to. Heres the list of currently supported Blu phones. New supported firmware versions added for Fast Direct Unlock of various models: Following models were added to the list of supported: Fast Direct Unlock database – added 2 new firmware versions for: You will find full manual and drivers for these models at the corresponding sections of Sigma website, as usual.

Huawei C added to the list of supported 3. Following phones were added to the list of supported: New models added to the list of supported: Driver and full manual are available over Sigma main website, as usual.

Fast Direct Unlock database updated with new firmware versions for various models: New models were tested and added to the list of supported: Models added in the test mode: New ZTE models added to the list of supported: ZTE models that added in the test mode: New MTK models were tested and added to the list of supported: Full manual and drivers available at the official web site in the help section.

Added Auto Save Logs feature. From now on all the log files from performed operations will be saved in a Logs folder 3. Moreover, these models support heuristic method of unlocking, which means that even new or unknown firmware versions will be unlocked!

This model was supported by heuristic method of unlocking even before official release of this phone. ZTE V was tested by users and added to the list of supported. August 07 Sigma Software v1.

Avvio T added to the list of supported for Direct Unlock and Service. August 06 Sigma Software v1. Added More than 70 new Alcatel smartphones and much more Get all at once with Sigma!

More than 70 new Alcatel smartphones added to Calculator. Updated list of PIDs for all new models! Several ZTE smartphones added to the list of supported. July 23 Sigma Software v1. Added support of basic servicing options for Acer smartphones: Full manual and drivers can be found in the corresponding sections of Sigma website.

Fast Direct Unlock this feature for some of the added fw versions was introduced for the first time in the world! July 16 Sigma Software v1. Fast Direct Unlock database updated with the following versions: Added Unlock via Patching and Service support for: The following models were tested and added to the list of supported: July 18 Sigma Software v1.

Fast Direct Unlock firmware database updated with: Unlock feature for the following models was tested by users of Sigma Software and these devices were added to the list of supported: Also made many general improvements to work with Huawei phones.

Improved work with Micron SPI flash chips. Added Direct unlock features for the following phones: Detailed service manual on how to connect and service these devices is located in the help section of Sigma website.

Please check it out before you proceed to operation. May 31 Sigma Software v1. Detailed manual located in the Help section of the official website. Added support for Huawei S7 tablets and more Qualcomm platform update: Added Direct Unlock for the following Huawei tablets: You are welcome to connect these smartphones to Sigma, make Direct Unlock and post feedbacks in our section at the gsmhosting forum.

Another Sigma worlds first solution! Check the full unlocking manual before start! May 23 Sigma Software v1. Heuristic method of unlocking, available with Sigma only, allows to unlock these devices in case they have new or unknown firmware versions.

Fast Direct Unlock firmware database was updated with the following versions: Added unlock and service for: Introduced relock Bootloader Password feature.

This unique feature lets you re-lock Huawei smartphones bootloader and will work if bootloader was unlocked with Sigma or using Huawei bootloader unlocking service. Unlike restoring phones bootloader lock by flashing or using 3rd party tools, with Sigma bootloader will be restored to its initial factory state without any traces left in the firmware.

It might be useful in case you need to obtain warranty service. A lot of general minor improvements were made. Following phones were tested and added to the list of supported for Direct Unlock and other service operations: Huawei U, U and more The last bastion of Huawei smartphones has been conquered.

New supported models, no more messing with locked bootloaders, faster IMEI repair and theres much more. Get more satisfied customers without additional expenses! Now you dont need to unlock bootloader of the device before actual SP-unlocking!

IMEI will be repaired much faster in this mode. Now you dont need to fill in long forms, send them to Huawei server and wait days for password to arrive. No need to root your smartphone.

With Sigma youll get the password instantly and reset it easily. May 13 Sigma Software v1. The following models were added to the list of supported for servicing operations: Cp, , , Huawei: I, I, I, I Zonda: R, Rm, R Chinese copies of known brands of mobile phones: Added unlock via patching for the following MTK phones: Fast Direct Unlock firmware database updated with new versions: Added Unlock and full service support for: Fast direct unlock database updated with: April 26 Sigma Software v1.

While others make promises, we give solutions! You are welcome to test Repair feature and make feedbacks. This solution is free for all Sigma owners! The manual is here. Added new firmware versions for fast direct unlock of: Added repair feature for some ZTE Android smartphones.

In case Sigma detects corrupted security data file in the phone, it will be repaired requires users permission. Added unlock via patching for the following phones: ZTE X added to the list.

April 17 Sigma Box Software v1. Unlock via patching for: No more flashing after the procedure, just one compatible USB cable and youre all done. Save your time and money with Sigma!

Your clients wont have to wait anymore! No further actions required! MTK Platform Updates 1. Added unlock via patching for the following MTK models: Improved Repair procedure for Huawei smartphones.

April 04 Sigma Software v1. Following MTK-based phones various brands were added to the list of supported: March 29 Sigma Software v1. March 12 Sigma Software v1. With this version of Sigma you get support for ZTE T96, a big amount of firmware versions supported for Fast Direct Unlock and a set of newly tested and supported mobile devices.

