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Coolpad 5211 firmware download

Coolpad 5211 firmware download





Valid till 2017/5/25



Download Android firmware for Coolpad Cool1 dual. Skip to content. Nougat and the program for the phone firmware; Coolpad download firmware Android O. Coolpad Coolpad Coolpad Coolpad D. Coolpad S. Coolpad Y Coolpad YI Coolpad Y Coolpad YI Coolpad Y. Quickly and securely download mobile software with UC browser. In addition, UC Browser contains a lot of good navigation sites. To experience these user-friendly features, download UC Browser today.
Android MAY be used on devices that do not include telephony hardware. Retrieved March 19, If a device implementation is already 5211 on an earlier Android version with encryption disabled by default, such a device cannot meet the requirement through a system software update and thus MAY be exempted. Retrieved 15 March Firmware manual is located in the Coolpad section of Sigma website. Download the implementation is not able to estimate the bias, then this sensor must not be implemented.
Download Android firmware for Coolpad Cool1 dual. Skip to content. Nougat and the program for the phone firmware; Coolpad download firmware Android O. Coolpad Coolpad Coolpad Coolpad D. Coolpad S. Coolpad Y Coolpad YI Coolpad Y Coolpad YI Coolpad Y. Quickly and securely download mobile software with UC browser. In addition, UC Browser contains a lot of good navigation sites. To experience these user-friendly features, download UC Browser today.

coolpad 5211 firmware download

coolpad 5211 firmware download

coolpad 5211 firmware download

coolpad 5211 firmware download

coolpad 5211 firmware download

coolpad 5211 firmware download

coolpad 5211 firmware download

coolpad 5211 firmware download

Free 5211 firmware download coolpad bit full

Retrieved June 30, This solution is available as a virtual product – Pack 2. At the in Barcelona, and both unveiled MeeGo, a mobile operating system that combined and Maemo to create an open-sourced experience for users across all devices. Android includes facilities that automatically adjust application assets and UI layouts appropriately for the device to ensure that third-party applications run well on a. Retrieved December 17, Device implementations MUST report correct values for all display metrics defined in and MUST report the same values regardless of whether the embedded or external screen is used as the default display. Released, August Body

You can download factory images and binaries for Nexus devices from developers. You can flash an entire Android system in a single command; doing so verifies the system being flashed is compatible with the installed bootloader and radio, writes the boot, recovery, and system partitions together, then reboots the system.

Flashing also erases all user data, similarly to fastboot oem unlock. Place the device in fastboot mode either manually by holding the appropriate key combination at boot, or from the shell with:.

Filesystems created via fastboot on Motorola Xoom do not function optimally. We recommend re-creating filesystems through recovery, using: All Android devices have a codename.

Below, we have listed thousands of Android phones and tablets from all major manufacturers for the sake of easy reference. This page details how to build only the kernel.

The following instructions assume you have not downloaded all of AOSP; if you have already done so, you can skip the git clone steps except the step that downloads the kernel sources. This table lists the name and locations of the kernel sources and binaries: After determining the device project you want to work with, view the git log for the kernel binary.

The commit message for the kernel binary contains a partial git log of the kernel sources used to build the binary. The first entry in the log is the most recent the one used to build the kernel.

Make a note of the commit message as you will need it in a later step. To determine the kernel version used in a system image, run the following command against the kernel file:.

Download the source for the kernel you want to build using the appropriate git clone command:. On a Linux host, if you don’t have an Android source tree, you can download the prebuilt toolchain from: When you know the last commit message for a kernel and have successfully downloaded the kernel source and prebuilt gcc, you are ready to build the kernel.

The following build commands use the hikey kernel:. To build a different kernel, simply replace hikey-linaro with the name of the kernel you want to build.

Copy the Image directory and the hihikey. Kernel names differ by device. A couple of days ago, Google released the Android 4. The factory images were already available for download on the day the device went up for sale on the Play Store.

Factory images are a great way of completely resetting your Nexus device and putting them back to stock. If you have rooted, flashed a custom ROM on your Nexus device but now want to go back to complete stock, simply follow the steps below.

Do note that the below steps will completely wipe your Nexus of any data, so make backups. Also, you will need to have an unlocked bootloader to flash the factory image. The the latest factory image for your Nexus device can be.

Extract and transfer the contents of the factory image inside this folder as well. All the extracted contents of the factory image should be inside the same folder as the ADB and Fastboot file, otherwise you will get a file not found error.

Now, reboot your Nexus device in bootloader mode. Before we start flashing the factory image, we need to make sure that your Nexus device is being detected by the PC. So, the above command will look something like this on a Mac The above command should confirm if your device is indeed being detected by your PC or not.

If it is, then proceed to the steps below. If not, repeat the steps above again. Make sure that you have properly installed the drivers and are inside the correct folder. The script will then automatically flash the full factory image on your Nexus device.

Once the factory image has been flashed, your device will automatically reboot. Keep in mind that the first boot might take some time so please be patient.

The flash-all script included in the factory image might not work for all. It has always been pretty unreliable and has only worked once for me in the last 2 years. If you are in the same boat as me, you will have to flash each partition manually on your device.

This is slightly cumbersome though. In the factory image that you extracted in Step 1, you will notice there is another ZIP file. Now, its time to manually flash the partitions to your Nexus device.

We will first begin with the bootloader. Then, we will flash all other partitions. The names of the image files in the factory image will clearly indicate the partition they are intended for as well.

If you want to relock the bootloader of your device after flashing the device, put the device back in fastboot mode. Then type in the following command in the Terminal or Command Window you had opened earlier This will re-lock the bootloader of your Nexus device, restoring your warranty and putting the device back to complete stock.

You can find the steps to flash the Android 6. When there is no WIFI available, e. In this case, you can try to use USB connection. The default port number is for vnc viewers, for browser connections.

When USB connection is in use, you no longer need the IP address of the device, instead you can use the IP address of your computer for clients to connect. Please read for more info.

VirtualBox seems to have a bug on USB. Make sure you run our program directly on host, instead of a virtual machine. If you are having problems with USB connection, and observes adb server out of date message, that indicates a conflict between different versions of Android Debug Bridge adb, which causes USB connection not to work.

In this case, you either kills the adb from HTC, or use HTC’s adb, and run the following from a command window, make sure you change the path according to your installation: Plug Android device, e.

On android device, bring down the menu swipe from top all the way down, You should see your USB connection there. Tap it to see more options. Our program relies on adb to communicate with your devices, so it’s very important to have a working version of adb.

If you already have an adb that is working well on your device, it’s highly recommend that you use your own version. You can click Adb button to change its path.

If for some reason, your device can’t be found by the default adb, you can try to change to use the tadb. Coordinate system relative to a mobile device used by the Sensor API. Coordinate system relative to an automotive device used by the Sensor API.

When looking from the positive direction of an axis, positive rotations are counterclockwise. Thus, when a vehicle is making a left turn, the z-axis gyroscope rate of turn is expected to be a positive value.

Base sensor types are named after the physical sensors they represent. These sensors relay data from a single physical sensor as opposed to composite sensors that generate data out of other sensors.

Examples of base sensor types include:. However, base sensors are not equal to and should not be confused with their underlying physical sensor. The data from a base sensor is not the raw output of the physical sensor because corrections such as bias compensation and temperature compensation are applied.

For example, the characteristics of a base sensor might be different from the characteristics of its underlying physical sensor in the following use cases:. An accelerometer sensor reports the acceleration of the device along the 3 sensor axes.

The measured acceleration includes both the physical acceleration change of velocity and the gravity. The bias and scale calibration must only be updated while the sensor is deactivated, so as to avoid causing jumps in values during streaming.

A magnetic field sensor also known as magnetometer reports the ambient magnetic field, as measured along the 3 sensor axes. Rotation is positive in the counterclockwise direction right-hand rule.

That is, an observer looking from some positive location on the x, y or z axis at a device positioned on the origin would report positive rotation if the device appeared to be rotating counter clockwise.

Note that this is the standard mathematical definition of positive rotation and does not agree with the aerospace definition of roll. The gyroscope cannot be emulated based on magnetometers and accelerometers, as this would cause it to have reduced local consistency and responsiveness.

It must be based on a usual gyroscope chip. Up to Android KitKat, the proximity sensors were always wake-up sensors, waking up the SoC when detecting a change in proximity.

After Android KitKat, we advise to implement the wake-up version of this sensor first, as it is the one that is used to turn the screen on and off while making phone calls.

Note that some proximity sensors only support a binary “near” or “far” measurement. A pressure sensor also known as barometer reports the atmospheric pressure in hectopascal hPa. The barometer is often used to estimate elevation changes.

To estimate absolute elevation, the sea-level pressure changing depending on the weather must be used as a reference. A relative humidity sensor measures relative ambient air humidity and returns a value in percent.

Any sensor that is not a base sensor is called a composite sensor. Examples of composite sensors include:. As with base sensors, the characteristics of the composite sensors come from the characteristics of their final data.

For example, the power consumption of a game rotation vector is probably equal to the sum of the power consumptions of the accelerometer chip, the gyroscope chip, the chip processing the data, and the buses transporting the data.

As another example, the drift of a game rotation vector depends as much on the quality of the calibration algorithm as on the physical sensor characteristics.

The following table lists available composite sensor types. Each composite sensor relies on data from one or several physical sensors. Avoid choosing other underlying physical sensors to approximate results as they provide a poor user experience.

When there is no gyroscope on the device and only when there is no gyroscope, you may implement the rotation vector, linear acceleration, and gravity sensors without using the gyroscope.

Accelerometer and if present Gyroscope or magnetometer if gyroscope not present. A linear acceleration sensor reports the linear acceleration of the device in the sensor frame, not including gravity.

The output is conceptually: If the device possesses a gyroscope, the linear acceleration sensor must use the gyroscope and accelerometer as input. At the high level, the significant motion detector is used to reduce the power consumption of location determination.

When the localization algorithms detect that the device is static, they can switch to a low power mode, where they rely on significant motion to wake the device up when the user is changing location.

This sensor must be low power. It makes a tradeoff for power consumption that may result in a small amount of false negatives. This is done for a few reasons:. Compared to the step counter, the step detector should have a lower latency less than 2 seconds.

Both the step detector and the step counter detect when the user is walking, running and walking up the stairs. They should not trigger when the user is biking, driving or in other vehicles.

That is, if the step detection cannot be done in hardware, this sensor should not be defined. In particular, when the step detector is activated and the accelerometer is not, only steps should trigger interrupts not every accelerometer reading.

A step counter reports the number of steps taken by the user since the last reboot while activated. Compared to the step detector, the step counter can have a higher latency up to 10 seconds.

The hardware must ensure the internal step count never overflows. The minimum size of the hardware’s internal counter shall be 16 bits. As stated in, while this sensor operates, it shall not disrupt any other sensors, in particular, the accelerometer, which might very well be in use.

If a particular device cannot support these modes of operation, then this sensor type must not be reported by the HAL. In particular, when the step counter is activated and the accelerometer is not, only steps should trigger interrupts not accelerometer data.

A tilt event is defined by the direction of the 2-seconds window average gravity changing by at least 35 degrees since the activation or the last event generated by the sensor. Here is the algorithm:.

Large accelerations without a change in phone orientation should not trigger a tilt event. For example, a sharp turn or strong acceleration while driving a car should not trigger a tilt event, even though the angle of the average acceleration might vary by more than 35 degrees.

Typically, this sensor is implemented with the help of only an accelerometer. Other sensors can be used as well if they do not increase the power consumption significantly.

This is a low power sensor that should allow the SoC to go into suspend mode. Do not emulate this sensor in the HAL. A rotation vector sensor reports the orientation of the device relative to the East-North-Up coordinates frame.

It is usually obtained by integration of accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer readings. The East-North-Up coordinate system is defined as a direct orthonormal basis where:.

The orientation of the phone is represented by the rotation necessary to align the East-North-Up coordinates with the phone’s coordinates. That is, applying the rotation to the world frame X, Y,Z would align them with the phone coordinates x, y,z.

The rotation is encoded as the four unit-less x, y, z, w components of a unit quaternion:. The quaternion is a unit quaternion: Failure to ensure this will cause erratic client behaviour.

This sensor must use a gyroscope as the main orientation change input. This sensor also uses accelerometer and magnetometer input to make up for gyroscope drift, and it cannot be implemented using only the accelerometer and magnetometer.

A game rotation vector sensor is similar to a rotation vector sensor but not using the geomagnetic field. Therefore the Y axis doesn’t point north but instead to some other reference.

That reference is allowed to drift by the same order of magnitude as the gyroscope drifts around the Z axis. This sensor does not report an estimated heading accuracy: In an ideal case, a phone rotated and returned to the same real-world orientation should report the same game rotation vector.

This sensor must be based on a gyroscope and an accelerometer. It cannot use magnetometer as an input, besides, indirectly, through estimation of the gyroscope bias. A gravity sensor reports the direction and magnitude of gravity in the device’s coordinates.

When the device is at rest, the output of the gravity sensor should be identical to that of the accelerometer. On Earth, the magnitude is around 9. If the device possesses a gyroscope, the gravity sensor must use the gyroscope and accelerometer as input.

A geomagnetic rotation vector is similar to a rotation vector sensor but using a magnetometer and no gyroscope. This sensor must be based on a magnetometer. It cannot be implemented using a gyroscope, and gyroscope input cannot be used by this sensor.

This is an older sensor type that has been deprecated in the Android SDK. It has been replaced by the rotation vector sensor, which is more clearly defined. Use the rotation vector sensor over the orientation sensor whenever possible.

An orientation sensor reports the attitude of the device. Please note, for historical reasons the roll angle is positive in the clockwise direction. Mathematically speaking, it should be positive in the counter-clockwise direction:.

This definition is different from yaw, pitch and roll used in aviation where the X axis is along the long side of the plane tail to nose. Uncalibrated sensors provide more raw results and may include some bias but also contain fewer “jumps” from corrections applied through calibration.

Some applications may prefer these uncalibrated results as smoother and more reliable. For instance, if an application is attempting to conduct its own sensor fusion, introducing calibrations can actually distort results.

An uncalibrated gyroscope reports the rate of rotation around the sensor axes without applying bias compensation to them, along with a bias estimate. Conceptually, the uncalibrated measurement is the sum of the calibrated measurement and the bias estimate: Factory calibration and temperature compensation must be applied to the measurements.

If the implementation is not able to estimate the drift, then this sensor must not be implemented. An uncalibrated magnetic field sensor reports the ambient magnetic field together with a hard iron calibration estimate.

The uncalibrated magnetometer allows higher level algorithms to handle bad hard iron estimation. Soft-iron calibration and temperature compensation must be applied to the measurements.