Also, as a result of conducted analysis, a list of supported models was widely expanded. Following models were tested and added to the list of supported, though they operate on already supported CPUs: Following models were tested and added to the list of supported: T96 – Worlds First!

Added Direct Unlock support for: New firmware version added for Motorola Fast direct unlock: Database of supported firmware versions for Fast Direct Unlock updated with the following versions: Sigma Software will read flash dump for unsupported firmware versions.

Please send dump files to support to add these phones in the further updates. February 18 Sigma Software v1. Detailed manuals and drivers are located at the official Sigma website in the MTK section.

January 25 Sigma Software v1. January 22 Sigma Software v1. January 17 Sigma Software 1. X – 1 new version V – 5 new versions MTK module: Just connect the smartphone and press Unlock button.

Database of supported firmware versions for Fast Direct Unlock was updated with 53 new versions: F – 1 new version ZTE smartphones: Added Unlock via patch for the following MTK-based phone models: Made some minor improvements to the MTK module.

December 28 SigmaKey Software v1. E, Z, F Smartphones: Introduced minor improvements to the MTK module. December 19 SigmaKey Software v1. A special present for our Belarusian partners.

Worlds first support for Huawei UD life: This solution can also be used for remote unlocking. In total, more than 50 new firmwares were added for the following devices: December 13 SigmaKey Software v1.

Also added other new features and made some improvements for a wide range of phones and smartphones. Improved connection procedure with Huawei UD 4. The following servicing options are now supported for phones within known list of flash chips: Please note that unlocking procedure for this phone is slightly different, it has to be connected in turned on state.

At this moment, if your phone has locked bootloader, you can either request free unlock password on Huawei official web site, or use 3rd party tools. T – 2 new versions E – 1 new version November 28 Sigma Software v1.

November 26 Sigma Software v1. If incorrect unlock code was entered too many times and device rejects even correct unlock code, you should perform Direct Unlock procedure. Blade II PT 3. New ZTE phones added to the list of supported were supported by Sigma from mid September but unannounced yet: Added new firmware versions for Fast Direct Unlock of the following Motorola cellphones: ZTE E 2 n.

ZTE F 2 n. ZTE T6 1 n. October 10 Sigma Software v1. New firmware version added for: If the counter of code entries attempts is blocked, you should use Direct Unlock feature.

You will find well-described manuals and required software and drivers on the official Sigma website, as usual. October 09 SigmaKey Software v1. This time we give more ZTE phones and quite a few supported for Unlock firmwares.

Following models received support for Fast Direct Unlock: F – 2 new firmwares Fi – 1 new firmware F – 4 new firmwares F – 3 new firmwares Es – 1 new firmware Motorola: XT – 2 new firmwares 2.

If both primary and extended heuristic methods fail, now there is a possibility to read dump from the phone. Please send dumps to support, so unsupported models can be added in the next updates.

New firmware versions support for Motorola Fast Direct Unlock: Lets see what you get with this update: Please read them in the Help section of the official web site. Added extended heuristic method for unlocking ZTE cell phones.

This is the only solution on the market that helps to unlock cell phones with unknown firmware version. More firmware versions now supported for the Fast Direct Unlock. We are grateful to everyone whove sent us the logs.

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The platform is built into Android starting with, differentiating from standalone support for VR capabilities. The software is available for developers, and was released in The main hardware platform for Android is the and architectures, with, , and architectures also officially supported in later versions of Android.

The unofficial project provided support for the x86 architectures ahead of the official support. MIPS architecture was also supported before Google did. Since, Android devices with processors began to appear, including phones and tablets.

While gaining support for bit platforms, Android was first made to run on bit x86 and then on. Android devices incorporate many optional hardware components, including still or video cameras, , , dedicated gaming controls, , , barometers, , , , thermometers, and.

Some hardware components are not required, but became standard in certain classes of devices, such as smartphones, and additional requirements apply if they are present. Some other hardware was initially required, but those requirements have been relaxed or eliminated altogether.

For example, as Android was developed initially as a phone OS, hardware such as microphones were required, while over time the phone function became optional. Android used to require an camera, which was relaxed to a camera if present at all, since the camera was dropped as a requirement entirely when Android started to be used on.

In addition to running on smartphones and tablets, several vendors run Android natively on regular PC hardware with a keyboard and mouse. Using the Android that is part of the, or third-party emulators, Android can also run non-natively on x86 architectures.

Chinese companies are building a PC and mobile operating system, based on Android, to “compete directly with Microsoft Windows and Google Android”. The Chinese Academy of Engineering noted that “more than a dozen” companies were customising Android following a Chinese ban on the use of Windows 8 on government PCs.

Android is developed by until the latest changes and updates are ready to be released, at which point the is made available to the Android Open Source Project.

This source code can be found without modification on select devices, mainly the series of devices. The source code is, in turn, adapted by OEMs to run on their hardware.