If the implementation is not able to estimate the bias, then this sensor must not be implemented. Some sensors are mostly used to detect interactions with the user. We do not define how those sensors must be implemented, but they must be low power and it is the responsibility of the device manufacturer to verify their quality in terms of user experience.

A wake up gesture sensor enables waking up the device based on a device specific motion. When this sensor triggers, the device behaves as if the power button was pressed, turning the screen on.

This behavior turning on the screen when this sensor triggers might be deactivated by the user in the device settings. Changes in settings do not impact the behavior of the sensor: The actual gesture to be detected is not specified, and can be chosen by the manufacturer of the device.

A pick-up gesture sensor triggers when the device is picked up regardless of wherever it was before desk, pocket, bag. A glance gesture sensor enables briefly turning the screen on to enable the user to glance content on screen based on a specific motion.

When this sensor triggers, the device will turn the screen on momentarily to allow the user to glance notifications or other content while the device remains locked in a non-interactive state dozing, then the screen will turn off again.

This behavior briefly turning on the screen when this sensor triggers might be deactivated by the user in the device settings. Every day there are thousands of additions to the Google Play store, but many go unnoticed and never receive the attention they deserve.

Check out our top picks and let us know in the comments section if you have any When Monday rolls around, we look back to see which apps were the most appealing to our audience.

Read on for the five most popular Android apps from last week. Copying is nothing new. The app brought us short 24 hour photos and videos as well as a private messaging system that allows one view before the content disappears, and everyone now aspires to be Snapchat.

However, reported in June that the project was “a disappointment”, citing “reluctant consumers and manufacturing partners” and “misfires from the search company that has never quite cracked hardware”.

Plans to relaunch Android One surfaced in August, with Africa announced as the next location for the program a week later. S in coming months”. Google introduced the in October, marketed as being the first phones made by Google, and exclusively featured certain software features, such as the, before wider rollout.

The Pixel phones replaced the Nexus series, and Rick Osterloh, Google’s senior vice president of hardware, confirmed in March that a sequel to the Pixel is coming later in Android’s default user interface is mainly based on, using touch inputs that loosely correspond to real-world actions, like swiping, tapping, pinching, and reverse pinching to manipulate on-screen objects, along with a.

The response to user input is designed to be immediate and provides a fluid touch interface, often using the vibration capabilities of the device to provide to the user. Internal hardware, such as, and are used by some applications to respond to additional user actions, for example adjusting the screen from portrait to landscape depending on how the device is oriented, or allowing the user to steer a vehicle in a by rotating the device, simulating control of a.

Android devices boot to the homescreen, the primary navigation and information “hub” on Android devices, analogous to the found on personal computers. Android homescreens are typically made up of app icons and ; app icons launch the associated app, whereas widgets display live, auto-updating content, such as a, the user’s email inbox, or a directly on the homescreen.

A homescreen may be made up of several pages, between which the user can swipe back and forth. Third-party apps available on and other app stores can extensively re – the homescreen, and even mimic the look of other operating systems, such as.

Most manufacturers customize the look and features of their Android devices to differentiate themselves from their competitors. Along the top of the screen is a status bar, showing information about the device and its connectivity.

This status bar can be “pulled” down to reveal a notification screen where apps display important information or updates. Beginning with, “expandable notifications” allow the user to tap an icon on the notification in order for it to expand and display more information and possible app actions right from the notification.

An All Apps screen lists all installed applications, with the ability for users to drag an app from the list onto the home screen. A Recents screen lets users switch between recently used apps.

Applications “” , which extend the functionality of devices, are written using the kit SDK and, often, the programming language. The programming language is also supported, although with a limited set of API.

The SDK includes a comprehensive set of development tools, including a, , a handset based on, documentation, sample code, and tutorials. In January, Google unveiled an framework based on for porting to Android, wrapped in a native application shell.

Android has a growing selection of third-party applications, which can be acquired by users by downloading and installing the application’s Android application package file, or by downloading them using an program that allows users to from their devices.

Google Play Store allows users to browse, download and update applications published by Google and third-party developers; as of July, there are more than one million applications available for Android in Play Store.

As of July, 50 billion applications have been installed. Some carriers offer direct carrier billing for Google Play application purchases, where the cost of the application is added to the user’s monthly bill.

Due to the open nature of Android, a number of third-party application marketplaces also exist for Android, either to provide a substitute for devices that are not allowed to ship with Google Play Store, provide applications that cannot be offered on Google Play Store due to policy violations, or for other reasons.

Examples of these third-party stores have included the, , and SlideMe. Since Android devices are usually battery-powered, Android is designed to manage processes to keep power consumption at a minimum.

When an application is not in use the system so that, while available for immediate use rather than closed, it does not use battery power or CPU resources. Android manages the applications stored in memory automatically: Lifehacker reported in that third-party task killers were doing more harm than good.

At on May, Google announced, a platform that relies on a smartphone and provides VR capabilities through a and controller designed by Google itself.

The platform is built into Android starting with, differentiating from standalone support for VR capabilities. The software is available for developers, and was released in The main hardware platform for Android is the and architectures, with, , and architectures also officially supported in later versions of Android.

The unofficial project provided support for the x86 architectures ahead of the official support. MIPS architecture was also supported before Google did. Since, Android devices with processors began to appear, including phones and tablets.

While gaining support for bit platforms, Android was first made to run on bit x86 and then on. Android devices incorporate many optional hardware components, including still or video cameras, , , dedicated gaming controls, , , barometers, , , , thermometers, and.

Some hardware components are not required, but became standard in certain classes of devices, such as smartphones, and additional requirements apply if they are present. Some other hardware was initially required, but those requirements have been relaxed or eliminated altogether.

For example, as Android was developed initially as a phone OS, hardware such as microphones were required, while over time the phone function became optional. Android used to require an camera, which was relaxed to a camera if present at all, since the camera was dropped as a requirement entirely when Android started to be used on.

In addition to running on smartphones and tablets, several vendors run Android natively on regular PC hardware with a keyboard and mouse. Using the Android that is part of the, or third-party emulators, Android can also run non-natively on x86 architectures.

Chinese companies are building a PC and mobile operating system, based on Android, to “compete directly with Microsoft Windows and Google Android”. The Chinese Academy of Engineering noted that “more than a dozen” companies were customising Android following a Chinese ban on the use of Windows 8 on government PCs.

Android is developed by until the latest changes and updates are ready to be released, at which point the is made available to the Android Open Source Project. This source code can be found without modification on select devices, mainly the series of devices.

The source code is, in turn, adapted by OEMs to run on their hardware. Android’s source code does not contain the often proprietary that are needed for certain hardware components.

In, the green Android logo was designed for Google by graphic designer. The design team was tasked with a project to create a universally identifiable icon with the specific inclusion of a robot in the final design.

After numerous design developments based on and space movies, the team eventually sought inspiration from the human symbol on restroom doors and modified the figure into a robot shape.

As Android is open-source, it was agreed that the logo should be likewise, and since its launch the green logo has been reinterpreted into countless variations on the original design. Google announces major incremental upgrades to Android on a yearly basis.

The updates can be installed on devices. The latest major release is, announced in March, and released the following August. Compared to its primary rival mobile operating system, ‘s, Android updates typically reach various devices with significant delays.

Except for devices with the Google Nexus brand, updates often arrive months after the release of the new version, or not at all. This is partly due to the extensive variation in in Android devices, to which each upgrade must be specifically tailored, a time – and resource-consuming process.

Manufacturers often prioritize their newest devices and leave old ones behind. Additional delays can be introduced by wireless carriers that, after receiving updates from manufacturers, further customize and brand Android to their needs and conduct extensive testing on their networks before sending the upgrade out to users.

There are also situations in which upgrades are not possible due to one manufacturing partner not providing necessary updates to. The lack of after-sale support from manufacturers and carriers has been widely criticized by consumer groups and the technology media.

Some commentators have noted that the industry has a financial incentive not to upgrade their devices, as the lack of updates for existing devices fuels the purchase of newer ones, an attitude described as “insulting”.

In, Google partnered with a number of industry players to announce an “Android Update Alliance”, pledging to deliver timely updates for every device for 18 months after its release; however, there has not been another official word about that alliance since its announcement.

In, Google began decoupling certain aspects of the operating system particularly its core applications so they could be updated through the store independently of the OS. One of those components, , is a system-level process providing for Google services, installed automatically on nearly all devices running and higher.

With these changes, Google can add new system functionality through Play Services and update apps without having to distribute an upgrade to the operating system itself.

As a result, contained relatively fewer user-facing changes, focusing more on minor changes and platform improvements. In May, reported that Google was making efforts to keep Android more up-to-date, including accelerated rates of security updates, rolling out technological workarounds, reducing requirements for phone testing, and ranking phone makers in an attempt to “shame” them into better behavior.

As stated by Bloomberg: Wireless carriers were described in the report as the “most challenging discussions”, due to carriers’ slow approval time due to testing on their networks, despite some carriers, including and, having already shortened their respective approval times.

In a further effort for persuasion, Google shared a list of top phone makers measured by updated devices with its Android partners, and is considering making the list public. Mike Chan, co-founder of phone maker Nextbit and former Android developer, said that “The best way to solve this problem is a massive re-architecture of the operating system”, “or Google could invest in training manufacturers and carriers “to be good Android citizens””.

Android’s is based on one of the ‘s LTS branches. Since April, Android devices mainly use versions 3. The specific kernel version depends on the actual Android device and its hardware platform; Android has used various kernel versions since the version 2.

Android’s variant of the Linux kernel has further architectural changes that are implemented by Google outside the typical Linux kernel development cycle, such as the inclusion of components like, ashmem, pmem, logger, wakelocks, and different OOM handling.

Certain features that Google contributed back to the Linux kernel, notably a power management feature called “wakelocks”, were rejected by mainline kernel developers partly because they felt that Google did not show any intent to maintain its own code.

Google announced in April that they would hire two employees to work with the Linux kernel community, but, the current Linux kernel maintainer for the stable branch, said in December that he was concerned that Google was no longer trying to get their code changes included in mainstream Linux.

Some Google Android developers hinted that “the Android team was getting fed up with the process,” because they were a small team and had more urgent work to do on Android.

In August, said that “eventually Android and Linux would come back to a common kernel, but it will probably not be for four to five years”. In December, Greg Kroah-Hartman announced the start of Android Mainlining Project, which aims to put some Android, patches and features back into the Linux kernel, starting in Linux 3.

Linux included the autosleep and wakelocks capabilities in the 3. The interfaces are the same but the upstream Linux implementation allows for two different suspend modes: Google maintains a public code repository that contains their experimental work to Android off the latest stable Linux versions.

However, root access can be obtained by exploiting in Android, which is used frequently by the to enhance the capabilities of their devices, but also by malicious parties to install and.

Android is a according to the, Google’s open-source chief, and several journalists. Others, such as Google engineer Patrick Brady, say that Android is not Linux in the traditional Linux distribution sense; Android does not include the it uses as an alternative C library and some of other components typically found in Linux distributions.

On top of the Linux kernel, there are the, and written in, and running on an which includes – compatible libraries. Development of the Linux kernel continues independently of other Android’s source code bases.

Following the trace-based JIT principle, in addition to the majority of application code, Dalvik performs the compilation and of select frequently executed code segments “traces” each time an application is launched.

For its Java library, the Android platform uses a subset of the now discontinued project. In December, Google announced that the next version of Android would switch to a Java implementation based on.

Android’s, , was developed by Google specifically for Android, as a derivation of the ‘s standard C library code. Bionic itself has been designed with several major features specific to the Linux kernel.

The main benefits of using Bionic instead of the glibc or are its smaller runtime footprint, and optimization for low-frequency CPUs. At the same time, Bionic is licensed under the terms of the, which Google finds more suitable for the Android’s overall licensing model.

Android does not have a native by default, nor does it support the full set of standard libraries. This made it difficult to port existing Linux applications or libraries to Android, until version r5 of the brought support for applications written completely in or.

Libraries written in C may also be used in applications by injection of a small and usage of the. Since Marshmallow, “”, a collection of command line utilities mostly for use by apps, as Android doesn’t provide a by default, replaced similar “Toolbox” collection.

Android has an active community of developers and enthusiasts who use the Android Open Source Project AOSP source code to develop and distribute their own modified versions of the operating system.

Community releases often come pre – and contain modifications not provided by the original vendor, such as the ability to or the device’s processor. There have also been attempts with varying degrees of success to port Android to iPhones, notably the iDroid Project.

Historically, device manufacturers and mobile carriers have typically been unsupportive of third-party development. Manufacturers express concern about improper functioning of devices running unofficial software and the support costs resulting from this.

Moreover, modified firmwares such as CyanogenMod sometimes offer features, such as, for which carriers would otherwise charge a premium. As a result, technical obstacles including locked and restricted access to root permissions are common in many devices.

However, as community-developed software has grown more popular, and following a statement by the Librarian of Congress in the United States that permits the “” of mobile devices, manufacturers and carriers have softened their position regarding third party development, with some, including, , and, providing support and encouraging development.

As a result of this, over time the need to circumvent to install unofficial firmware has lessened as an increasing number of devices are shipped with unlocked or unlockable, similar to series of phones, although usually requiring that users waive their devices’ warranties to do so.

However, despite manufacturer acceptance, some carriers in the US still require that phones are locked down, frustrating developers and customers. They are reportedly able to read almost all smartphone information, including SMS, location, emails, and notes.

In January, further reports revealed the intelligence agencies’ capabilities to intercept the personal information transmitted across the Internet by social networks and other popular applications such as, which collect personal information of their users for advertising and other commercial reasons.

GCHQ has, according to, a – style guide of different apps and advertising networks, and the different data that can be siphoned from each. Later that week, the Finnish Angry Birds developer announced that it was reconsidering its relationships with its advertising platforms in the light of these revelations, and called upon the wider industry to do the same.

The documents revealed a further effort by the intelligence agencies to intercept Google Maps searches and queries submitted from Android and other smartphones to collect location information in bulk.

The NSA and GCHQ insist their activities are in compliance with all relevant domestic and international laws, although the Guardian stated “the latest disclosures could also add to mounting public concern about how the technology sector collects and uses information, especially for those outside the US, who enjoy fewer privacy protections than Americans.

Research from security company lists premium service abuse as the most common type of Android malware, where text messages are sent from infected phones to without the consent or even knowledge of the user.

Other malware displays unwanted and intrusive advertisements on the device, or sends personal information to unauthorised third parties. Security threats on Android are reportedly growing exponentially; however, Google engineers have argued that the malware and virus threat on Android is being by security companies for commercial reasons, and have accused the security industry of playing on fears to sell virus protection software to users.

Google maintains that dangerous malware is actually extremely rare, and a survey conducted by showed that only 0. In August, Google announced that devices in the series would begin to receive monthly security.

Google also wrote that “Nexus devices will continue to receive major updates for at least two years and security patches for the longer of three years from initial availability or 18 months from last sale of the device via the.

Ron Amadeo of wrote also in August that “Android was originally designed, above all else, to be widely adopted. Google was starting from scratch with zero percent market share, so it was happy to give up control and give everyone a seat at the table in exchange for adoption.

As such, security has become a big issue. Android still uses a software update chain-of-command designed back when the Android ecosystem had zero devices to update, and it just doesn’t work”. Following news of Google’s monthly schedule, some manufacturers, including Samsung and LG, promised to issue monthly security updates, but, as noted by Jerry Hildenbrand in Android Central in February, “instead we got a few updates on specific versions of a small handful of models.

And a bunch of broken promises”. They also wrote that “About half of devices in use at the end of had not received a platform security update in the previous year”, stating that their work would continue to focus on streamlining the security updates program for easier deployment by manufacturers.

Patches to bugs found in the core operating system often do not reach users of older and lower-priced devices. However, the open-source nature of Android allows security contractors to take existing devices and adapt them for highly secure uses.

For example, Samsung has worked with General Dynamics through their acquisition to rebuild Jelly Bean on top of their hardened microvisor for the “Knox” project.

Android smartphones have the ability to report the location of access points, encountered as phone users move around, to build databases containing the physical locations of hundreds of millions of such access points.

These databases form electronic maps to locate smartphones, allowing them to run apps like, , , and to deliver location-based ads. Third party monitoring software such as TaintDroid, an academic research-funded project, can, in some cases, detect when personal information is being sent from applications to remote servers.

Android applications run in a, an isolated area of the system that does not have access to the rest of the system’s resources, unless access permissions are explicitly granted by the user when the application is installed.

Since February, Google has used its scanner to watch over and scan apps available in the Google Play store. A “Verify Apps” feature was introduced in November, as part of the operating system version, to scan all apps, both from Google Play and from third-party sources, for malicious behavior.

Originally only doing so during installation, Verify Apps received an update in to “constantly” scan apps, and in the feature was made visible to users through a menu in Settings. Before installing an application, the store displays a list of the requirements an app needs to function.

After reviewing these permissions, the user can choose to accept or refuse them, installing the application only if they accept. In, the permissions system was changed; apps are no longer automatically granted all of their specified permissions at installation time.

An opt-in system is used instead, in which users are prompted to grant or deny individual permissions to an app when they are needed for the first time.

Applications remember the grants, which can be revoked by the user at any time. The new permissions model is used only by applications developed for Marshmallow using its SDK, and older apps will continue to use the previous all-or-nothing approach.

Permissions can still be revoked for those apps, though this might prevent them from working properly, and a warning is displayed to that effect. Nova wrote that “The Android operating system deals with software packages by sandboxing them; this does not allow applications to list the directory contents of other apps to keep the system safe.

By not allowing the antivirus to list the directories of other apps after installation, applications that show no inherent suspicious behavior when downloaded are cleared as safe.

The study by Fraunhofer AISEC, examining antivirus software from, , , , , , , , , , and, revealed that “the tested antivirus apps do not provide protection against customized malware or targeted attacks”, and that “the tested antivirus apps were also not able to detect malware which is completely unknown to date but does not make any efforts to hide its malignity”.

In August, Google announced Android Device Manager, a website that allows users to remotely track, locate, and wipe their Android device, with an Android app for the service released in December.

In December, Google introduced a Trusted Contacts app, letting users request location-tracking of loved ones during emergencies. The for Android is: Google publishes most of the code including network and telephony under the version 2.

The license does not grant rights to the “Android” trademark, so device manufacturers and wireless carriers have to license it from Google under individual contracts. Associated Linux kernel changes are released under the version 2, developed by the, with the source code publicly available at all times.

Typically, Google collaborates with a hardware manufacturer to produce a flagship device part of the Nexus series featuring the new version of Android, then makes the source code available after that device has been released.

The only Android release which was not immediately made available as source code was the tablet-only 3. The reason, according to in an official Android blog post, was because Honeycomb was rushed for production of the, and they did not want third parties creating a “really bad user experience” by attempting to put onto smartphones a version of Android intended for tablets.

These applications must be licensed from Google by device makers, and can only be shipped on devices which meet its compatibility guidelines and other requirements.

Custom, certified distributions of Android produced by manufacturers such as and may also replace certain stock Android apps with their own proprietary variants and add additional software not included in the stock Android operating system.

There may also be “” required for certain hardware components in the device. Moreover, open-source variants of some applications also exclude functions that are present in their non-free versions, such as Photosphere panoramas in Camera, and a page on the default home screen exclusive to the proprietary version “Google Now Launcher”, whose code is embedded within that of the main Google application.

Google licenses their Google Mobile Services software, along with Android trademarks, only to hardware manufacturers for devices that meet Google’s compatibility standards specified in the Android Compatibility Program document.

Thus, forks of Android that make major changes to the operating system itself do not include any of Google’s non-free components, stay incompatible with applications that require them, and must ship with an alternative software marketplace in lieu of Google Play Store.

Examples of such Android forks are ‘s which is used on the line of tablets, and oriented toward Amazon services, the a fork used by the, oriented primarily toward and services, and other forks that exclude Google apps due to the general unavailability of Google services in certain regions such as.

In, Google also began to require that all Android devices which license the Google Mobile Services software display a prominent “Powered by Android” logo on their boot screens. Members of the Open Handset Alliance, which include the majority of Android OEMs, are also contractually forbidden from producing Android devices based on forks of the OS; in, was forced by Google to halt production on a device powered by ‘s with threats of removal from the OHA, as Google deemed the platform to be an incompatible version of Android.

Alibaba Group defended the allegations, arguing that the OS was a distinct platform from Android primarily using apps, but incorporated portions of Android’s platform to allow backwards compatibility with third-party Android software.

Indeed, the devices did ship with an application store which offered Android apps; however, the majority of them were. Android received a lukewarm reaction when it was unveiled in Although analysts were impressed with the respected technology companies that had partnered with Google to form the Open Handset Alliance, it was unclear whether mobile phone manufacturers would be willing to replace their existing operating systems with Android.

The idea of an open-source, Linux-based sparked interest, but there were additional worries about Android facing strong competition from established players in the smartphone market, such as Nokia and Microsoft, and rival Linux mobile operating systems that were in development.

These established players were skeptical: Since then Android has grown to become the most widely used smartphone operating system and “one of the fastest mobile experiences available.

As a result, it has been described by technology website as “practically the default operating system for launching new hardware” for companies without their own mobile platforms. This openness and flexibility is also present at the level of the end user: Android allows extensive customisation of devices by their owners and apps are freely available from non-Google app stores and third party websites.

These have been cited as among the main advantages of Android phones over others. Despite Android’s popularity, including an activation rate three times that of iOS, there have been reports that Google has not been able to leverage their other products and web services successfully to turn Android into the money maker that analysts had expected.

In, in an effort to improve prominence of the Android brand, Google began to require that devices featuring its proprietary components display an Android logo on the boot screen.

Android has suffered from “fragmentation”, a situation where the variety of Android devices, in terms of both hardware variations and differences in the software running on them, makes the task of developing applications that work consistently across the ecosystem harder than rival platforms such as iOS where hardware and software varies less.

For example, according to data from in July, there were 11, models of Android device, numerous different screen sizes and eight Android OS versions simultaneously in use, while the large majority of iOS users have upgraded to the latest iteration of that OS.

Critics such as have asserted that fragmentation via hardware and software pushed Android’s growth through large volumes of low end, budget-priced devices running older versions of Android.

They maintain this forces Android developers to write for the “lowest common denominator” to reach as many users as possible, who have too little incentive to make use of the latest hardware or software features only available on a smaller percentage of devices.

However, OpenSignal, who develops both Android and iOS apps, concluded that although fragmentation can make development trickier, Android’s wider global reach also increases the potential reward.

Research company Canalys estimated in the second quarter of, that Android had a 2. By the third quarter of, estimated that more than half In July, Google said that, Android devices were being activated every day, up from, per day in May, and more than million devices had been activated with 4.

In September, million devices had been activated with 1. In May, at, Sundar Pichai announced that million Android devices had been activated. Android market share varies by location.

In April Android had 1. As of May, 48 billion applications “apps” have been installed from the Google Play store, and by September, one billion Android devices have been activated. As of February, the store has over 2.

The operating system’s success has made it a target for patent litigation as part of the so-called “” between technology companies. Android devices account for more than half of smartphone sales in most markets, including the US, while “only in Japan was Apple on top” September—November numbers.

At the end of, over 1. Three billion Android smartphones are estimated to be sold by the end of including previous years. According to Gartner research company, Android-based devices outsold all contenders, every year since In, it outsold Windows 2.

According to, which tracks only the use for browsing the web, Android is the most popular mobile operating system since August Android is the most popular operating system for web browsing in India and several other countries e.

According to StatCounter, Android is most used on mobile in all African countries, and it stated “mobile usage has already overtaken desktop in several countries including India, South Africa and Saudi Arabia”, with virtually all countries in Africa having done so already except for seven countries, including Egypt, such as Ethiopia and Kenya in which mobile including tablets usage is at While Android phones in the commonly include Google’s proprietary add-ons such as Google Play to the otherwise open-source operating system, this is increasingly not the case in emerging markets; “ABI Research claims that 65 million devices shipped globally with open-source Android in the second quarter of [], up from 54 million in the first quarter”; depending on country, percent of phones estimated to be based only on Android’s source code AOSP, forgoing the Android trademark: According to a January report, “Android surpassed a billion shipments of devices in, and will continue to grow at a double-digit pace in, with a 26 percent increase year over year.

Gartner expected the whole mobile phone market to “reach two billion units in “, including Android. Describing the statistics, Farhad Manjoo wrote in that “About one of every two computers sold today is running Android.

According to a ‘s estimate, Android smartphones had an installed base of 1. Android has the largest installed base of any and, since, the highest-selling operating system overall with sales in, and close to the installed base of all PCs.

In the third quarter of, Android’s share of the global smartphone shipment market was As of September 28, , with By August, the two biggest continents have gone mobile-majority, judged by web use “desktop” has By, Android was on the majority of smartphones in virtually all countries in the world, excluding United States and Canada while including North America continent as a whole, Australia and Japan.

A few countries, such as the UK, lose Android-majority if tablets are included. In September, Google announced that Android had 1. Despite its success on smartphones, initially Android tablet adoption was slow.

One of the main causes was the situation where consumers were hesitant to buy an Android tablet due to a lack of high quality tablet applications, but developers were hesitant to spend time and resources developing tablet applications until there was a significant market for them.

The content and app “ecosystem” proved more important than hardware as the selling point for tablets. Due to the lack of Android tablet-specific applications in, early Android tablets had to make do with existing smartphone applications that were ill-suited to larger screen sizes, whereas the dominance of Apple’s was reinforced by the large number of tablet-specific applications.

Despite app support in its infancy, a considerable number of Android tablets alongside those using other operating systems, such as the and were rushed out to market in an attempt to capitalize on the success of the iPad.

InfoWorld has suggested that some Android manufacturers initially treated their first tablets as a “Frankenphone business”, a short-term low-investment opportunity by placing a smartphone-optimized Android OS before Android 3.

This approach, such as with the, failed to gain market traction with consumers as well as damaging the early reputation of Android tablets. Furthermore, several Android tablets such as the were priced the same or higher than the, which hurt sales.

An exception was the, which relied upon lower pricing as well as access to Amazon’s ecosystem of applications and content. This began to change in, with the release of the affordable and a push by Google for developers to write better tablet applications.

As of the end of, over This made Android tablets the most-sold type of tablet in, surpassing iPads in the second quarter of According to the StatCounter’s June web use statistics, Android tablets represent the majority of tablet devices used on the then lost majority and continents

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Generally speaking, this functionality consists of a single, system-wide user interface that allows users to enter queries, displays suggestions as users type, and displays results. The Android APIs allow developers to reuse this interface to provide search within their own apps and allow developers to supply results to the common global search user interface.

Android device implementations SHOULD include global search, a single, shared, system-wide search user interface capable of real-time suggestions in response to user input. Device implementations that implement the global search interface MUST implement the APIs that allow third-party applications to add suggestions to the search box when it is run in global search mode.

If no third-party applications are installed that make use of this functionality, the default behavior SHOULD be to display web search engine results and suggestions. Android also includes the to allow applications to elect how much information of the current context is shared with the assistant on the device.

Device implementations supporting the Assist action MUST indicate clearly to the end user when the context is shared by displaying a white light around the edges of the screen. To ensure clear visibility to the end user, the indication MUST meet or exceed the duration and brightness of the Android Open Source Project implementation.

The preinstalled app MUST request the context to be shared only when the user invoked the app by one of the following means, and the app is running in the foreground:. The device implementation MUST provide an affordance to enable the indication, less than two navigations away from the default voice input and assistant app settings menu.

Applications can use the to display short non-modal strings to the end user that disappear after a brief period of time. Device implementations MUST display Toasts from applications to end users in some high-visibility manner.

Device implementations MAY modify the exposed to applications. Android supports a variant theme with translucent system bars, which allows application developers to fill the area behind the status and navigation bar with their app content.

To enable a consistent developer experience in this configuration, it is important the status bar icon style is maintained across different device implementations. When an app requests a light status bar, Android device implementations MUST change the color of the system status icons to black for details, refer to.

Android defines a component type and corresponding API and lifecycle that allows applications to expose one or more to the end user. Live wallpapers are animations, patterns, or similar images with limited input capabilities that display as a wallpaper, behind other applications.

Hardware is considered capable of reliably running live wallpapers if it can run all live wallpapers, with no limitations on functionality, at a reasonable frame rate with no adverse effects on other applications.

As an example, some live wallpapers may use an OpenGL 2. Live wallpaper will not run reliably on hardware that does not support multiple OpenGL contexts because the live wallpaper use of an OpenGL context may conflict with other applications that also use an OpenGL context.

Device implementations capable of running live wallpapers reliably as described above SHOULD implement live wallpapers, and when implemented MUST report the platform feature flag android.

Device implementations including the recents function navigation key as detailed in MAY alter the interface but MUST meet the following requirements:. Android includes support for and support for third-party input method editors.

Device implementations that allow users to use third-party input methods on the device MUST declare the platform feature android. Device implementations that declare the android. Device implementations MUST display the settings interface in response to the android.

Android includes support for, previously referred to as Dreams. Screen savers allow users to interact with applications when a device connected to a power source is idle or docked in a desk dock.