Android’s source code does not contain the often proprietary that are needed for certain hardware components. In, the green Android logo was designed for Google by graphic designer.

The design team was tasked with a project to create a universally identifiable icon with the specific inclusion of a robot in the final design. After numerous design developments based on and space movies, the team eventually sought inspiration from the human symbol on restroom doors and modified the figure into a robot shape.

As Android is open-source, it was agreed that the logo should be likewise, and since its launch the green logo has been reinterpreted into countless variations on the original design. Google announces major incremental upgrades to Android on a yearly basis.

The updates can be installed on devices. The latest major release is, announced in March, and released the following August. Compared to its primary rival mobile operating system, ‘s, Android updates typically reach various devices with significant delays.

Except for devices with the Google Nexus brand, updates often arrive months after the release of the new version, or not at all. This is partly due to the extensive variation in in Android devices, to which each upgrade must be specifically tailored, a time – and resource-consuming process.

Manufacturers often prioritize their newest devices and leave old ones behind. Additional delays can be introduced by wireless carriers that, after receiving updates from manufacturers, further customize and brand Android to their needs and conduct extensive testing on their networks before sending the upgrade out to users.

There are also situations in which upgrades are not possible due to one manufacturing partner not providing necessary updates to. The lack of after-sale support from manufacturers and carriers has been widely criticized by consumer groups and the technology media.

Some commentators have noted that the industry has a financial incentive not to upgrade their devices, as the lack of updates for existing devices fuels the purchase of newer ones, an attitude described as “insulting”.

In, Google partnered with a number of industry players to announce an “Android Update Alliance”, pledging to deliver timely updates for every device for 18 months after its release; however, there has not been another official word about that alliance since its announcement.

In, Google began decoupling certain aspects of the operating system particularly its core applications so they could be updated through the store independently of the OS. One of those components, , is a system-level process providing for Google services, installed automatically on nearly all devices running and higher.

With these changes, Google can add new system functionality through Play Services and update apps without having to distribute an upgrade to the operating system itself.

As a result, contained relatively fewer user-facing changes, focusing more on minor changes and platform improvements. In May, reported that Google was making efforts to keep Android more up-to-date, including accelerated rates of security updates, rolling out technological workarounds, reducing requirements for phone testing, and ranking phone makers in an attempt to “shame” them into better behavior.

As stated by Bloomberg: Wireless carriers were described in the report as the “most challenging discussions”, due to carriers’ slow approval time due to testing on their networks, despite some carriers, including and, having already shortened their respective approval times.

In a further effort for persuasion, Google shared a list of top phone makers measured by updated devices with its Android partners, and is considering making the list public. Mike Chan, co-founder of phone maker Nextbit and former Android developer, said that “The best way to solve this problem is a massive re-architecture of the operating system”, “or Google could invest in training manufacturers and carriers “to be good Android citizens””.

Android’s is based on one of the ‘s LTS branches. Since April, Android devices mainly use versions 3. The specific kernel version depends on the actual Android device and its hardware platform; Android has used various kernel versions since the version 2.

Android’s variant of the Linux kernel has further architectural changes that are implemented by Google outside the typical Linux kernel development cycle, such as the inclusion of components like, ashmem, pmem, logger, wakelocks, and different OOM handling.

Certain features that Google contributed back to the Linux kernel, notably a power management feature called “wakelocks”, were rejected by mainline kernel developers partly because they felt that Google did not show any intent to maintain its own code.

Google announced in April that they would hire two employees to work with the Linux kernel community, but, the current Linux kernel maintainer for the stable branch, said in December that he was concerned that Google was no longer trying to get their code changes included in mainstream Linux.

Some Google Android developers hinted that “the Android team was getting fed up with the process,” because they were a small team and had more urgent work to do on Android. In August, said that “eventually Android and Linux would come back to a common kernel, but it will probably not be for four to five years”.

In December, Greg Kroah-Hartman announced the start of Android Mainlining Project, which aims to put some Android, patches and features back into the Linux kernel, starting in Linux 3.

Linux included the autosleep and wakelocks capabilities in the 3. The interfaces are the same but the upstream Linux implementation allows for two different suspend modes: Google maintains a public code repository that contains their experimental work to Android off the latest stable Linux versions.

However, root access can be obtained by exploiting in Android, which is used frequently by the to enhance the capabilities of their devices, but also by malicious parties to install and. Android is a according to the, Google’s open-source chief, and several journalists.

Others, such as Google engineer Patrick Brady, say that Android is not Linux in the traditional Linux distribution sense; Android does not include the it uses as an alternative C library and some of other components typically found in Linux distributions.

On top of the Linux kernel, there are the, and written in, and running on an which includes – compatible libraries. Development of the Linux kernel continues independently of other Android’s source code bases.

Following the trace-based JIT principle, in addition to the majority of application code, Dalvik performs the compilation and of select frequently executed code segments “traces” each time an application is launched.

For its Java library, the Android platform uses a subset of the now discontinued project. In December, Google announced that the next version of Android would switch to a Java implementation based on.

Android’s, , was developed by Google specifically for Android, as a derivation of the ‘s standard C library code. Bionic itself has been designed with several major features specific to the Linux kernel.

The main benefits of using Bionic instead of the glibc or are its smaller runtime footprint, and optimization for low-frequency CPUs. At the same time, Bionic is licensed under the terms of the, which Google finds more suitable for the Android’s overall licensing model.

Android does not have a native by default, nor does it support the full set of standard libraries. This made it difficult to port existing Linux applications or libraries to Android, until version r5 of the brought support for applications written completely in or.

Libraries written in C may also be used in applications by injection of a small and usage of the. Since Marshmallow, “”, a collection of command line utilities mostly for use by apps, as Android doesn’t provide a by default, replaced similar “Toolbox” collection.

Android has an active community of developers and enthusiasts who use the Android Open Source Project AOSP source code to develop and distribute their own modified versions of the operating system.

Community releases often come pre – and contain modifications not provided by the original vendor, such as the ability to or the device’s processor. There have also been attempts with varying degrees of success to port Android to iPhones, notably the iDroid Project.

Historically, device manufacturers and mobile carriers have typically been unsupportive of third-party development. Manufacturers express concern about improper functioning of devices running unofficial software and the support costs resulting from this.

Moreover, modified firmwares such as CyanogenMod sometimes offer features, such as, for which carriers would otherwise charge a premium. As a result, technical obstacles including locked and restricted access to root permissions are common in many devices.

However, as community-developed software has grown more popular, and following a statement by the Librarian of Congress in the United States that permits the “” of mobile devices, manufacturers and carriers have softened their position regarding third party development, with some, including, , and, providing support and encouraging development.

As a result of this, over time the need to circumvent to install unofficial firmware has lessened as an increasing number of devices are shipped with unlocked or unlockable, similar to series of phones, although usually requiring that users waive their devices’ warranties to do so.

However, despite manufacturer acceptance, some carriers in the US still require that phones are locked down, frustrating developers and customers. They are reportedly able to read almost all smartphone information, including SMS, location, emails, and notes.

In January, further reports revealed the intelligence agencies’ capabilities to intercept the personal information transmitted across the Internet by social networks and other popular applications such as, which collect personal information of their users for advertising and other commercial reasons.

GCHQ has, according to, a – style guide of different apps and advertising networks, and the different data that can be siphoned from each. Later that week, the Finnish Angry Birds developer announced that it was reconsidering its relationships with its advertising platforms in the light of these revelations, and called upon the wider industry to do the same.

The documents revealed a further effort by the intelligence agencies to intercept Google Maps searches and queries submitted from Android and other smartphones to collect location information in bulk.

The NSA and GCHQ insist their activities are in compliance with all relevant domestic and international laws, although the Guardian stated “the latest disclosures could also add to mounting public concern about how the technology sector collects and uses information, especially for those outside the US, who enjoy fewer privacy protections than Americans.

Research from security company lists premium service abuse as the most common type of Android malware, where text messages are sent from infected phones to without the consent or even knowledge of the user.

Other malware displays unwanted and intrusive advertisements on the device, or sends personal information to unauthorised third parties. Security threats on Android are reportedly growing exponentially; however, Google engineers have argued that the malware and virus threat on Android is being by security companies for commercial reasons, and have accused the security industry of playing on fears to sell virus protection software to users.

Google maintains that dangerous malware is actually extremely rare, and a survey conducted by showed that only 0. In August, Google announced that devices in the series would begin to receive monthly security.

Google also wrote that “Nexus devices will continue to receive major updates for at least two years and security patches for the longer of three years from initial availability or 18 months from last sale of the device via the.

Ron Amadeo of wrote also in August that “Android was originally designed, above all else, to be widely adopted. Google was starting from scratch with zero percent market share, so it was happy to give up control and give everyone a seat at the table in exchange for adoption.

As such, security has become a big issue. Android still uses a software update chain-of-command designed back when the Android ecosystem had zero devices to update, and it just doesn’t work”.

Following news of Google’s monthly schedule, some manufacturers, including Samsung and LG, promised to issue monthly security updates, but, as noted by Jerry Hildenbrand in Android Central in February, “instead we got a few updates on specific versions of a small handful of models.

And a bunch of broken promises”. They also wrote that “About half of devices in use at the end of had not received a platform security update in the previous year”, stating that their work would continue to focus on streamlining the security updates program for easier deployment by manufacturers.

Patches to bugs found in the core operating system often do not reach users of older and lower-priced devices. However, the open-source nature of Android allows security contractors to take existing devices and adapt them for highly secure uses.

For example, Samsung has worked with General Dynamics through their acquisition to rebuild Jelly Bean on top of their hardened microvisor for the “Knox” project.

Android smartphones have the ability to report the location of access points, encountered as phone users move around, to build databases containing the physical locations of hundreds of millions of such access points.