Android Watch devices MAY implement screen savers, but other types of device implementations SHOULD include support for screen savers and provide a settings option for users toconfigure screen savers in response to the android.

When a device has a hardware sensor e. Android includes support for the emoji characters defined in. Android includes support for Roboto 2 font with different weights—sans-serif-thin, sans-serif-light, sans-serif-medium, sans-serif-black, sans-serif-condensed, sans-serif-condensed-light—which MUST all be included for the languages available on the device and full Unicode 7.

A device implementation MAY choose not to implement any multi-window modes, but if it has the capability to display multiple activities at the same time it MUST implement such multi-window mode s in accordance with the application behaviors and APIs described in the Android SDK and meet the following requirements:.

Android includes features that allow security-aware applications to perform device administration functions at the system level, such as enforcing password policies or performing remote wipe, through the ].

Device implementations MUST provide an implementation of the class. Device implementations that supports a secure lock screen MUST implement the full range of policies defined in the Android SDK documentation and report the platform feature android.

If a device implementation declares the android. Device implementations MAY have a preinstalled application performing device administration functions but this application MUST NOT be set as the Device Owner app without explicit consent or action from the user or the administrator of the device.

Device implementations MUST provide the following user affordances within the Settings user interface to indicate to the user when a particular system function has been disabled by the Device Policy Controller DPC:.

Android provides an accessibility layer that helps users with disabilities to navigate their devices more easily. Device implementations Android Automotive and Android Watch devices with no audio output excluded, MUST provide a user-accessible mechanism to enable and disable accessibility services, and MUST display this interface in response to the android.

Device implementations reporting the feature android. The simplifies the delivery of live content to Android Television devices. Android Television device implementations MUST support, which allows all inputs to provide activity links from the current activity to another activity i.

Android Television device implementations MUST support time shifting, which allows the user to pause and resume live content. Device implementations MUST provide the user a way to pause and resume the currently playing program, if time shifting for that program.

Android includes the API allowing third party apps to implement tiles that can be added by the user alongside the system-provided tiles in the Quick Settings UI component. If a device implementation has a Quick Settings UI component, it:.

The UI framework supporting third-party apps that depend on MediaBrowser and MediaSession has the following visual requirements:. Devices implementations MUST NOT extend either the, , , or RenderScript bytecode formats in such a way that would prevent those files from installing and running correctly on other compatible devices.

Device implementations MUST NOT allow apps other than the current “installer of record” for the package to silently uninstall the app without any prompt, as documented in the SDK for the permission.

The only exceptions are the system package verifier app handling intent and the storage manager app handling intent. MUST support the media formats, encoders, decoders, file types, and container formats defined in the tables below and reported via.

MUST be able to decode all formats it can encode. This includes all bitstreams that its encoders generate. All of the codecs listed in the table below are provided as software implementations in the preferred Android implementation from the Android Open Source Project.

Please note that neither Google nor the Open Handset Alliance make any representation that these codecs are free from third-party patents. Those intending to use this source code in hardware or software products are advised that implementations of this code, including in open source software or shareware, may require patent licenses from the relevant patent holders.

Video codecs MUST support output and input bytebuffer sizes that accommodate the largest feasible compressed and uncompressed frame as dictated by the standard and configuration but also not overallocate.

Android device implementations with H. MUST properly display Dolby Vision content on the device screen or on a standard video output port e. Implementations that provide a Dolby Vision-capable extractor MUST set the track index of backward-compatible base-layer s if present to be the same as the combined Dolby Vision layer’s track index.

Device implementations that declare android. If capture for the above sample rates is supported, then the capture MUST be done without up-sampling at any ratio higher than Any up-sampling or down-sampling MUST include an appropriate anti-aliasing filter.

In addition to the above recording specifications, when an application has started recording an audio stream using the android. If the platform supports noise suppression technologies tuned for speech recognition, the effect MUST be controllable from the android.

Devices that declare android. AudioRecord API to record from this audio source, it can capture a mix of all audio streams except for the following:. Android provides an for device implementations.

Device implementations that declare the feature android. Android Television device implementations MUST include support for system Master Volume and digital audio output volume attenuation on supported outputs, except for compressed audio passthrough output where no audio decoding is done on the device.

Android Automotive device implementations SHOULD allow adjusting audio volume separately per each audio stream using the content type or usage as defined by and car audio usage as publicly defined in android.

Audio latency is the time delay as an audio signal passes through a system. Many classes of applications rely on short latencies, to achieve real-time sound effects. Device implementations that include android.

Specifically, devices MUST support the following media network protocols:. For exceptions please see the table footnotes in. Device implementations that support secure video output and are capable of supporting secure surfaces MUST declare support for Display.

Device implementations that declare support for Display. The upstream Android open source implementation includes support for wireless Miracast and wired HDMI displays that satisfies this requirement.

Starting from Android 7. It can be accessed using the android. A device MUST satisfy all of the following requirements to report support of the unprocessed audio source via the android.

The device MUST exhibit approximately flat amplitude-versus-frequency characteristics in the mid-frequency range: The device MUST exhibit amplitude levels in the low frequency range: The device MUST exhibit amplitude levels in the high frequency range: The only signal processing allowed in the path is a level multiplier to bring the level to desired range.

If any signal processing is present in the architecture for any reason, it MUST be disabled and effectively introduce zero delay or extra latency to the signal path. Android compatible devices MUST be compatible with:.

Android includes support for developers to configure application development-related settings. Android Automotive implementations MAY limit access to the Developer Options menu by visually hiding or disabling the menu when the vehicle is in motion.

If an API in the SDK interacts with a hardware component that is stated to be optional and the device implementation does not possess that component:. A typical example of a scenario where these requirements apply is the telephony API: Even on non-phone devices, these APIs must be implemented as reasonable no-ops.

Device implementations MUST consistently report accurate hardware configuration information via the getSystemAvailableFeatures and hasSystemFeature String methods on the class for the same build fingerprint.

Android includes facilities that automatically adjust application assets and UI layouts appropriately for the device to ensure that third-party applications run well on a. Specifically, device implementations MUST report the correct screen size according to the following logical density-independent pixel dp screen dimensions.

Device implementations MUST correctly honor applications’ stated support for small, normal, large, and xlarge screens, as described in the Android SDK documentation.

The screen aspect ratio MUST be a value from 1. The Android UI framework defines a set of standard logical densities to help application developers target application resources.

Device implementations MUST report only one of the following logical Android framework densities through the android. Device implementations SHOULD define the standard Android framework density that is numerically closest to the physical density of the screen, unless that logical density pushes the reported screen size below the minimum supported.

If the standard Android framework density that is numerically closest to the physical density results in a screen size that is smaller than the smallest supported compatible screen size dp width, device implementations SHOULD report the next lowest standard Android framework density.

Device implementations MUST report correct values for all display metrics defined in and MUST report the same values regardless of whether the embedded or external screen is used as the default display.

Devices MUST report which screen orientations they support android. For example, a device with a fixed orientation landscape screen, such as a television or laptop, SHOULD only report android. Devices that report both screen orientations MUST support dynamic orientation by applications to either portrait or landscape screen orientation.

Device implementations MAY select either portrait or landscape orientation as the default. If the extension pack is supported in its entirety, the device MUST identify the support through the android.

Note that Android includes support for applications to optionally specify that they require specific OpenGL texture compression formats. These formats are typically vendor-specific. Device implementations are not required by Android to implement any specific texture compression format.

Android includes a mechanism for applications to declare that they want to enable hardware acceleration for 2D graphics at the Application, Activity, Window, or View level through the use of a manifest tag or direct API calls.

Device implementations MUST enable hardware acceleration by default, and MUST disable hardware acceleration if the developer so requests by setting android: Device implementations MUST support extension.

The Android platform includes APIs that allow applications to render rich graphics to the display. Android includes support for secondary display to enable media sharing capabilities and developer APIs for accessing external displays.

If a device supports an external display either via a wired, wireless, or an embedded additional display connection then the device implementation MUST implement the as described in the Android SDK documentation.

Devices MUST support a touchscreen or meet the requirements listed in 7. All other device implementations MUST implement a soft keyboard and:. The availability and visibility requirement of the Home, Recents, and Back functions differ between device types as described in this section.

These functions MAY be implemented via dedicated physical buttons such as mechanical or capacitive touch buttons, or MAY be implemented using dedicated software keys on a distinct portion of the screen, gestures, touch panel, etc.

Android supports both implementations. All of these functions MUST be accessible with a single action e. Recents function, if provided, MUST have a visible button or icon unless hidden together with other navigation functions in full-screen mode.

This does not apply to devices upgrading from earlier Android versions that have physical buttons for navigation and no recents key. The Menu function is deprecated in favor of action bar since Android 4.

Therefore the new device implementations shipping with Android 7. For backwards compatibility, device implementations MUST make the Menu function available to applications when targetSdkVersion is less than 10, either by a physical button, a software key, or gestures.

This Menu function should be presented unless hidden together with other navigation functions. Device implementations MAY use a distinct portion of the screen to display the navigation keys, but if so, MUST meet these requirements:.

Device implementations that do include a pointer input system:. Android includes support for a variety of touchscreens, touch pads, and fake touch input devices. Since the user is directly touching the screen, the system does not require any additional affordances to indicate the objects being manipulated.

In contrast, a fake touch interface provides a user input system that approximates a subset of touchscreen capabilities. For example, a mouse or remote control that drives an on-screen cursor approximates touch, but requires the user to first point or focus then click.

Numerous input devices like the mouse, trackpad, gyro-based air mouse, gyro-pointer, joystick, and multi-touch trackpad can support fake touch interactions.

Android includes the feature constant android. Device implementations that declare the fake touch feature MUST meet the fake touch requirements in. Device implementations MUST report the correct feature corresponding to the type of input used.

Device implementations that include a touchscreen single-touch or better MUST report the platform feature constant android. Device implementations that report the platform feature constant android.

Devices that declare support for android. Android Television device implementations MUST support button mappings for game controllers as listed below. The upstream Android implementation includes implementation for game controllers that satisfies this requirement.

The logical value is defined to be the clockwise rotation away from the vertical axis; for example, a logical value of 0 represents no rotation and the up button being pressed, while a logical value of 1 represents a rotation of 45 degrees and both the up and left keys being pressed.

The remote control MAY be a physical remote or can be a software-based remote that is accessible from a mobile phone or tablet. The remote control MUST meet the requirements defined below.

Android includes APIs for accessing a variety of sensor types. Devices implementations generally MAY omit these sensors, as provided for in the following subsections.

For example, device implementations:. The list above is not comprehensive; the documented behavior of the Android SDK and the Android Open Source Documentations on is to be considered authoritative.

Some sensor types are composite, meaning they can be derived from data provided by one or more other sensors. Examples include the orientation sensor and the linear acceleration sensor.

Device implementations SHOULD implement these sensor types, when they include the prerequisite physical sensors as described in. If a device implementation includes a composite sensor it MUST implement the sensor as described in the Android Open Source documentation on.

Some Android sensors support a, which returns data continuously. If a device implementation does include a 3-axis accelerometer, it:. If a device does include a 3-axis magnetometer, it:.

If a device implementation includes a gyroscope, it:. If a device implementation includes a barometer, it:. Device implementations MAY include an ambient thermometer temperature sensor.

Device implementations MAY include a proximity sensor. If a device implementation does include a proximity sensor, it:. Device implementations supporting a set of higher quality sensors that can meet all the requirements listed in this section MUST identify the support through the android.

A device declaring android. Note that all power consumption requirements in this section do not include the power consumption of the Application Processor.

It is inclusive of the power drawn by the entire sensor chain—the sensor, any supporting circuitry, any dedicated sensor processing system, etc. The following sensor types MAY also be supported on a device implementation declaring android.

If a device implementation includes a fingerprint sensor and has a corresponding API for third-party developers, it:. Automotive-specific sensors are defined in the android.

The underlying ambient light sensor MAY be the same as. Device implementations MAY support pose sensor with 6 degrees of freedom. If a device implementation does support pose sensor with 6 degrees of freedom, it:.

While these voice calls may or may not be packet-switched, they are for the purposes of Android considered independent of any data connectivity that may be implemented using the same network.

Android MAY be used on devices that do not include telephony hardware. That is, Android is compatible with devices that are not phones. If a device implementation does include support for If a device implementation includes support for Wi-Fi Direct, then it:.

Device implementations that support android. Android includes support for. If a device implementation does include NFC hardware and plans to make it available to third-party apps, then it:.

If a device implementation does include an NFC controller chipset capable of HCE for NfcF, and it implements the feature for third-party applications, then it:. As the classes android.

Device implementations MUST include support for one or more forms of data networking. Device implementations where a physical networking standard such as Ethernet is the primary data connection SHOULD also include support for at least one common wireless data standard, such as The required level of IPv6 support depends on the network type, as follows:.

Redundant multicast IPv6 packets, such as repeated identical Router Advertisements, MAY be rate-limited in hardware or firmware if doing so is necessary to save power. MUST provide a user interface in the settings, allowing users to add applications to or remove applications from the whitelist.

MUST have an activity that handles the Settings. A rear-facing camera is a camera located on the side of the device opposite the display; that is, it images scenes on the far side of the device, like a traditional camera.

A front-facing camera is a camera located on the same side of the device as the display; that is, a camera typically used to image the user, such as for video conferencing and similar applications.

If a device implementation includes at least one rear-facing camera, it:. Device implementations MAY include a front-facing camera. If a device implementation includes at least one front-facing camera, it:.

Device implementations MAY include support for an external camera that is not necessarily always connected. If a device includes support for an external camera, it:.

Android includes two API packages to access the camera, the newer android. The older API package, android. Camera, is marked as deprecated in Android 5. Device implementations MUST still implement the full included in the Android SDK documentation, regardless of whether the device includes hardware autofocus or other capabilities.

For instance, cameras that lack autofocus MUST still call any registered android. AutoFocusCallback instances even though this has no relevance to a non-autofocus camera. Device implementations MUST recognize and honor each parameter name defined as a constant on the class, if the underlying hardware supports the feature.

If the device hardware does not support a feature, the API must behave as documented. Because not all device implementations can fully support all the features of the android. That is, when the device is held in the landscape orientation, cameras MUST capture images in the landscape orientation.

The memory available to the kernel and userspace on device implementations MUST be at least equal or larger than the minimum values specified by the following table.

See for screen size and density definitions. If this slot is used to satisfy the shared storage requirement, the device implementation:. Alternatively, device implementations MAY allocate internal non-removable storage as shared storage for apps as included in the upstream Android Open Source Project; device implementations SHOULD use this configuration and software implementation.

Device implementations MUST enforce as documented the android. Shared storage MUST otherwise be writable by any application that obtains that permission. Regardless of the form of shared storage used, if the device implementation has a USB port with USB peripheral mode support, it MUST provide some mechanism to access the contents of shared storage from a host computer.

If the device implementation supports Media Transfer Protocol, it:. Device implementations such as a television, MAY enable adoption through USB ports as the device is expected to be static and not mobile.

Device implementations MAY omit a microphone. Conversely, device implementations that do possess a microphone:. In order to be compatible with the using the 3. If a device implementation has a 4 conductor 3.

Near-Ultrasound audio is the Android handheld device implementations that support a mode for VR applications that handles stereoscopic rendering of notifications and disable monocular system UI components while a VR application has user focus MUST declare android.

Devices declaring this feature MUST include an application implementing android. VrListenerService that can be enabled by VR applications via android. Android handheld device implementations MUST identify the support of high performance virtual reality for longer user periods through the android.

Some minimum performance and power criteria are critical to the user experience and impact the baseline assumptions developers would have when developing an app. Device implementations MUST provide a smooth user interface by ensuring a consistent frame rate and response times for applications and games.

Device implementations MUST meet the following requirements:. Device implementations MUST ensure internal storage file access performance consistency for read and write operations.

Further, the triggering, maintenance, wakeup algorithms and the use of global system settings of these power-saving modes MUST not deviate from the Android Open Source Project. In addition to the power-saving modes, Android device implementations MAY implement any or all of the 4 sleeping power states as defined by the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface ACPI, but if it implements S3 and S4 power states, it can only enter these states when closing a lid that is physically part of the device.

A more accurate accounting and reporting of the power consumption provides the app developer both the incentives and the tools to optimize the power usage pattern of the application. Performance can fluctuate dramatically for high-performance long-running apps, either because of the other apps running in the background or the CPU throttling due to temperature limits.

Android includes programmatic interfaces so that when the device is capable, the top foreground application can request that the system optimize the allocation of the resources to address such fluctuations.

If provided, implementations MUST meet the following requirements:. Device implementations MUST implement a security model consistent with the Android platform security model as defined in in the APIs in the Android developer documentation.

Specifically, compatible devices MUST support the security mechanisms described in the follow subsections. Specifically, implementations MUST enforce each permission defined as described in the SDK documentation; no permissions may be omitted, altered, or ignored.

Implementations MAY add additional permissions, provided the new permission ID strings are not in the android. Permissions with a protection level of dangerous are runtime permissions. Device implementations MUST support running multiple applications as the same Linux user ID, provided that the applications are properly signed and constructed, as defined in the.

Device implementations MAY include runtime environments that execute applications using some other software or technology than the Dalvik Executable Format or native code.

However, such alternate execution environments MUST NOT compromise the Android security model or the security of installed Android applications, as described in this section. Alternate runtimes MUST themselves be Android applications, and abide by the standard Android security model, as described elsewhere in.

When installing applications, alternate runtimes MUST obtain user consent for the Android permissions used by the application. If an application needs to make use of a device resource for which there is a corresponding Android permission such as Camera, GPS, etc.

If the runtime environment does not record application capabilities in this manner, the runtime environment MUST list all permissions held by the runtime itself when installing any application using that runtime.

Android includes and provides support for full user isolation. Android includes support for warning users of any outgoing. Premium SMS messages are text messages sent to a service registered with a carrier that may incur a charge to the user.

Device implementations that declare support for android. The upstream Android Open Source Project provides an implementation that satisfies this requirement. SELinux or any other security features implemented below the Android framework:.

Devices MUST implement a kernel application sandboxing mechanism which allows filtering of system calls using a configurable policy from multithreaded programs.

If a device implementation has a mechanism that routes network data traffic through a proxy server or VPN gateway by default for example, preloading a VPN service with android. When devices are routed through a VPN, or a user root CA is installed, the implementation MUST display a warning indicating the network traffic may be monitored to the user.

If the device implementation supports a secure lock screen as described in section 9. If a device implementation is already launched on an earlier Android version with encryption disabled by default, such a device cannot meet the requirement through a system software update and thus MAY be exempted.

The upstream Android Open Source project provides a preferred implementation of this feature based on the Linux kernel ext4 encryption feature. Device implementations supporting FDE.

The user MUST be provided with the possibility to AES encrypt the encryption key, except when it is in active use, with the lock screen credentials stretched using a slow stretching algorithm e.

If the user has not specified a lock screen credentials or has disabled use of the passcode for encryption, the system SHOULD use a default passcode to wrap the encryption key.

If the device provides a hardware-backed keystore, the password stretching algorithm MUST be cryptographically bound to that keystore. The upstream Android Open Source project provides a preferred implementation of this feature based on the Linux kernel feature dm-crypt.

The following requirements ensures there is transparancy to the status of the device integrity. Verified boot is a feature that guarantees the integrity of the device software. If a device implementation supports the feature, it MUST:.

The upstream Android Open Source Project provides a preferred implementation of this feature based on the Linux kernel feature dm-verity. Starting from Android 6. If a device implementation is already launched without supporting verified boot on an earlier version of Android, such a device can not add support for this feature with a system software update and thus are exempted from the requirement.

The allows app developers to store cryptographic keys in a container and use them in cryptographic operations through the or the. Note that if a device implementation is already launched on an earlier Android version, and does not have a fingerprint scanner, such a device is exempted from the requirement to have a hardware-backed keystore.

Device implementations MAY add or modify the authentication methods to unlock the lock screen, but MUST still meet the following requirements:. Devices MUST provide users with a mechanism to perform a “Factory Data Reset” that allows logical and physical deletion of all data except for the following:.

If you want to listen to animation events like start, end and repeat, your activity should implements. This step is optional. If you implement AnimationListener you will have to override following methods.

You can start animation whenever you want by calling startAnimation on any UI element by passing the type of animation. In this example i am calling fade in animation on TextView.

When working with animations it is better to have through knowledge about some of the important XML attributes which create major differentiation in animation behavior.

Following are the important attributes you must known about. This property is mainly used to perform multiple animations in a sequential manner. If it sets to false the element changes to its previous state after the animation.

If you set this value to infinite then animation will repeat infinite times. Following i am giving xml code to perform lot of useful animations. Try to assign different values to xml attributes to see change in animations.

Fade in animation is nothing but increasing alpha value from 0 to 1. Cross fading is performing fade in animation while other element is fading out. In the following code i loaded fade in and fade out, then performed them on two different UI elements.

Blink animation is animating fade out or fade in animation in repetitive fashion. For this you will have to set android: Also you need to use fromXScale, fromYScale attributes which defines scaling of the object.

Keep these value lesser than toXScale, toYScale. For rotate animation required tags are android: Clock wise — use positive toDegrees value Anti clock wise — use negative toDegrees value. Slide up can be achieved by setting android: Slide down is exactly opposite to slide down animation.

Bounce is just an animation effect where animation ends in bouncing fashion. For this set android: This bounce can be used with any kind animation. Following slide down example uses bounce effect.

If you want to perform multiple animation in a sequential manner you have to use android: The easy way to calculate this value is to add the duration and startOffset values of previous animation.

Following is a sequential animation where set of move animations performs in sequential manner. Performing all animation together is just writing all animations one by one without using android: Thank You Ravi is hardcore Android programmer and Android programming has been his passion since he compiled his first hello-world program.

Solving real problems of Android developers through tutorials has always been interesting part for him. Sencha Touch is a UI, or, specifically built for the. It can be used by to develop user interfaces for mobile that look and feel like on supported mobile devices.

It is based on such as, and. The goal of Sencha Touch is to facilitate quick and easy development of HTML5 based mobile apps which run on, , , and devices, simultaneously allowing a native look and feel to the apps.

Sencha Touch is a product of Sencha, which was formed after popular JavaScript library projects, and were combined. The first release of Sencha Touch, version 0. This beta release supported devices running Android, and iOS on, ,.

Subsequently, the first stable version, 1. The latest release, Sencha Touch 2. Sencha Touch follows Pattern which separates the application data, the control code and view.

This separation allows large scale applications to be flexible and easy to maintain. Sencha Touch has an inbuilt manipulation interface which negates the dependency on other frameworks like jQuery.

It includes a set of GUI-based or components for use within mobile web applications. These components are optimized for touch input. All the components can be themed according to the target device.

This is done using, a stylesheet language built over CSS. Some of the native-lookalike themes are for iOS6. Sencha Touch has eight in-built transition effects including slide over or under the current element, pop, flip, and cube.

It supports common touch gestures built from, which are but supported only by, , and some touch enabled devices. These are tap, double tap, swipe, scroll, and pinch.

Sencha Touch also supports charting components including pie charts, bar graphs, line series, etc. These components support interactivity like pinch and zoom. Just like the Grid components in, Sencha Touch offers functionality.

Profiling in Sencha Touch allows you to create different profiles catering to different screen sizes. When the application is loaded, the framework determines the type of device, and its corresponding profile determines which components and functionality need to be swapped out, and the specific views and controllers that need to be invoked, saving the developer the task of creating a different application for each type of device.

Sencha Touch provides plugins for ease of development. Benefits of these plugins include and, and ease of navigation to framework codebase and custom classes. Sencha Touch has plugins for popular IDEs like, and.

There is a visual app builder, , for building cross platform HTML5 apps. It provides addiction features like theming and integration. Sencha Touch makes it convenient to use a map in your application using the component.

With being more efficient and faster than before, web apps run almost as smooth as native apps. Join us for a roundup of the top stories on InformationWeek.

We’ll be talking with the InformationWeek. The information provided here generally refers to the AMx devices. The Jelly Bean release uses board-specific init file instead of the unified init.

The board name is determined by the android property ro. So the init file for amxevm becomes init. Depending on the display size, android uses either the phone layout e. AMxevm or tablet layout BeagleBone Black.

To activate the Software Navigation Bar, add the following line in. In case you have a Landscape Display and the resolution is not high enough to enter Tablet-mode, you will see a Vertical Navigation Bar.

To view the Navigation keys correctly in this case add the following lines in init. For variable backlight intensity, PWM-controlled backlight is generally used. For integration with the Android Backlight settings configuration, the liblights HAL needs to be implemented for the board.

The output HAL library should have the name lights. You can however specify the minimum brightness below which Brightness cannot be reduced from the Android settings in the overlay e.

The platform data for TSC driver for AMx contains the following fields to provide calibration data:. You can obtain the raw value returned by the touchscreen at the corners using the getevent utility in Android.

AMx uses ti-tsc touchscreen driver, so the. Here porting explanation for matrix gpio keypad controller. Android system uses vold as the mount daemon, which detects, mounts and monitors the status of sdcard.

The mount daemon needs a configuration file to tell it what the sdcard device is. See in the Android source tree for the detailed explanations of the format. Depending on the interface used these values can change.

Best way is to probe sysfs directories to find the fixed name. For MMC the entry will be of the form:. This release supports audio playback and capture at For application-specific usage, the audio HAL supports the software resampler.

The audio HAL is implemented at. This file contains the ALSA mixer settings for the various audio paths supported by the driver. The following is the contents of. The mixers setting commands at the beginning of the file are executed when the audio HAL is initialized.

Android handles volume control in software. We recommend to keep the default volume levels close to maximum in the audio HAL. This section of guide provides a step by step explanation of what’s involved in adding a new WiFi driver and making WiFi work in a custom Android build like Rowboat.

The code below is provided for information only and is not complete. Please refer to the source for more details. Add the required permissions file into the android filesystem by updating device.

If you do not see the message wl Please ensure that all the relevant pinmuxing and gpio configuration is correct and not over-written. If wlan0 is not available in netcfg output, the driver might have been unloaded due to some error.

The above messages show that the interface is up and the firmware is downloaded to wlan module and booted. Running the calibration results in a random MAC address being set. To set the desired MAC address, run the following step:.

Enable Bluetooth with the following setting in BoardConfig. Copy the Bluetooth permissions file and the relevant bluez conf file. The permissions file also enables Bluetooth menu in Settings.

The Android gadget driver is configured via the sysfs entries. These are done from init. For amxevm, this is init. The sysfs settings need to be done depending on the features required to be enabled.

By default only the adb and mtp mode is configured. Modify start and length fields as needed. The fastboot protocol is a mechanism for communicating with bootloaders over USB.

It is designed to flash Android build images x-loader, bootloader, kernel, system, userdata etc on to the target device. Fastboot is implemented in u-boot.

The entry for each partition can be modified as per the requirement. Fastboot will reject flashing for images more than MB size. Please note that the standard linux driver is modified to report light sensor values to the input sub-system.

Retrieved January 12, Retrieved October 15, Retrieved June 28, Retrieved February 7, Retrieved February 6, LaCouvee, Darcy October 17, Retrieved June 1, Retrieved September 15, Retrieved September 3, Rob, Jackson April 30, Retrieved October 23, Retrieved October 1, Ryan, Paul October 1, Retrieved October 27, Retrieved March 6, Retrieved January 17, Archived from on January 14, Ducrohet, Xavier May 20, Retrieved May 20, Retrieved May 13, Sorrel, Charlie May 13, Retrieved February 14, Stone, Brad April 27, Hollister, Sean January 22, Retrieved November 17, Retrieved September 2, Retrieved December 7, Ts’o, Theodore December 12, Retrieved June 11, Tim Bray December 19, Retrieved November 19, Retrieved April 18, Retrieved August 3, Sarkar, Abhijoy October 14, Retrieved November 2, Retrieved December 1, Stephen Schenck September 2, Retrieved August 4, Ali Waqas September 28, Retrieved December 20, Nagy September 27, Archived from on February 16, Retrieved February 23, Rubin, Andy January 5, Mithun Chandrasekhar February 2, Retrieved February 5, I confirmed this with Google; Honeycomb, at least in the current form, will not be coming to non-tablet devices.