These databases form electronic maps to locate smartphones, allowing them to run apps like, , , and to deliver location-based ads. Third party monitoring software such as TaintDroid, an academic research-funded project, can, in some cases, detect when personal information is being sent from applications to remote servers.

Android applications run in a, an isolated area of the system that does not have access to the rest of the system’s resources, unless access permissions are explicitly granted by the user when the application is installed.

Since February, Google has used its scanner to watch over and scan apps available in the Google Play store. A “Verify Apps” feature was introduced in November, as part of the operating system version, to scan all apps, both from Google Play and from third-party sources, for malicious behavior.

Originally only doing so during installation, Verify Apps received an update in to “constantly” scan apps, and in the feature was made visible to users through a menu in Settings. Before installing an application, the store displays a list of the requirements an app needs to function.

After reviewing these permissions, the user can choose to accept or refuse them, installing the application only if they accept. In, the permissions system was changed; apps are no longer automatically granted all of their specified permissions at installation time.

An opt-in system is used instead, in which users are prompted to grant or deny individual permissions to an app when they are needed for the first time. Applications remember the grants, which can be revoked by the user at any time.

The new permissions model is used only by applications developed for Marshmallow using its SDK, and older apps will continue to use the previous all-or-nothing approach.

Permissions can still be revoked for those apps, though this might prevent them from working properly, and a warning is displayed to that effect. Nova wrote that “The Android operating system deals with software packages by sandboxing them; this does not allow applications to list the directory contents of other apps to keep the system safe.

By not allowing the antivirus to list the directories of other apps after installation, applications that show no inherent suspicious behavior when downloaded are cleared as safe.

The study by Fraunhofer AISEC, examining antivirus software from, , , , , , , , , , and, revealed that “the tested antivirus apps do not provide protection against customized malware or targeted attacks”, and that “the tested antivirus apps were also not able to detect malware which is completely unknown to date but does not make any efforts to hide its malignity”.

In August, Google announced Android Device Manager, a website that allows users to remotely track, locate, and wipe their Android device, with an Android app for the service released in December.

In December, Google introduced a Trusted Contacts app, letting users request location-tracking of loved ones during emergencies. The for Android is: Google publishes most of the code including network and telephony under the version 2.

The license does not grant rights to the “Android” trademark, so device manufacturers and wireless carriers have to license it from Google under individual contracts.

Associated Linux kernel changes are released under the version 2, developed by the, with the source code publicly available at all times. Typically, Google collaborates with a hardware manufacturer to produce a flagship device part of the Nexus series featuring the new version of Android, then makes the source code available after that device has been released.

The only Android release which was not immediately made available as source code was the tablet-only 3. The reason, according to in an official Android blog post, was because Honeycomb was rushed for production of the, and they did not want third parties creating a “really bad user experience” by attempting to put onto smartphones a version of Android intended for tablets.

These applications must be licensed from Google by device makers, and can only be shipped on devices which meet its compatibility guidelines and other requirements.

Custom, certified distributions of Android produced by manufacturers such as and may also replace certain stock Android apps with their own proprietary variants and add additional software not included in the stock Android operating system.

There may also be “” required for certain hardware components in the device. Moreover, open-source variants of some applications also exclude functions that are present in their non-free versions, such as Photosphere panoramas in Camera, and a page on the default home screen exclusive to the proprietary version “Google Now Launcher”, whose code is embedded within that of the main Google application.

Google licenses their Google Mobile Services software, along with Android trademarks, only to hardware manufacturers for devices that meet Google’s compatibility standards specified in the Android Compatibility Program document.

Thus, forks of Android that make major changes to the operating system itself do not include any of Google’s non-free components, stay incompatible with applications that require them, and must ship with an alternative software marketplace in lieu of Google Play Store.

Examples of such Android forks are ‘s which is used on the line of tablets, and oriented toward Amazon services, the a fork used by the, oriented primarily toward and services, and other forks that exclude Google apps due to the general unavailability of Google services in certain regions such as.

In, Google also began to require that all Android devices which license the Google Mobile Services software display a prominent “Powered by Android” logo on their boot screens. Members of the Open Handset Alliance, which include the majority of Android OEMs, are also contractually forbidden from producing Android devices based on forks of the OS; in, was forced by Google to halt production on a device powered by ‘s with threats of removal from the OHA, as Google deemed the platform to be an incompatible version of Android.

Alibaba Group defended the allegations, arguing that the OS was a distinct platform from Android primarily using apps, but incorporated portions of Android’s platform to allow backwards compatibility with third-party Android software.

Indeed, the devices did ship with an application store which offered Android apps; however, the majority of them were. Android received a lukewarm reaction when it was unveiled in Although analysts were impressed with the respected technology companies that had partnered with Google to form the Open Handset Alliance, it was unclear whether mobile phone manufacturers would be willing to replace their existing operating systems with Android.

The idea of an open-source, Linux-based sparked interest, but there were additional worries about Android facing strong competition from established players in the smartphone market, such as Nokia and Microsoft, and rival Linux mobile operating systems that were in development.