Nilay Patel January 26, Retrieved March 28, Cody Toombs February 17, Ducrohet, Xavier May 10, Retrieved May 10, Retrieved March 30, Retrieved August 5, Ducrohet, Xavier July 15, Retrieved July 16, Retrieved February 18, Maroger October 19, Retrieved July 24, Rey, Francis October 19, Stevens, Tim October 19, Messina, Vincent November 15, Retrieved October 19, German, Kent October 18, Velazco, Chris October 18, Retrieved September 19, Kennemer, Quentyn October 19, Retrieved July 27, Retrieved December 8, Retrieved December 15, Retrieved January 4, Retrieved December 17, Retrieved March 31, Retrieved February 9, Retrieved July 12, Retrieved July 8, Retrieved November 12, Retrieved February 26, Retrieved October 9, Retrieved February 19, Retrieved November 16, Retrieved October 29, Retrieved October 28, Retrieved July 2, Retrieved November 27, Retrieved February 12, Retrieved July 25, Retrieved August 22, Retrieved July 30, Retrieved July 28, Jaymar Cabebe July 25, Retrieved October 4, Kelion, Leo September 3, Retrieved July 22, Retrieved November 11, Retrieved November 1, Bonn, Dieter October 31, David Ruddock October 31, Retrieved November 3, Retrieved October 14, Retrieved February 25, Jason Cipriani November 5, Retrieved March 19, Retrieved January 29, Retrieved December 5, Christopher Trout December 5, David Pierce December 5, Retrieved December 6, Artem Russakovskii December 9, Retrieved December 9, Peter Eckersley December 12, Retrieved December 14, Ron Amadeo June 2, Retrieved June 2, Kellex June 2, Android Developers June 3, Retrieved June 4, Kellex June 19, Retrieved June 19, Ryan Whitwam June 19, Retrieved June 25, Andrew Grush September 6, Retrieved January 25, Michael Crider September 6, Rita El Khoury October 21, Retrieved June 26, Retrieved October 16, Andrei Frumusanu July 1, Retrieved July 5, Retrieved October 17, Ben Cheng; Bill Buzbee May Retrieved December 23, Cody Toombs November 4, Retrieved November 29, Michael Crider November 27, Retrieved November 28, Jason Cipriani November 3, Retrieved 2 February Retrieved January 30, Liam Spradlin December 2, Retrieved December 3, Stephen Schenck December 22, Retrieved January 6, Retrieved April 24, Retrieved March 27, Retrieved May 1, Jennings, Jack June 26, Retrieved May 28, Retrieved October 6, Retrieved March 10, Retrieved July 19, Retrieved October 5, Retrieved December 13, Retrieved April 2, Retrieved June 14, Shah, Agam March 23, Retrieved June 5, Warman, Matt June 7, Telegraph Media Group Limited.

Retrieved November 24, Retrieved November 15, The Associated Press The New York Times. CM14 is discontinued, along with the CM project being shut down. Development moved to LineageOS.

Retrieved October 30, Arthur, Charles September 29, Retrieved April 19, Kevin McLaughlin December 17, Retrieved September 27, Retrieved 07 April Check date values in: Steps to root you android phone without a computer.

Copy Framaroot from your computer to your phone memory. Install Framaroot from the apk file. Select any of the exploits that appears in the app and wait for some time. Download to verify if your phone is rooted or not.

Compatibility for Samsung devices Legolas and Aragorn exploits only: DoggyFtp was designed as a basic, no-frills, lightweight FTP client. MyText is a small, portable alternative for Notepad that supports text encryption.

Process Lasso is a tool designed to manage and edit how your processes and services run. This is the installer version,. This is the portable version,. Skype has the advantage of being one of the longest running, well-known video chat clients.

Emsisoft Decrypter for Cry9 is designed to decrypt files that have been attacked by the Cry9 strain of ransomware which is a variant of. The Spybot Search and Destroy Update is intended for updating your detections without the need for the included WebUpdate.

Opera Web Browser is a free web browser that originally started as a research project back in and today continues to be a fast, safe and secure web browser. LaunchBox is a portable box art based games database and launcher for, emulators, and PC games.

Miranda IM is a messenger client designed to be resource efficient and easy to use. PokerStars gives you access into the largest cardroom for online poker in the world.

Try for multi-table PokerStar gameplay management. PS Mate is an app to compliment multi-table gameplay in the wildly popular online poker game. Auslogics Disk Defrag Pro is the professional edition of.

It provides you with a speedy and efficient way to defragment your drives. Video tutorial on codecs available. YouTube for Android is the official YouTube app to watch and share your favorite videos.

Don’t forget to for informative how-to videos! Generate anything from simple data CDs to complex video editing with subtitles. Download and run the Adobe Flash Player Uninstaller to remove all versions of from all browsers on your machine.

Microsoft Security Essentials Definition Updates downloads and installs the latest definition updates. Universal Disk Cloner is a portable disk cloning, imaging, and wiping tool for advanced users.

Grammarly for Firefox helps make you a better writer by assisting in finding and correcting mistakes within a body of text, effectively fixing more errors than your standard word processor.

RogueKiller is an app for advanced users capable of removing stubborn malware based on a list of signatures and heuristic analysis. RogueKillerCMD is the command line version of the ever popular malware removal tool.

Folders allowing the grouping of a number of application icons into a single folder icon on the Home screen Access to web email servers, supporting, , and synchronization with the Gmail application synchronization with the People application synchronization with the Calendar application with to view maps and satellite imagery, as well as find local business and obtain driving directions using, allowing management of over-the-air synchronization of Gmail, People, and Calendar, allowing users to search the Internet and phone applications, contacts, calendar, etc.

Expanded Account sync, allowing users to add multiple accounts to a device for synchronization of email and contacts email support, with combined inbox to browse email from multiple accounts in one page Bluetooth 2.

Minor bugfixes, including SMS routing issues that affected the. Support for voice or video chat using Open Accessory Library support. Open Accessory was introduced in 3. Improved network performance for the 4G, among other fixes and improvements Fixed Bluetooth bug on Improved Gmail application Shadow animations for list scrolling Camera software enhancements Improved battery efficiency.

Full access to primary internal storage is still allowed through a separate application-level permission. Expanded Recent Applications list Resizable Home screen widgets Support for external keyboards and pointing devices Support for joysticks and gamepads Support for audio playback High-performance Wi-Fi lock, maintaining high-performance Wi-Fi connections when device screen is off Support for HTTP proxy for each connected Wi-Fi access point.

Improved hardware support, including optimizations for a wider range of tablets Increased ability of applications to access files on the SD card, e. Bugfixes and minor security, stability and Wi-Fi improvements Update to with automatic updates and easier-to-read Terms and Conditions text Update to Improved support in browser Improved handwriting prediction.

Major refinements to the “Holo” interface with new font family Soft buttons from Android 3. Numerous bugfixes and optimizations Improvements to graphics, databases, spell-checking and Bluetooth functionality New APIs for developers, including a social stream API in the Contacts provider Calendar provider enhancements New camera applications enhancing video stabilization and resolution Accessibility refinements such as improved content access for screen readers.

Stability improvements Better camera performance Smoother screen rotation Improved phone number recognition. Vsync timing across all drawing and animation done by the Android framework, including application rendering, touch events, screen composition and display refresh Triple buffering in the graphics pipeline CPU input boost Synchronizing touch to vsync timing Enhanced Bi-directional text and other language support User-installable keyboard maps Expandable notifications Ability to turn off notifications on an application-specific basis Shortcuts and widgets can automatically be re-arranged or re-sized to allow new items to fit on home screens Bluetooth data transfer for Android Beam Tablets with smaller screens now use an expanded version of the interface layout and home screen used by phones.

Fixed a bug on the Nexus 7 regarding the inability to change screen orientation in any application. A new stack was added at the same time. Speech output and Gesture Mode navigation for blind users New clock application with built-in world clock, stop watch and timer All devices now use the same interface layout, previously adapted from phones on 4.

Fixed a bug in the People application where December was not displayed on the date selector when adding an event to a contact Added Bluetooth gamepads and joysticks as supported Human interface device.

Refreshed interface with white elements instead of blue Clock no longer shows bold hours; all digits are thin. The H, M, and S markings for the stopwatch and timer have been removed, leaving just the numbers.

Ability for applications to trigger translucency in the navigation and status bars Ability for applications to use “immersive mode” to keep the navigation and status bars hidden while maintaining user interaction Action overflow menu buttons are always visible, even on devices with a “Menu” key, which was officially deprecated by Android 4.

Restriction for applications when accessing external storage, except for their own directories Optimizations for performance on devices with lower specifications, including support and “low RAM” device API Wireless printing capability NFC, enabling a device to replace WebViews now based on engine feature parity with 30 Expanded functionality for notification listener services Public API for developing and managing clients Storage Access Framework, an API allowing apps to retrieve files in a consistent manner.

As part of the framework, a new system file picker allows users to access files from various sources including those exposed by apps, such as online storage services.

Further security enhancements and bugfixes Removal of the “” application permissions control system, introduced in Android 4. Initial release of Android Wear platform for: Audio input and output through USB devices Third-party applications regain the ability to read and modify data located anywhere on external storage, such as on.

Pinning of an application’s screen for restricted user activity. Recently used applications are remembered even after restarting the device. WebViews receive updates independently through for security reasons, instead of relying on system-wide vendor updates Addition of 15 new languages: User-customizable priorities for application notifications.

Smart lock feature in enforcing mode for all domains Updated emoji Improved support e. A few bugfixes, including resolving issues with video playback and password failures handling.

Fixes a bug with support, which prevented devices from the nightly on-charger cleanups of file system allocations if the device was turned off while being charged, or if it was charged during the day.

Changes how alarms wake the CPU, and how alarms compete for system resources. Improvements and bug-fixes to the Overview screen Ability to join Wi-Fi networks and control paired Bluetooth devices from quick settings Official support for: Contextual search from keywords within apps.

New emojis Send GIFs directly from the default keyboard Launch actions on apps by long pressing the app icon. ARMv7 Processor rev 9 v7l processor: Windows speeds are similar at 32 and 64 bits.

Android T22 32b L1 0. Android T22 32b L1 1. Android T11 L1 1. T7 Nexus 7 quad core CPU 1. ARMv7 Processor rev 4 v7l processor: SMDK Linux version 3. ARMv7 Processor rev 0 v7l processor: AArch64 Processor rev 3 aarch64 processor: MT Linux version 3.

If the device possesses a gyroscope, the gravity sensor must use the gyroscope and accelerometer as input. A geomagnetic rotation vector is similar to a rotation vector sensor but using a magnetometer and no gyroscope.

This sensor must be based on a magnetometer. It cannot be implemented using a gyroscope, and gyroscope input cannot be used by this sensor. This is an older sensor type that has been deprecated in the Android SDK.

It has been replaced by the rotation vector sensor, which is more clearly defined. Use the rotation vector sensor over the orientation sensor whenever possible. An orientation sensor reports the attitude of the device.

Please note, for historical reasons the roll angle is positive in the clockwise direction. Mathematically speaking, it should be positive in the counter-clockwise direction:. This definition is different from yaw, pitch and roll used in aviation where the X axis is along the long side of the plane tail to nose.

Uncalibrated sensors provide more raw results and may include some bias but also contain fewer “jumps” from corrections applied through calibration. Some applications may prefer these uncalibrated results as smoother and more reliable.

For instance, if an application is attempting to conduct its own sensor fusion, introducing calibrations can actually distort results. An uncalibrated gyroscope reports the rate of rotation around the sensor axes without applying bias compensation to them, along with a bias estimate.

Conceptually, the uncalibrated measurement is the sum of the calibrated measurement and the bias estimate: Factory calibration and temperature compensation must be applied to the measurements. If the implementation is not able to estimate the drift, then this sensor must not be implemented.

An uncalibrated magnetic field sensor reports the ambient magnetic field together with a hard iron calibration estimate. The uncalibrated magnetometer allows higher level algorithms to handle bad hard iron estimation.

Soft-iron calibration and temperature compensation must be applied to the measurements. If the implementation is not able to estimate the bias, then this sensor must not be implemented.

Some sensors are mostly used to detect interactions with the user. We do not define how those sensors must be implemented, but they must be low power and it is the responsibility of the device manufacturer to verify their quality in terms of user experience.

A wake up gesture sensor enables waking up the device based on a device specific motion. When this sensor triggers, the device behaves as if the power button was pressed, turning the screen on.

This behavior turning on the screen when this sensor triggers might be deactivated by the user in the device settings. Changes in settings do not impact the behavior of the sensor: The actual gesture to be detected is not specified, and can be chosen by the manufacturer of the device.

A pick-up gesture sensor triggers when the device is picked up regardless of wherever it was before desk, pocket, bag. A glance gesture sensor enables briefly turning the screen on to enable the user to glance content on screen based on a specific motion.

When this sensor triggers, the device will turn the screen on momentarily to allow the user to glance notifications or other content while the device remains locked in a non-interactive state dozing, then the screen will turn off again.

This behavior briefly turning on the screen when this sensor triggers might be deactivated by the user in the device settings. Every day there are thousands of additions to the Google Play store, but many go unnoticed and never receive the attention they deserve.

Check out our top picks and let us know in the comments section if you have any When Monday rolls around, we look back to see which apps were the most appealing to our audience. Read on for the five most popular Android apps from last week.

Copying is nothing new. The app brought us short 24 hour photos and videos as well as a private messaging system that allows one view before the content disappears, and everyone now aspires to be Snapchat.

This exercise demonstrates the usage of the ScrollView view to provide a scrollable user interface component. Create an android project de. Adding animations to your app interface will give high quality feel to your android applications.

Animations can be performed through either XML or android code. In this tutorial i explained how to do animations using XML notations. I will explain how to do the same using android java code in future tutorials.

Here i covered basic android animations like fade in, fade out, scale, rotate, slide up, slide down etc. In the source code project provided in this tutorial, I wrote separate activity and XML for each animation.

Download and play with the code to get familiar with the animations. Following are list of animations covered in this article. Following are the basic steps to perform an animation on any UI element.

Creating animation is very simple, all it needs is creating necessary files and write small pieces of code. Create an xml file which defines type of animation to perform. Following is example of simple fade in animation.

Next in your activity create an object of class. And load the xml animation using by calling loadAnimation function. If you want to listen to animation events like start, end and repeat, your activity should implements.

This step is optional. If you implement AnimationListener you will have to override following methods. You can start animation whenever you want by calling startAnimation on any UI element by passing the type of animation.

In this example i am calling fade in animation on TextView. When working with animations it is better to have through knowledge about some of the important XML attributes which create major differentiation in animation behavior.

Following are the important attributes you must known about. This property is mainly used to perform multiple animations in a sequential manner. If it sets to false the element changes to its previous state after the animation.

If you set this value to infinite then animation will repeat infinite times. Following i am giving xml code to perform lot of useful animations. Try to assign different values to xml attributes to see change in animations.

Fade in animation is nothing but increasing alpha value from 0 to 1. Cross fading is performing fade in animation while other element is fading out. In the following code i loaded fade in and fade out, then performed them on two different UI elements.

Blink animation is animating fade out or fade in animation in repetitive fashion. For this you will have to set android: Also you need to use fromXScale, fromYScale attributes which defines scaling of the object.

Keep these value lesser than toXScale, toYScale. For rotate animation required tags are android: Clock wise — use positive toDegrees value Anti clock wise — use negative toDegrees value.