These established players were skeptical: Since then Android has grown to become the most widely used smartphone operating system and “one of the fastest mobile experiences available. As a result, it has been described by technology website as “practically the default operating system for launching new hardware” for companies without their own mobile platforms.

This openness and flexibility is also present at the level of the end user: Android allows extensive customisation of devices by their owners and apps are freely available from non-Google app stores and third party websites.

These have been cited as among the main advantages of Android phones over others. Despite Android’s popularity, including an activation rate three times that of iOS, there have been reports that Google has not been able to leverage their other products and web services successfully to turn Android into the money maker that analysts had expected.

In, in an effort to improve prominence of the Android brand, Google began to require that devices featuring its proprietary components display an Android logo on the boot screen. Android has suffered from “fragmentation”, a situation where the variety of Android devices, in terms of both hardware variations and differences in the software running on them, makes the task of developing applications that work consistently across the ecosystem harder than rival platforms such as iOS where hardware and software varies less.

For example, according to data from in July, there were 11, models of Android device, numerous different screen sizes and eight Android OS versions simultaneously in use, while the large majority of iOS users have upgraded to the latest iteration of that OS.

Critics such as have asserted that fragmentation via hardware and software pushed Android’s growth through large volumes of low end, budget-priced devices running older versions of Android.

They maintain this forces Android developers to write for the “lowest common denominator” to reach as many users as possible, who have too little incentive to make use of the latest hardware or software features only available on a smaller percentage of devices.

However, OpenSignal, who develops both Android and iOS apps, concluded that although fragmentation can make development trickier, Android’s wider global reach also increases the potential reward.

Research company Canalys estimated in the second quarter of, that Android had a 2. By the third quarter of, estimated that more than half In July, Google said that, Android devices were being activated every day, up from, per day in May, and more than million devices had been activated with 4.

In September, million devices had been activated with 1. In May, at, Sundar Pichai announced that million Android devices had been activated. Android market share varies by location.

In April Android had 1. As of May, 48 billion applications “apps” have been installed from the Google Play store, and by September, one billion Android devices have been activated. As of February, the store has over 2.

The operating system’s success has made it a target for patent litigation as part of the so-called “” between technology companies. Android devices account for more than half of smartphone sales in most markets, including the US, while “only in Japan was Apple on top” September—November numbers.

At the end of, over 1. Three billion Android smartphones are estimated to be sold by the end of including previous years. According to Gartner research company, Android-based devices outsold all contenders, every year since In, it outsold Windows 2.

According to, which tracks only the use for browsing the web, Android is the most popular mobile operating system since August Android is the most popular operating system for web browsing in India and several other countries e.

According to StatCounter, Android is most used on mobile in all African countries, and it stated “mobile usage has already overtaken desktop in several countries including India, South Africa and Saudi Arabia”, with virtually all countries in Africa having done so already except for seven countries, including Egypt, such as Ethiopia and Kenya in which mobile including tablets usage is at While Android phones in the commonly include Google’s proprietary add-ons such as Google Play to the otherwise open-source operating system, this is increasingly not the case in emerging markets; “ABI Research claims that 65 million devices shipped globally with open-source Android in the second quarter of [], up from 54 million in the first quarter”; depending on country, percent of phones estimated to be based only on Android’s source code AOSP, forgoing the Android trademark: According to a January report, “Android surpassed a billion shipments of devices in, and will continue to grow at a double-digit pace in, with a 26 percent increase year over year.

Gartner expected the whole mobile phone market to “reach two billion units in “, including Android. Describing the statistics, Farhad Manjoo wrote in that “About one of every two computers sold today is running Android.

According to a ‘s estimate, Android smartphones had an installed base of 1. Android has the largest installed base of any and, since, the highest-selling operating system overall with sales in, and close to the installed base of all PCs.

In the third quarter of, Android’s share of the global smartphone shipment market was As of September 28, , with By August, the two biggest continents have gone mobile-majority, judged by web use “desktop” has By, Android was on the majority of smartphones in virtually all countries in the world, excluding United States and Canada while including North America continent as a whole, Australia and Japan.

A few countries, such as the UK, lose Android-majority if tablets are included. In September, Google announced that Android had 1. Despite its success on smartphones, initially Android tablet adoption was slow.

One of the main causes was the situation where consumers were hesitant to buy an Android tablet due to a lack of high quality tablet applications, but developers were hesitant to spend time and resources developing tablet applications until there was a significant market for them.

The content and app “ecosystem” proved more important than hardware as the selling point for tablets. Due to the lack of Android tablet-specific applications in, early Android tablets had to make do with existing smartphone applications that were ill-suited to larger screen sizes, whereas the dominance of Apple’s was reinforced by the large number of tablet-specific applications.

Despite app support in its infancy, a considerable number of Android tablets alongside those using other operating systems, such as the and were rushed out to market in an attempt to capitalize on the success of the iPad.

InfoWorld has suggested that some Android manufacturers initially treated their first tablets as a “Frankenphone business”, a short-term low-investment opportunity by placing a smartphone-optimized Android OS before Android 3.

This approach, such as with the, failed to gain market traction with consumers as well as damaging the early reputation of Android tablets. Furthermore, several Android tablets such as the were priced the same or higher than the, which hurt sales.

An exception was the, which relied upon lower pricing as well as access to Amazon’s ecosystem of applications and content. This began to change in, with the release of the affordable and a push by Google for developers to write better tablet applications.

As of the end of, over This made Android tablets the most-sold type of tablet in, surpassing iPads in the second quarter of According to the StatCounter’s June web use statistics, Android tablets represent the majority of tablet devices used on the then lost majority and continents In about half of the European countries, Android tablets have a majority market share.

China is an exception for the major developing countries, in which Android classified as smartphones while similar in size to tablets are more popular than Android tablets or iPads. In March, Galen Gruman of stated that Android devices could be a “real part of your business [..

It can now be as integral to your mobile portfolio as ‘s devices are”. A year earlier, Gruman had stated that ‘s own were “better on iOS and Android” than on Microsoft’s own devices. Charts in this section provide breakdowns of Android versions, based on devices accessing the in a seven-day period ending on April 3, Therefore, these statistics exclude devices running various Android that do not access the Google Play Store, such as Amazon’s.

In general, paid Android applications can easily be. In a May interview with, the developers of stated that the ratio of pirated players vs legitimate players was 9: In, Google released a tool for validating authorized purchases for use within apps, but developers complained that this was insufficient and trivial to.

Google responded that the tool, especially its initial release, was intended as a sample framework for developers to modify and build upon depending on their needs, not as a finished piracy solution.

Android “Jelly Bean” introduced the ability for paid applications to be encrypted, so that they may work only on the device for which they were purchased. Both Android and Android phone manufacturers have been involved in numerous patent lawsuits.

On August 12, , sued Google over claimed infringement of copyrights and patents related to the programming language. Oracle originally sought damages up to. In response, Google submitted multiple lines of defense, counterclaiming that Android did not infringe on Oracle’s patents or copyright, that Oracle’s patents were invalid, and several other defenses.

They said that Android’s Java runtime environment is based on, a implementation of the Java class libraries, and an independently developed virtual machine called. In May, the jury in this case found that Google did not infringe on Oracle’s patents, and the trial judge ruled that the structure of the Java APIs used by Google was not copyrightable.

The parties agreed to zero dollars in for a small amount of copied code. On May 9, , the partially reversed the district court ruling, ruling in Oracle’s favor on the copyrightability issue, and the issue of to the district court.

In December, Google announced that the next major release of Android would switch to, which is the official open-source implementation of the Java platform, instead of using the now-discontinued Apache Harmony project as its runtime.

Code reflecting this change was also posted to the AOSP source repository. In its announcement, Google claimed this was part of an effort to create a “common code base” between Java on Android and other platforms.

Google later admitted in a court filing that this was part of an effort to address the disputes with Oracle, as its use of OpenJDK code is governed under the GPL with a, and that “any damages claim associated with the new versions expressly licensed by Oracle under OpenJDK would require a separate analysis of damages from earlier releases”.

In addition to lawsuits against Google directly, various have been waged against Android indirectly by targeting manufacturers of Android devices, with the effect of discouraging manufacturers from adopting the platform by increasing the costs of bringing an Android device to market.

Both and Microsoft have sued several manufacturers for patent infringement, with Apple’s ongoing being a particularly high-profile case. In October, Microsoft said they had signed patent license agreements with ten Android device manufacturers, whose products account for.

Samsung’s patent settlement with Microsoft included an agreement to allocate more resources to developing and marketing phones running Microsoft’s Windows Phone operating system.

Microsoft has also its own Android software to patent licenses, requiring the bundling of and applications on Android devices to subsidize the licensing fees, while at the same time helping to promote its software lines.

Google has publicly expressed its frustration for the current patent landscape in the United States, accusing Apple, Oracle and Microsoft of trying to take down Android through patent litigation, rather than innovating and competing with better products and services.

In September, Google purchased for US. In December, Google bought over a thousand patents from. In, , a lobbying organization supported by Microsoft, Oracle and others, filed a complaint regarding Android with the, alleging that its free-of-charge distribution model constituted anti-competitive.

The, whose donors include Google, disputed the Fairsearch allegations. On April 20, , the EU filed a formal antitrust complaint against Google based upon the FairSearch allegations, arguing that its leverage over Android vendors, including the mandatory bundling of the entire suite of proprietary Google software, hindering the ability for competing search providers to be integrated into Android, and barring vendors from producing devices running forks of Android, constituted anti-competitive practices.

In August, Google was fined US. Google has developed several variations of Android for specific use cases, including for wearable devices such as wrist watches, for televisions, for cars, and Brillo, later renamed, for smart devices and.

The open and customizable nature of Android allows to use it on other electronics as well, including laptops and, , cameras, headphones, home automation systems, game consoles, mirrors, media players, and telephones.