Slide up can be achieved by setting android: Slide down is exactly opposite to slide down animation. Bounce is just an animation effect where animation ends in bouncing fashion. For this set android: This bounce can be used with any kind animation.

Following slide down example uses bounce effect. If you want to perform multiple animation in a sequential manner you have to use android: The easy way to calculate this value is to add the duration and startOffset values of previous animation.

Following is a sequential animation where set of move animations performs in sequential manner. Performing all animation together is just writing all animations one by one without using android: Thank You Ravi is hardcore Android programmer and Android programming has been his passion since he compiled his first hello-world program.

Solving real problems of Android developers through tutorials has always been interesting part for him. Sencha Touch is a UI, or, specifically built for the. It can be used by to develop user interfaces for mobile that look and feel like on supported mobile devices.

It is based on such as, and. The goal of Sencha Touch is to facilitate quick and easy development of HTML5 based mobile apps which run on, , , and devices, simultaneously allowing a native look and feel to the apps.

Sencha Touch is a product of Sencha, which was formed after popular JavaScript library projects, and were combined. The first release of Sencha Touch, version 0. This beta release supported devices running Android, and iOS on, ,.

Subsequently, the first stable version, 1. The latest release, Sencha Touch 2. Sencha Touch follows Pattern which separates the application data, the control code and view.

This separation allows large scale applications to be flexible and easy to maintain. Sencha Touch has an inbuilt manipulation interface which negates the dependency on other frameworks like jQuery.

It includes a set of GUI-based or components for use within mobile web applications. These components are optimized for touch input. All the components can be themed according to the target device.

This is done using, a stylesheet language built over CSS. Some of the native-lookalike themes are for iOS6. Sencha Touch has eight in-built transition effects including slide over or under the current element, pop, flip, and cube.

It supports common touch gestures built from, which are but supported only by, , and some touch enabled devices. These are tap, double tap, swipe, scroll, and pinch.

Sencha Touch also supports charting components including pie charts, bar graphs, line series, etc. These components support interactivity like pinch and zoom. Just like the Grid components in, Sencha Touch offers functionality.

Profiling in Sencha Touch allows you to create different profiles catering to different screen sizes. When the application is loaded, the framework determines the type of device, and its corresponding profile determines which components and functionality need to be swapped out, and the specific views and controllers that need to be invoked, saving the developer the task of creating a different application for each type of device.

Sencha Touch provides plugins for ease of development. Benefits of these plugins include and, and ease of navigation to framework codebase and custom classes. Sencha Touch has plugins for popular IDEs like, and.

There is a visual app builder, , for building cross platform HTML5 apps. It provides addiction features like theming and integration. Sencha Touch makes it convenient to use a map in your application using the component.

With being more efficient and faster than before, web apps run almost as smooth as native apps. Join us for a roundup of the top stories on InformationWeek. We’ll be talking with the InformationWeek.

The information provided here generally refers to the AMx devices. Indeed, the devices did ship with an application store which offered Android apps; however, the majority of them were.

Android received a lukewarm reaction when it was unveiled in Although analysts were impressed with the respected technology companies that had partnered with Google to form the Open Handset Alliance, it was unclear whether mobile phone manufacturers would be willing to replace their existing operating systems with Android.

The idea of an open-source, Linux-based sparked interest, but there were additional worries about Android facing strong competition from established players in the smartphone market, such as Nokia and Microsoft, and rival Linux mobile operating systems that were in development.

These established players were skeptical: Since then Android has grown to become the most widely used smartphone operating system and “one of the fastest mobile experiences available.

As a result, it has been described by technology website as “practically the default operating system for launching new hardware” for companies without their own mobile platforms. This openness and flexibility is also present at the level of the end user: Android allows extensive customisation of devices by their owners and apps are freely available from non-Google app stores and third party websites.

These have been cited as among the main advantages of Android phones over others. Despite Android’s popularity, including an activation rate three times that of iOS, there have been reports that Google has not been able to leverage their other products and web services successfully to turn Android into the money maker that analysts had expected.

In, in an effort to improve prominence of the Android brand, Google began to require that devices featuring its proprietary components display an Android logo on the boot screen. Android has suffered from “fragmentation”, a situation where the variety of Android devices, in terms of both hardware variations and differences in the software running on them, makes the task of developing applications that work consistently across the ecosystem harder than rival platforms such as iOS where hardware and software varies less.

For example, according to data from in July, there were 11, models of Android device, numerous different screen sizes and eight Android OS versions simultaneously in use, while the large majority of iOS users have upgraded to the latest iteration of that OS.

Critics such as have asserted that fragmentation via hardware and software pushed Android’s growth through large volumes of low end, budget-priced devices running older versions of Android.

They maintain this forces Android developers to write for the “lowest common denominator” to reach as many users as possible, who have too little incentive to make use of the latest hardware or software features only available on a smaller percentage of devices.

However, OpenSignal, who develops both Android and iOS apps, concluded that although fragmentation can make development trickier, Android’s wider global reach also increases the potential reward.

Research company Canalys estimated in the second quarter of, that Android had a 2. By the third quarter of, estimated that more than half In July, Google said that, Android devices were being activated every day, up from, per day in May, and more than million devices had been activated with 4.

In September, million devices had been activated with 1. In May, at, Sundar Pichai announced that million Android devices had been activated. Android market share varies by location.

In April Android had 1. As of May, 48 billion applications “apps” have been installed from the Google Play store, and by September, one billion Android devices have been activated. As of February, the store has over 2.

The operating system’s success has made it a target for patent litigation as part of the so-called “” between technology companies. Android devices account for more than half of smartphone sales in most markets, including the US, while “only in Japan was Apple on top” September—November numbers.

At the end of, over 1. Three billion Android smartphones are estimated to be sold by the end of including previous years. According to Gartner research company, Android-based devices outsold all contenders, every year since In, it outsold Windows 2.

According to, which tracks only the use for browsing the web, Android is the most popular mobile operating system since August Android is the most popular operating system for web browsing in India and several other countries e.

According to StatCounter, Android is most used on mobile in all African countries, and it stated “mobile usage has already overtaken desktop in several countries including India, South Africa and Saudi Arabia”, with virtually all countries in Africa having done so already except for seven countries, including Egypt, such as Ethiopia and Kenya in which mobile including tablets usage is at While Android phones in the commonly include Google’s proprietary add-ons such as Google Play to the otherwise open-source operating system, this is increasingly not the case in emerging markets; “ABI Research claims that 65 million devices shipped globally with open-source Android in the second quarter of [], up from 54 million in the first quarter”; depending on country, percent of phones estimated to be based only on Android’s source code AOSP, forgoing the Android trademark: According to a January report, “Android surpassed a billion shipments of devices in, and will continue to grow at a double-digit pace in, with a 26 percent increase year over year.

Gartner expected the whole mobile phone market to “reach two billion units in “, including Android. Describing the statistics, Farhad Manjoo wrote in that “About one of every two computers sold today is running Android.

According to a ‘s estimate, Android smartphones had an installed base of 1. Android has the largest installed base of any and, since, the highest-selling operating system overall with sales in, and close to the installed base of all PCs.

In the third quarter of, Android’s share of the global smartphone shipment market was As of September 28, , with By August, the two biggest continents have gone mobile-majority, judged by web use “desktop” has By, Android was on the majority of smartphones in virtually all countries in the world, excluding United States and Canada while including North America continent as a whole, Australia and Japan.

A few countries, such as the UK, lose Android-majority if tablets are included. In September, Google announced that Android had 1. Despite its success on smartphones, initially Android tablet adoption was slow.

One of the main causes was the situation where consumers were hesitant to buy an Android tablet due to a lack of high quality tablet applications, but developers were hesitant to spend time and resources developing tablet applications until there was a significant market for them.

The content and app “ecosystem” proved more important than hardware as the selling point for tablets. Due to the lack of Android tablet-specific applications in, early Android tablets had to make do with existing smartphone applications that were ill-suited to larger screen sizes, whereas the dominance of Apple’s was reinforced by the large number of tablet-specific applications.

Despite app support in its infancy, a considerable number of Android tablets alongside those using other operating systems, such as the and were rushed out to market in an attempt to capitalize on the success of the iPad.

InfoWorld has suggested that some Android manufacturers initially treated their first tablets as a “Frankenphone business”, a short-term low-investment opportunity by placing a smartphone-optimized Android OS before Android 3.

This approach, such as with the, failed to gain market traction with consumers as well as damaging the early reputation of Android tablets. Furthermore, several Android tablets such as the were priced the same or higher than the, which hurt sales.

An exception was the, which relied upon lower pricing as well as access to Amazon’s ecosystem of applications and content. This began to change in, with the release of the affordable and a push by Google for developers to write better tablet applications.

As of the end of, over This made Android tablets the most-sold type of tablet in, surpassing iPads in the second quarter of According to the StatCounter’s June web use statistics, Android tablets represent the majority of tablet devices used on the then lost majority and continents In about half of the European countries, Android tablets have a majority market share.

China is an exception for the major developing countries, in which Android classified as smartphones while similar in size to tablets are more popular than Android tablets or iPads.

In March, Galen Gruman of stated that Android devices could be a “real part of your business [.. It can now be as integral to your mobile portfolio as ‘s devices are”. A year earlier, Gruman had stated that ‘s own were “better on iOS and Android” than on Microsoft’s own devices.

Charts in this section provide breakdowns of Android versions, based on devices accessing the in a seven-day period ending on April 3, Therefore, these statistics exclude devices running various Android that do not access the Google Play Store, such as Amazon’s.

In general, paid Android applications can easily be. In a May interview with, the developers of stated that the ratio of pirated players vs legitimate players was 9: In, Google released a tool for validating authorized purchases for use within apps, but developers complained that this was insufficient and trivial to.

Google responded that the tool, especially its initial release, was intended as a sample framework for developers to modify and build upon depending on their needs, not as a finished piracy solution.

Android “Jelly Bean” introduced the ability for paid applications to be encrypted, so that they may work only on the device for which they were purchased. Both Android and Android phone manufacturers have been involved in numerous patent lawsuits.

On August 12, , sued Google over claimed infringement of copyrights and patents related to the programming language. Oracle originally sought damages up to. In response, Google submitted multiple lines of defense, counterclaiming that Android did not infringe on Oracle’s patents or copyright, that Oracle’s patents were invalid, and several other defenses.

They said that Android’s Java runtime environment is based on, a implementation of the Java class libraries, and an independently developed virtual machine called. In May, the jury in this case found that Google did not infringe on Oracle’s patents, and the trial judge ruled that the structure of the Java APIs used by Google was not copyrightable.

The parties agreed to zero dollars in for a small amount of copied code. On May 9, , the partially reversed the district court ruling, ruling in Oracle’s favor on the copyrightability issue, and the issue of to the district court.

In December, Google announced that the next major release of Android would switch to, which is the official open-source implementation of the Java platform, instead of using the now-discontinued Apache Harmony project as its runtime.

Code reflecting this change was also posted to the AOSP source repository. In its announcement, Google claimed this was part of an effort to create a “common code base” between Java on Android and other platforms.

Google later admitted in a court filing that this was part of an effort to address the disputes with Oracle, as its use of OpenJDK code is governed under the GPL with a, and that “any damages claim associated with the new versions expressly licensed by Oracle under OpenJDK would require a separate analysis of damages from earlier releases”.

In addition to lawsuits against Google directly, various have been waged against Android indirectly by targeting manufacturers of Android devices, with the effect of discouraging manufacturers from adopting the platform by increasing the costs of bringing an Android device to market.

Both and Microsoft have sued several manufacturers for patent infringement, with Apple’s ongoing being a particularly high-profile case. In October, Microsoft said they had signed patent license agreements with ten Android device manufacturers, whose products account for.

Samsung’s patent settlement with Microsoft included an agreement to allocate more resources to developing and marketing phones running Microsoft’s Windows Phone operating system. Microsoft has also its own Android software to patent licenses, requiring the bundling of and applications on Android devices to subsidize the licensing fees, while at the same time helping to promote its software lines.

Google has publicly expressed its frustration for the current patent landscape in the United States, accusing Apple, Oracle and Microsoft of trying to take down Android through patent litigation, rather than innovating and competing with better products and services.

In September, Google purchased for US. In December, Google bought over a thousand patents from. In, , a lobbying organization supported by Microsoft, Oracle and others, filed a complaint regarding Android with the, alleging that its free-of-charge distribution model constituted anti-competitive.

The, whose donors include Google, disputed the Fairsearch allegations. On April 20, , the EU filed a formal antitrust complaint against Google based upon the FairSearch allegations, arguing that its leverage over Android vendors, including the mandatory bundling of the entire suite of proprietary Google software, hindering the ability for competing search providers to be integrated into Android, and barring vendors from producing devices running forks of Android, constituted anti-competitive practices.

In August, Google was fined US. Google has developed several variations of Android for specific use cases, including for wearable devices such as wrist watches, for televisions, for cars, and Brillo, later renamed, for smart devices and.

The open and customizable nature of Android allows to use it on other electronics as well, including laptops and, , cameras, headphones, home automation systems, game consoles, mirrors, media players, and telephones.

Prototype light bulbs were announced that could be controlled from an Android phone or tablet, but Android head Andy Rubin was cautious to note that “turning a lightbulb on and off is nothing new”, pointing to numerous failed home automation services.

Google, he said, was thinking more ambitiously and the intention was to use their position as a services provider to bring Google products into customers’ homes. In, released its own Android-based car stereo, the AX1.

In January, at the CES, Google announced the formation of the, a group including several major automobile makers, , , and and, which aims to produce Android-based systems for automobiles, “[bringing] the best of Android into the automobile in a safe and seamless way.

Android comes preinstalled on a few laptops a similar functionality of running Android applications is also available in Google’s and can also be installed on by end users.

On those platforms Android provides additional functionality for physical and, together with the “” key combination for switching applications quickly with a keyboard.

In December, one reviewer commented that Android’s notification system is “vastly more complete and robust than in most environments” and that Android is “absolutely usable” as one’s primary desktop operating system.

In October, reported that Android will serve as Google’s future main laptop operating system, with the plan to fold Chrome OS into it by Google’s Sundar Pichai, who led the development of Android, explained that “mobile as a computing paradigm is eventually going to blend with what we think of as desktop today.

That is unlike Android where support is shorter with ” dates [being.. This forum is for all of your questions about the App Development Forums. If you need help troubleshooting a problem, please be as specific as possible by describing your software configuration, including the ROM, kernel, and any modifications you’ve done.

All Samsung Firmwares on this site are for Help purpose and you can use Kies to update your Samsung mobile phone instead. Need help choosing the best mobile phone available for you to buy? See our Buyer’s Guide and free buyer’s advice,.

Buy the latest Mobile Phones by brand shown on the left or use the popular links above. Below you will see the latest mobile phones released or abut to be released Please see listing below.

This entry was posted on Friday, August 15th, at 8: You can follow any responses to this entry through the feed. Both comments and pings are currently closed.

Are you looking for a few easy steps to unlock your cell phone? Here at Cell Unlock we tell you the simplest and quickest way to do just that. All you need are the unlock cell phone codes and you can be on your way to unrestricted mobile access across networks.

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Samsung is a global electronics giant that makes a diverse range of smartphones for diverse users for under rupees, and One can expect the latest innovations in mobile technology to be a part of a Samsung mobile.

And like many innovations, 3G internet has become indispensable to human life. You could watch videos and use Google Maps to name a few uses. Learn more about 3G Samsung mobiles from our Samsung 3G mobile price list replete with mobile pictures.

Check out the mobile specifications section to know what features the Samsung 3G mobile comes with. Learn about a Samsung 3G mobile’s popularity via the user reviews section.

Each Samsung mobile has been listed at its lowest price available in India. The price list also gives a list of sellers in India that sell mobiles at the lowest prices, which is updated every day from offline and online sources.

Take a look at this video by, showing a new Samsung Galaxy S8 running the Dolphin emulator for GameCube and Wii games almost flawlessly. Launch, July Available. Released, August Body Platforms and, , , type, shell, as core utilities beginning with Android 6.

Versions accounting for less than 0. Retrieved March 11, Morrill, Dan September 23, Retrieved September 5, Internationalization Multi-locale support [.. Coupled with allowing you to select multiple languages preferences, Android Nougat allows you to select from new languages and 25 locales for commonly used languages such as English, Spanish, French, and Arabic.

This enables Apps to better support and understanding your language preferences even if your devices lacks official support for it. Archived from on January 21, Archived from on February 9, Archived from on March 19, Retrieved March 12, Archived from on February 5, Welch, Chris April 16, Vance, Ashlee July 29, Block, Ryan August 28, Sharma, Amol; Delaney, Kevin J.

Archived from on August 21, McKay, Martha December 21, Retrieved February 21, And don’t hold your breath, but the same cell phone-obsessed tech watchers say it won’t be long before Google jumps headfirst into the phone biz.

Ionescu, Daniel April 26, Ziegler, Chris April 25, Claburn, Thomas September 19, Archived from on March 17, Pearce, James Quintana September 20, Schonfeld, Erick November 5, Rubin, Andy November 5, Aamoth, Doug September 23, Gao, Richard September 23, Ion, Florence May 15, Hollister, Sean May 15, Cunningham, Andrew July 4, Cunningham, Andrew January 14, Cunningham, Andrew January 25, Chavez, Chris January 21, Smith, Mat August 28, Orion, Egan August 28, Page, Larry March 13, Arthur, Charles March 13, Brandom, Russell August 10, Conditt, Jessica August 10, Bergen, Mark October 9, Martonik, Andrew October 9, Kastrenakes, Jacob June 25, Seifert, Dan June 26, Woods, Ben June 25, Pichai, Sundar September 15, Bergen, Mark June 11, D’Orazio, Dante August 9, Lomas, Natasha August 18, Cooper, Daniel August 18, Efrati, Amir January 17, Savov, Vlad October 4, Retrieved March 13, Lawler, Richard October 4, Seifert, Dan October 4, Ng, Alfred October 6, Android Open Source Project.

Archived from on January 25, Chavez, Chris December 22, Hindy, Joe February 4, Gordon, Whitson May 20, Archived from on December 8, Mullis, Alex November 21, Opam, Kwame January 28, Retrieved March 28, Retrieved January 2, Retrieved June 4, Retrieved November 16, Chu, Eric April 13, Retrieved May 15, Ganapati, Priya June 11, Retrieved February 20, Amadeo, Ron July 29, Hutchinson, Lee March 14, Retrieved October 30, Victor Matos September 9, Archived from PDF on February 22, Retrieved April 15, Retrieved February 9, Retrieved November 2, Howley, Daniel May 18, Retrieved May 19, LaPedus, Mark April 26, Warman, Matt June 7, Telegraph Media Group Limited.

Retrieved June 19, Retrieved November 15, Retrieved November 1, Retrieved September 14, Michael Brown May 8, Retrieved April 7, Brad Chacos September 6, Jose Pagliery August 25, Paul Mozur March 5, Huawei C added to the list of supported 3.

Following phones were added to the list of supported: New models added to the list of supported: Driver and full manual are available over Sigma main website, as usual. Fast Direct Unlock database updated with new firmware versions for various models: New models were tested and added to the list of supported: Models added in the test mode: New ZTE models added to the list of supported: ZTE models that added in the test mode: New MTK models were tested and added to the list of supported: Full manual and drivers available at the official web site in the help section.

Added Auto Save Logs feature. From now on all the log files from performed operations will be saved in a Logs folder 3. Moreover, these models support heuristic method of unlocking, which means that even new or unknown firmware versions will be unlocked!

This model was supported by heuristic method of unlocking even before official release of this phone. ZTE V was tested by users and added to the list of supported. August 07 Sigma Software v1.

Avvio T added to the list of supported for Direct Unlock and Service. August 06 Sigma Software v1. Added More than 70 new Alcatel smartphones and much more Get all at once with Sigma! More than 70 new Alcatel smartphones added to Calculator.

Updated list of PIDs for all new models! Several ZTE smartphones added to the list of supported. July 23 Sigma Software v1. Added support of basic servicing options for Acer smartphones: Full manual and drivers can be found in the corresponding sections of Sigma website.

Fast Direct Unlock this feature for some of the added fw versions was introduced for the first time in the world! July 16 Sigma Software v1. Fast Direct Unlock database updated with the following versions: Added Unlock via Patching and Service support for: The following models were tested and added to the list of supported: July 18 Sigma Software v1.

Fast Direct Unlock firmware database updated with: Unlock feature for the following models was tested by users of Sigma Software and these devices were added to the list of supported: Also made many general improvements to work with Huawei phones.

Improved work with Micron SPI flash chips. Added Direct unlock features for the following phones: Detailed service manual on how to connect and service these devices is located in the help section of Sigma website.

Please check it out before you proceed to operation. May 31 Sigma Software v1. Detailed manual located in the Help section of the official website. Added support for Huawei S7 tablets and more Qualcomm platform update: Added Direct Unlock for the following Huawei tablets: You are welcome to connect these smartphones to Sigma, make Direct Unlock and post feedbacks in our section at the gsmhosting forum.

Another Sigma worlds first solution! Check the full unlocking manual before start! May 23 Sigma Software v1. Heuristic method of unlocking, available with Sigma only, allows to unlock these devices in case they have new or unknown firmware versions.

Fast Direct Unlock firmware database was updated with the following versions: Added unlock and service for: Introduced relock Bootloader Password feature. This unique feature lets you re-lock Huawei smartphones bootloader and will work if bootloader was unlocked with Sigma or using Huawei bootloader unlocking service.

Unlike restoring phones bootloader lock by flashing or using 3rd party tools, with Sigma bootloader will be restored to its initial factory state without any traces left in the firmware. It might be useful in case you need to obtain warranty service.

A lot of general minor improvements were made. Following phones were tested and added to the list of supported for Direct Unlock and other service operations: Huawei U, U and more The last bastion of Huawei smartphones has been conquered.

New supported models, no more messing with locked bootloaders, faster IMEI repair and theres much more. Get more satisfied customers without additional expenses! Now you dont need to unlock bootloader of the device before actual SP-unlocking!

IMEI will be repaired much faster in this mode. Now you dont need to fill in long forms, send them to Huawei server and wait days for password to arrive.

No need to root your smartphone. With Sigma youll get the password instantly and reset it easily. May 13 Sigma Software v1. The following models were added to the list of supported for servicing operations: Cp, , , Huawei: I, I, I, I Zonda: R, Rm, R Chinese copies of known brands of mobile phones: Added unlock via patching for the following MTK phones: Fast Direct Unlock firmware database updated with new versions: Added Unlock and full service support for: Fast direct unlock database updated with: April 26 Sigma Software v1.

While others make promises, we give solutions! You are welcome to test Repair feature and make feedbacks. This solution is free for all Sigma owners! The manual is here.

Added new firmware versions for fast direct unlock of: Added repair feature for some ZTE Android smartphones. In case Sigma detects corrupted security data file in the phone, it will be repaired requires users permission.

Added unlock via patching for the following phones: ZTE X added to the list. April 17 Sigma Box Software v1. Unlock via patching for: No more flashing after the procedure, just one compatible USB cable and youre all done.

Save your time and money with Sigma! Your clients wont have to wait anymore! No further actions required! MTK Platform Updates 1. Added unlock via patching for the following MTK models: Improved Repair procedure for Huawei smartphones.

April 04 Sigma Software v1. Following MTK-based phones various brands were added to the list of supported: March 29 Sigma Software v1. March 12 Sigma Software v1.

With this version of Sigma you get support for ZTE T96, a big amount of firmware versions supported for Fast Direct Unlock and a set of newly tested and supported mobile devices.

Also, as a result of conducted analysis, a list of supported models was widely expanded. Following models were tested and added to the list of supported, though they operate on already supported CPUs: Following models were tested and added to the list of supported: T96 – Worlds First!

Added Direct Unlock support for: New firmware version added for Motorola Fast direct unlock: Database of supported firmware versions for Fast Direct Unlock updated with the following versions: Sigma Software will read flash dump for unsupported firmware versions.

Please send dump files to support to add these phones in the further updates. February 18 Sigma Software v1. Detailed manuals and drivers are located at the official Sigma website in the MTK section.

January 25 Sigma Software v1. January 22 Sigma Software v1. January 17 Sigma Software 1. X – 1 new version V – 5 new versions MTK module: Just connect the smartphone and press Unlock button.

Database of supported firmware versions for Fast Direct Unlock was updated with 53 new versions: F – 1 new version ZTE smartphones: Added Unlock via patch for the following MTK-based phone models: Made some minor improvements to the MTK module.

December 28 SigmaKey Software v1. E, Z, F Smartphones: Introduced minor improvements to the MTK module. December 19 SigmaKey Software v1. A special present for our Belarusian partners.

Worlds first support for Huawei UD life: This solution can also be used for remote unlocking. In total, more than 50 new firmwares were added for the following devices: December 13 SigmaKey Software v1.

Also added other new features and made some improvements for a wide range of phones and smartphones. Improved connection procedure with Huawei UD 4. The following servicing options are now supported for phones within known list of flash chips: Please note that unlocking procedure for this phone is slightly different, it has to be connected in turned on state.

At this moment, if your phone has locked bootloader, you can either request free unlock password on Huawei official web site, or use 3rd party tools. T – 2 new versions E – 1 new version November 28 Sigma Software v1.

November 26 Sigma Software v1. If incorrect unlock code was entered too many times and device rejects even correct unlock code, you should perform Direct Unlock procedure. Blade II PT 3.

New ZTE phones added to the list of supported were supported by Sigma from mid September but unannounced yet: Added new firmware versions for Fast Direct Unlock of the following Motorola cellphones: ZTE E 2 n.

ZTE F 2 n. ZTE T6 1 n. October 10 Sigma Software v1. New firmware version added for: If the counter of code entries attempts is blocked, you should use Direct Unlock feature.

You will find well-described manuals and required software and drivers on the official Sigma website, as usual. October 09 SigmaKey Software v1. This time we give more ZTE phones and quite a few supported for Unlock firmwares.

Following models received support for Fast Direct Unlock: F – 2 new firmwares Fi – 1 new firmware F – 4 new firmwares F – 3 new firmwares Es – 1 new firmware Motorola: XT – 2 new firmwares 2.

If both primary and extended heuristic methods fail, now there is a possibility to read dump from the phone. Please send dumps to support, so unsupported models can be added in the next updates.

New firmware versions support for Motorola Fast Direct Unlock: Lets see what you get with this update: Please read them in the Help section of the official web site. Added extended heuristic method for unlocking ZTE cell phones.

This is the only solution on the market that helps to unlock cell phones with unknown firmware version. More firmware versions now supported for the Fast Direct Unlock. We are grateful to everyone whove sent us the logs.

Today we give you over 60 models! As always, procedure takes several seconds per phone and requires USB cable only. With this update you get: Unique solution on the market – Heuristic method of unlocking is now available for the specified above ZTE phones as well!

Some of the top advantages that you get are: As usual, new firmware versions were added for Motorola fast Direct Unlock: Worlds First and Unique! Motorola Defy Mini XT Boot-Loader File Area Updates: Please use only new firmwares for flashing.

Supported two more firmware versions for Motorola MB fast direct unlock. The following MTK-models added to the list of supported: Improved Spanish translation of the Sigma software. Faster unlock, improved features and more: Added over new unlockable firmwares for supported Android Motorola phones.

We strongly recommend you to update to this version. Improved heuristic method which allows to unlock the smartphone even if it has an unknown firmware version.

Added Verykool i to the list of supported MTK-based cellphones. Moreover, the procedure is quite simple and very fast. Just connect the set and unlock it in a few easy steps. Please get acquainted with it before you proceed to operation.

Added Full support for the following Motorola models: Cable pinouts are uploaded to the Pinouts section.

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A homescreen may be made up of several pages, between which the user can swipe back and forth. The Ice Cream Sandwich release also introduced a number of other new features, including a refreshed home screen, NFC support and the ability to “beam” content to another user using the technology, an updated web browser, a new contacts manager with social network integration, the ability to access the camera and control music playback from the, support, for device unlocking “Face Unlock” , the ability to monitor and limit usage, and other internal improvements. The price list also gives a list of sellers in India that sell mobiles at the lowest prices, which is updated every day from offline and online sources. This variable controls what build flavors the package gets included in. Van Camp, Jeffrey June 28, Some of you feel difficult to found them.

Android Automotive device implementations SHOULD allow adjusting audio volume separately per each audio stream using the content type or usage as defined by and car audio usage as publicly defined in android. Le applicazioni vengono eseguite tramite la, una adattata per l’uso su dispositivi mobili. Retrieved 21 November Linux kernel mailing list.

The upstream Android open source implementation includes support for wireless Miracast and wired HDMI displays that satisfies this requirement. Qing, Liau Yun October 15, Theres no need to root your smartphone before unlocking.

See…

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Firmware coolpad download 5211 setup free

Archived from on January 25, This sensor also uses accelerometer and magnetometer input to make up for gyroscope drift, and it cannot be implemented using only the accelerometer and magnetometer. Mobile operating systems, are now, as of late, the most used kind, with traditional desktop OS, now a minority used kind; see. Developers require security backups from different Huawei devices for further analysis. See…

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