Prototype light bulbs were announced that could be controlled from an Android phone or tablet, but Android head Andy Rubin was cautious to note that “turning a lightbulb on and off is nothing new”, pointing to numerous failed home automation services.

Google, he said, was thinking more ambitiously and the intention was to use their position as a services provider to bring Google products into customers’ homes. In, released its own Android-based car stereo, the AX1.

In January, at the CES, Google announced the formation of the, a group including several major automobile makers, , , and and, which aims to produce Android-based systems for automobiles, “[bringing] the best of Android into the automobile in a safe and seamless way.

Android comes preinstalled on a few laptops a similar functionality of running Android applications is also available in Google’s and can also be installed on by end users.

On those platforms Android provides additional functionality for physical and, together with the “” key combination for switching applications quickly with a keyboard. In December, one reviewer commented that Android’s notification system is “vastly more complete and robust than in most environments” and that Android is “absolutely usable” as one’s primary desktop operating system.

In October, reported that Android will serve as Google’s future main laptop operating system, with the plan to fold Chrome OS into it by Google’s Sundar Pichai, who led the development of Android, explained that “mobile as a computing paradigm is eventually going to blend with what we think of as desktop today.

That is unlike Android where support is shorter with ” dates [being.. This forum is for all of your questions about the App Development Forums. If you need help troubleshooting a problem, please be as specific as possible by describing your software configuration, including the ROM, kernel, and any modifications you’ve done.

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The price list also gives a list of sellers in India that sell mobiles at the lowest prices, which is updated every day from offline and online sources. Take a look at this video by, showing a new Samsung Galaxy S8 running the Dolphin emulator for GameCube and Wii games almost flawlessly.

Launch, July Available. Released, August Body Platforms and, , , type, shell, as core utilities beginning with Android 6. Versions accounting for less than 0. Retrieved March 11, Morrill, Dan September 23, Retrieved September 5, Internationalization Multi-locale support [..

Coupled with allowing you to select multiple languages preferences, Android Nougat allows you to select from new languages and 25 locales for commonly used languages such as English, Spanish, French, and Arabic.

This enables Apps to better support and understanding your language preferences even if your devices lacks official support for it. Archived from on January 21, Archived from on February 9, Archived from on March 19, Retrieved March 12, Archived from on February 5, Welch, Chris April 16, Vance, Ashlee July 29, Block, Ryan August 28, Sharma, Amol; Delaney, Kevin J.

Archived from on August 21, McKay, Martha December 21, Retrieved February 21, And don’t hold your breath, but the same cell phone-obsessed tech watchers say it won’t be long before Google jumps headfirst into the phone biz.

Ionescu, Daniel April 26, Ziegler, Chris April 25, Claburn, Thomas September 19, Archived from on March 17, Pearce, James Quintana September 20, Schonfeld, Erick November 5, Rubin, Andy November 5, Aamoth, Doug September 23, Gao, Richard September 23, Ion, Florence May 15, Hollister, Sean May 15, Cunningham, Andrew July 4, Cunningham, Andrew January 14, Cunningham, Andrew January 25, Chavez, Chris January 21, Smith, Mat August 28, Orion, Egan August 28, Page, Larry March 13, Arthur, Charles March 13, Brandom, Russell August 10, Conditt, Jessica August 10, Bergen, Mark October 9, Martonik, Andrew October 9, Kastrenakes, Jacob June 25, Seifert, Dan June 26, Woods, Ben June 25, Pichai, Sundar September 15, Bergen, Mark June 11, D’Orazio, Dante August 9, Lomas, Natasha August 18, Cooper, Daniel August 18, Efrati, Amir January 17, Savov, Vlad October 4, Retrieved March 13, Lawler, Richard October 4, Seifert, Dan October 4, Ng, Alfred October 6, Android Open Source Project.

Archived from on January 25, Chavez, Chris December 22, Hindy, Joe February 4, Gordon, Whitson May 20, Archived from on December 8, Mullis, Alex November 21, Opam, Kwame January 28, Retrieved March 28,

New version android for gtel how an 2017 to 6.0 change a728 imei version zero turn mower

The following phones added to the list of supported: Paul, Ryan November 6, New firmware versions support for Motorola Fast Direct Unlock: Moto E 2nd Gen Extremely fast unlocking via USB seconds solution. VF, Pop 8, Hero etc.

Biografi Dude Harlino sejak Anak – anak video hantu kuntilanak duta mall banjarmasin. Huawei U, U and more The last bastion of Huawei smartphones has been conquered. Today we give you a new update on this outstanding feature and expand the list of supported brands to include a number of latest MTK-based mobile devices.

You will find full manual and drivers for these models at the corresponding sections of Sigma website, as usual. This solution allows you to avoid rooting and diagnostic port activation while performing unlock operation. Lawler, Richard October 4,

See…

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Isaac, Mike April 11, Android has an active community of developers and enthusiasts who use the Android Open Source Project AOSP source code to develop and distribute their own modified versions of the operating system. Raphael, JR November 1, See…

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